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Patent Analysis of

Modified laminin containing collagen binding molecule and use thereof

Updated Time 12 June 2019

Patent Registration Data

Publication Number

US10000554

Application Number

US14/758061

Application Date

11 November 2013

Publication Date

19 June 2018

Current Assignee

OSAKA UNIVERSITY

Original Assignee (Applicant)

OSAKA UNIVERSITY

International Classification

C07K16/18,C12N5/074,A61L27/22,C12N15/62,C07K14/78

Cooperative Classification

C07K14/78,A61L27/227,C12N5/0696,C07K2319/00,C07K2319/02

Inventor

SEKIGUCHI, KIYOTOSHI,LI, SHAOLIANG,SATO, RYOKO

Patent Images

This patent contains figures and images illustrating the invention and its embodiment.

US10000554 Modified laminin collagen binding 1 US10000554 Modified laminin collagen binding 2 US10000554 Modified laminin collagen binding 3
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Abstract

A modified laminin characterized in that a laminin or a heterotrimeric laminin fragment has a collagen binding molecule conjugated to at least one site selected from the α chain N-terminus, the β chain N-terminus and the γ chain N-terminus, and an extracellular-matrix material comprising the modified laminin, and collagen and/or gelatin serve as an alternative to Matrigel and are useful as an extracellular-matrix material for the formation of a safe three-dimensional tissue structure for regenerative medicine in humans.

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Claims

1. A modified laminin wherein at least one of the α chain N-terminus, the β chain N-terminus and the γ chain N-terminus of a heterotrimeric laminin E8 fragment is fused with a collagen binding molecule, wherein the heterotrimeric laminin E8 fragment has integrin binding activity, and wherein the collagen binding molecule is selected from the group consisting of:(a) fibronectin or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,(b) collagenase or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,(c) integrin α1 chain or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,(d) integrin α2 chain or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,(e) integrin α10 chain or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,(f) integrin α11 chain or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,(g) platelet glycoprotein VI or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,(h) discoidin domain receptor 1 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,(i) discoidin domain receptor 2 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,(l) mannose receptor or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,(k) phospholipase A2 receptor or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,(l) DEC205 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,(m) Endol80 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,(n) von Willebrand factor or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,(o) MMP-2 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,(p) MMP-9 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,(q) leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 1 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof, and(r) leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 2 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof.

2. The modified laminin according to claim 1, wherein the heterotrimeric laminin E8 fragment has the collagen binding molecules conjugated to two or more sites selected from the α chain N-terminus, the β chain N-terminus and the γ chain N-terminus.

3. The modified laminin according to claim 1, wherein the heterotrimeric laminin E8 fragment consists of one kind of E8 fragment of α chain selected from α1 to α5, one kind of E8 fragment of β chain selected from β1 to β3, and one kind of E8 fragment of γ chain selected from γ1 to γ3.

4. The modified laminin according to claim 3, wherein the heterotrimeric laminin E8 fragment is laminin α5β1γ1 E8 fragment, laminin α3β3γ2 E8 fragment, laminin α1β1γ1 E8 fragment, laminin α1β2γ1 E8 fragment, laminin α2β1γ1 E8 fragment, laminin α2β2γ1 E8 fragment, laminin α3β1γ1 E8 fragment, laminin α3β2γ1 E8 fragment, laminin α4β1γ1 E8 fragment, laminin α4β2γ1 E8 fragment, or laminin α5β2γ1 E8 fragment.

5. An extracellular-matrix material comprising the modified laminin according to claim 1, and collagen and/or gelatin.

6. A culture substrate coated with the modified laminin according to claim 1, and collagen and/or gelatin.

7. A scaffold comprising the modified laminin according to claim 1, and collagen and/or gelatin.

8. A method for culturing mammalian cells comprising culturing the cells in the presence of the modified laminin according to claim 1, and collagen and/or gelatin.

9. The method according to claim 8, wherein the mammalian cells are embryonic stem (ES) cells, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells or somatic stem cells.

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Claim Tree

  • 1
    1. A modified laminin wherein
    • at least one of the α chain N-terminus, the β chain N-terminus and the γ chain N-terminus of a heterotrimeric laminin E8 fragment is fused with a collagen binding molecule, wherein
    • 2. The modified laminin according to claim 1, wherein
      • the heterotrimeric laminin E8 fragment has the collagen binding molecules conjugated to two or more sites selected from the α chain N-terminus, the β chain N-terminus and the γ chain N-terminus.
    • 3. The modified laminin according to claim 1, wherein
      • the heterotrimeric laminin E8 fragment consists of one kind of E8 fragment of α chain selected from α1 to α5, one kind of E8 fragment of β chain selected from β1 to β3, and one kind of E8 fragment of γ chain selected from γ1 to γ3.
    • 6. A culture substrate coated with the modified laminin according to claim 1, and collagen and/or gelatin.
  • 5
    5. An extracellular-matrix material comprising
    • the modified laminin according to claim 1, and collagen and/or gelatin.
  • 7
    7. A scaffold comprising
    • the modified laminin according to claim 1, and collagen and/or gelatin.
  • 8
    8. A method for culturing mammalian cells comprising
    • culturing the cells in the presence of the modified laminin according to claim 1, and collagen and/or gelatin.
    • 9. The method according to claim 8, wherein
      • the mammalian cells are embryonic stem (ES) cells, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells or somatic stem cells.
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Description

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to a modified laminin containing a collagen binding molecule; an extracellular-matrix material, a culture substrate, a scaffold each comprising the modified laminin; and a method for cell culture using the modified laminin.

BACKGROUND ART

Stem cells, in particular pluripotent stem cells such as ES cells and iPS cells, are receiving worldwide attention for their potential application to regenerative medicine. The culture and maintenance of stem cells without loss of their pluripotency usually requires the presence of feeder cells in their culture system, and as such feeder cells, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) whose division has been arrested by radiation or antibiotic treatment are used. However, the use of feeder cells is a great restriction on clinical application of human stem cells.

For application of human stem cells to regenerative medicine, a feeder-free (no feeder cells are used) and xeno-free (no xenogeneic components are contained in the culture system) culture environment is required. The present inventors previously found that recombinant human laminins (particularly, laminin 332, which consists of α3, β3 and γ2 chains, and laminin 511, which consists of α5, β1 and γ1 chains) are effective for maintaining the pluripotency of human ES cells (see Non Patent Literature 1), and proposed that a recombinant human laminin E8 fragment or a modified laminin in which a cell adhesion molecule and/or a growth factor binding molecule is conjugated to the recombinant human laminin E8 fragment can be used as an extracellular matrix which enables maintenance culture of stem cells while supporting the retention of their pluripotency (see Patent Literature 1 and 2 and Non Patent Literature 2).

Following the maintenance culture of human stem cells, they should be differentiated to form a three-dimensional tissue structure for their application to regenerative medicine. In the case where cells isolated from a tissue are made to form a three-dimensional tissue structure, a conventionally used extracellular matrix is Matrigel (registered trademark), the trade name for a crude extract of mouse EHS sarcoma, which is known for excessive production of basement membrane components. However, Matrigel is of murine origin and thus is problematic in terms of safety for human use. Collagen gel is also widely used as an extracellular matrix for the three-dimensional culture system, but when collagen gel is used alone, the formation of a three-dimensional tissue structure from human stem cells is hardly achieved due to its poor ability to maintain stem cells. That is, under the current circumstances, there is no appropriate extracellular-matrix material to serve as an alternative to Matrigel for the formation of a three-dimensional tissue structure. Therefore, the speedy development of extracelluiar-matrix materials for the formation of a safe three-dimensional tissue structure for regenerative medicine in humans is strongly desired.

CITATION LIST

Patent Literature

  • Patent Literature 1: JP-A 2011-78370
  • Patent Literature 2: WO 2012-137970

Non Patent Literature

Non Patent Literature 1:

  • Miyazaki T, Futaki S, Hasegawa K, Kawasaki M, Sanzen N, Hayashi M, Kawase E, Sekiguchi K, Nakatsuji N, Suemori H. Recombinant human laminin isoforms can support the undifferentiated growth of human embryonic stem cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 375; 27-35, 2008.

    Non Patent Literature 2:

  • Miyazaki. T, Futaki S, Suemori H, Taniguchi Y, Yamada M, Kawasaki M, Hayashi M, Kumagai H, Nakatsuji N, Sekiguchi K, Kawase E. Laminin E8 fragments support efficient adhesion and expansion of dissociated human pluripotent stem cells. Nature communications. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2231, 2012.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION

Technical Problem

An object of the present invention is to provide an extracellular-matrix material which serves as an alternative to Matrigel and is useful for the formation of a safe three-dimensional tissue structure for regenerative medicine in humans.

Solution to Problem

The present invention includes the following to achieve the above-mentioned object.

(1) A modified laminin characterized in that a laminin or a heterotrimeric laminin fragment has a collagen binding molecule conjugated to at least one site selected from the α chain N-terminus, the β chain N-terminus and the γ chain N-terminus.

(2) The modified laminin according to the above (1), wherein the laminin or the heterotrimeric laminin fragment has the collagen binding molecules conjugated to two or more sites selected from the α chain N-terminus, the β chain N-terminus and the γ chain N-terminus.

(3) The modified laminin according to the above (1) or (2), wherein the laminin fragment has integrin binding activity.

(4) The modified laminin according to the above (3), wherein the laminin fragment is a laminin E8 fragment.

(5) The modified laminin according to any one of the above (1) to (4), wherein the laminin or the heterotrimeric laminin fragment consists of one kind of α chain selected from α1 to α5 or a fragment thereof, one kind of β chain selected from β1 to β3 or a fragment thereof, and one kind of γ chain selected from γ1 to γ3 or a fragment thereof.

(6) The modified laminin according to the above (5), wherein the laminin or the heterotrimeric laminin fragment is laminin α5β1γ1 or a fragment thereof, laminin α3β3γ2 or a fragment thereof, laminin α1β1γ1 or a fragment thereof, laminin α1β2γ1 or a fragment thereof, laminin α2β1γ1 or a fragment thereof, laminin α2β2γ1 or a fragment thereof, laminin α3β1γ1 or a fragment thereof, laminin α3β2γ1 or a fragment thereof, laminin α4β1γ1 or a fragment thereof, laminin α4β2γ1 or a fragment thereof, or laminin α5β2γ1 or a fragment thereof.

(7) The modified laminin according to any one of the above (1) to (6), wherein the collagen binding molecule is one or more kinds selected from

(a) fibronectin or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(b) collagenase or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(c) integrin α1 chain or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(d) integrin α2 chain or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(e) integrin α10 chain or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(f) integrin α11 chain or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(g) platelet glycoprotein VI or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(h) discoidin domain receptor 1 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(i) discoidin domain receptor 2 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(j) mannose receptor or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(k) phospholipase A2 receptor or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(l) DEC205 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(m) Endo180 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(n) von Willebrand factor or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(o) MMP-2 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(p) MMP-9 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(q) leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 1 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof, and

(r) leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 2 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof.

(8) The modified laminin according to any one of the above (1) to (7), being of human origin.

(9) An extracellular-matrix material comprising the modified laminin according to any one of the above (1) to (8), and collagen and/or gelatin.

(10) A culture substrate coated with the modified laminin according to any one of the above (1) to (8), and collagen and/or gelatin.

(11) A scaffold comprising the modified laminin according to any one of the above (1) to (8), and collagen and/or gelatin.

(12) A method for culturing mammalian cells, being characterized by culturing the cells in the presence of the modified laminin according to any one of the above (1) to (8), and collagen and/or gelatin.

(13) The method according to the above (12), wherein the mammalian cells are ES cells, iPS cells or somatic stem cells.

Advantageous Effects of Invention

The present invention can provide an extracellular-matrix material, a culture substrate and a scaffold each of which is useful for the formation of a safe three-dimensional tissue structure for regenerative medicine in humans and comprises a modified laminin, and collagen and/or gelatin.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 shows the results of non-reducing SDS-PAGE analysis of a collagen binding domain (CBD)-free laminin 511E8 fragment and laminin 511E8 fragments fused with one, two or three CBDs.

FIG. 2 shows the results on collagen binding activities of the collagen binding domain (CBD)-free laminin 511E8 fragment and the laminin 511E8 fragments fused with one, two or three CBDs.

FIG. 3 shows the results on gelatin binding activities of the collagen binding domain (CBD)-free laminin 511E8 fragment and the laminin 511E8 fragments fused with one, two or three CBDs.

FIG. 4 shows the results of human iPS cell culture on a type I collagen-coated plate containing the three different kinds of collagen binding domain (CBD)-fused laminin 511E8 fragments and the laminin 511E8 fragment.

FIG. 5 shows the results of human iPS cell culture on a gelatin-coated plate containing the three different kinds of collagen binding domain (CBD)-fused laminin 511E8 fragments and the laminin 511E8 fragment.

FIG. 6 shows the results of non-reducing SDS-PAGE analysis of a collagen binding domain (CBD)-free laminin 111E8 fragment and laminin 111E8 fragments fused with one or two CBDs.

FIG. 7 shows the results of non-reducing SDS-PAGE analysis of a collagen binding domain (CBD)-free laminin 121E8 fragment and laminin 121E8 fragments fused with one or two CBDs.

FIG. 8 shows the results of non-reducing SDS-PAGE analysis of a collagen binding domain (CBD)-free laminin 211E8 fragment and laminin 211E8 fragments fused with one or two CBDs.

FIG. 9 shows the results of non-reducing SDS-PAGE analysis of a collagen binding domain (CBD)-free laminin 221E8 fragment and laminin 221E8 fragments fused with one or two CBDs.

FIG. 10 shows the results of non-reducing SDS-PAGE analysis of a collagen binding domain (CBD)-free laminin 311E8 fragment and laminin 311E8 fragments fused with one or two CBDs.

FIG. 11 shows the results of non-reducing SDS-PAGE analysis of a collagen binding domain (CBD)-free laminin 321E8 fragment and laminin 321E8 fragments fused with one or two CBDs.

FIG. 12 shows the results of non-reducing SDS-PAGE analysis of a collagen binding domain (CBD)-free laminin 411E8 fragment and laminin 411E8 fragments fused with one or two CBDs.

FIG. 13 shows the results of non-reducing SDS-PAGE analysis of a collagen binding domain (CBD)-free laminin 421E8 fragment and laminin 421E8 fragments fused with one or two CBDs.

FIG. 14 shows the results of non-reducing SDS-PAGE analysis of a collagen binding domain (CBD)-free laminin 521E8 fragment and laminin 521E8 fragments fused with one or two CBDs.

FIG. 15 shows the results on collagen binding activities of the collagen binding domain (CBD)-free laminin 111E8 fragment and the laminin 111E8 fragments fused with one or two CBDs.

FIG. 16 shows the results on collagen binding activities of the collagen binding domain (CBD)-free laminin 121E8 fragment and the laminin 121E8 fragments fused with one or two CBDs.

FIG. 17 shows the results on collagen binding activities of the collagen binding domain (CBD)-free laminin 211E8 fragment and the laminin 211E8 fragments fused with one or two CBDs.

FIG. 18 shows the results on collagen binding activities of the collagen binding domain (CBD)-free laminin 221E8 fragment and the laminin 221E8 fragments fused with one or two CBDs.

FIG. 19 shows the results on collagen binding activities of the collagen binding domain (CBD)-free laminin 311E8 fragment and the laminin 311E8 fragments fused with one or two CBDs.

FIG. 20 shows the results on collagen binding activities of the collagen binding domain (CBD)-free laminin 321E8 fragment and the laminin 321E8 fragments fused with one or two CBDs.

FIG. 21 shows the results on collagen binding activities of the collagen binding domain (CBD)-free laminin 411E8 fragment and the laminin 411E8 fragments fused with one or two CBDs.

FIG. 22 shows the results on collagen binding activities of the collagen binding domain (CBD)-free laminin 421E8 fragment and the laminin 421E8 fragments fused with one or two CBDs.

FIG. 23 shows the results on collagen binding activities of the collagen binding domain (CBD)-free laminin 521E8 fragment and the laminin 521E8 fragments fused with one or two CBDs.

DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS

<Modified Laminin>

The present invention provides a modified laminin characterized in that a laminin or a heterotrimeric laminin fragment has a collagen binding molecule conjugated to at least one site selected from the α chain N-terminus, the β chain N-terminus and the γ chain N-terminus.

Laminins are heterotrimeric molecules consisting of three subunits termed α, β and γ chains. Five kinds of α chains (α1 to α5), three kinds of β chains (β1 to β3) and three kinds of γ chains (γ1 to γ3) are known, and various combinations of these chains result in at least 12 kinds of laminin isoforms (see Table 1). The laminin which constitutes the modified laminin of the present invention may be any of these isoforms. That is, the laminin or the heterotrimeric laminin fragment which constitutes the modified laminin of the present invention consists of one kind of α chain selected from α1 to α5 or a fragment thereof, one kind of β chain selected from β1 to β3 or a fragment thereof, and one kind of γ chain selected from γ1 to γ3 or a fragment thereof. Specifically, the 12 kinds of isoforms shown in Table 1 and all the other possible isoforms and fragments thereof can preferably be used. Preferred are laminin α5β1γ1 or a fragment thereof, laminin α3β3γ2 or a fragment thereof, laminin α1β1γ1 or a fragment thereof, laminin α1β2γ1 or a fragment thereof, laminin α2β1γ1 or a fragment thereof, laminin α2β2γ1 or a fragment thereof, laminin α3β1γ1 or a fragment thereof, laminin α3β2γ1 or a fragment thereof, laminin α4β1γ1 or a fragment thereof, laminin α4β2γ1 or a fragment thereof, and laminin α5β2γ1 or a fragment thereof. More preferred are laminin α3β3γ2 or a fragment thereof, and laminin α5β1γ1 or a fragment thereof.


TABLE 1
α chain
Trimer composition
α1
α1β1γ1
(laminin-1)
α1β2γ1
(laminin-3)
α2
α2β1γ1
(laminin-2)
α2β2γ1
(laminin-4)
α2β1γ3
(laminin-12)
α3
α3β3γ2
(laminin-5)
α3β1γ1
(laminin-6)
α3β2γ1
(laminin-7)
α4
α4β1γ1
(laminin-8)
α4β2γ1
(laminin-9)
α5
α5β1γ1
(laminin-10)
α5β2γ1
(laminin-11)

The origin of the laminin is not particularly limited and laminins derived from various organisms can be used. Preferred are laminins derived from mammals, including but not limited to humans, mice, rats, cattle and pigs. Among these, a human laminin is particularly preferably used. In the culture of human stem cells for preparation of materials for human regenerative medicine, a xeno-free (no xenogeneic components are contained in the culture system) environment is required, and for this reason, a human laminin is preferably used.

The laminin which constitutes the modified laminin of the present invention may be a full-length laminin or a fragment thereof. That is, the laminin may be a full-length laminin consisting of a full-length α chain, a full-length β chain and a full-length γ chain, or a laminin fragment consisting of α, β and γ chains of which one or more are fragments shorter than the corresponding full-length chains. The laminin fragment needs to be in the form of a heterotrimer, and preferably has integrin binding activity. The heterotrimer formation of the laminin fragment can be confirmed from, for example, the number of bands detected by SDS-PAGE. The integrin binding activity of the laminin fragment can be confirmed by a solid phase binding assay etc.

The laminin fragment which constitutes the modified laminin of the present invention needs to be in the form of a heterotrimer consisting of α, β and γ chains, but the molecular weight etc. of the laminin fragment are not particularly limited. In terms of the strength of the integrin binding activity and the efficiency of recombinant expression (the recombinant protein yield is higher in comparison with that of a full-length laminin), a laminin E8 fragment is preferred. The laminin E8 fragment was identified as a fragment having the strongest cell adhesion activity among the fragments obtained by elastase digestion of mouse laminin α1β1γ1 (hereinafter referred to as “mouse laminin 111”) (Edgar D., Timpi R., Thoenen H. The heparin-binding domain of laminin is responsible for its effects on neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival. EMBO J., 3: 1463-1468, 1984; and Goodman S L., Deutzmann R., von der Mark K. Two distinct cell-binding domains in laminin can independently promote nonneuronal cell adhesion and spreading. J. Cell Biol., 105: 589-598, 1987). It is presumed that elastase digestion of laminins other than mouse laminin 111 could produce fragments corresponding to the mouse laminin 111 E8 fragment, but there is no report on isolation or identification of such fragments. Therefore, the laminin E8 used in the present invention does not have to be an elastase-digested product of laminins, and may be any laminin fragment having the cell adhesion activity, structure and molecular weight equivalent to those of mouse laminin 111E8.

The laminin may be a native laminin or a mutant laminin that has a modification(s) of one or more amino acid residues but retains the biological activities of the native laminin. The method for producing the laminin is not particularly limited. For example, the laminin can be obtained by purification from highly laminin-expressing cells. Alternatively, the laminin can be produced as a recombinant protein. The method for producing the laminin fragment is not particularly limited either. For example, the laminin fragment can be obtained by digestion of a full-length laminin with a protease such as elastase, followed by isolation and purification of the fragment of interest. Alternatively, the laminin fragment can be produced as a recombinant protein. In terms of production quantity, quality uniformity, production cost, etc., it is preferred that the laminin and the laminin fragment are produced as a recombinant protein.

The recombinant laminin and the recombinant laminin fragment can be produced by appropriate known recombinant techniques, for example, by preparing DNAs encoding full-length or partial-length laminin α, β and γ chains, inserting the DNAs into separate expression vectors, cointroducing the three resulting expression vectors into appropriate host cells, and purifying the expressed trimeric protein by a known method. Examples of the method for producing the recombinant laminin (full-length laminin) include, but are not limited to, the method of Ido et al. (Hiroyuki Ido, Kenji Harada, Sugiko Futaki, Yoshitaka Hayashi, Ryoko Nishiuchi, Yuko Natsuka, Shaoliang Li, Yoshinao Wada, Ariana C. Combs, James M. Ervasti, and Kiyotoshi Sekiguchi, “Molecular dissection of the α-dystroglycan- and integrin-binding sites within the globular domain of human laminin-10” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 279, 10946-10954, 2004). Examples of the method for producing the recombinant laminin fragment (laminin E8) include, but are not limited to, the method of Ido et al. (Hiroyuki Ido, Aya Nakamura, Reiko Kobayashi, Shunsuke Ito, Shaoliang Li, Sugiko Futaki, and Kiyotoshi Sekiguchi, “The requirement of the glutamic acid residue at the third position from the carboxyl termini of the laminin 7 chains in integrin binding by laminins” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 282, 11144-11154, 2007).

Information regarding the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the genes encoding α, β and γ chains which constitute laminins derived from major mammals can be obtained from known databases (e.g., GenBank). The accession numbers of the constituent chains of laminins derived from major mammals including humans are shown in Table 1. Information regarding the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the constituent chains of laminins derived from other organisms can also be obtained from known databases (e.g., GenBank).


TABLE 2
Amino acid sequence
Nucleotide sequence
Human laminin α1 chain
NP_005550
NM_005559
Human laminin α2 chain
NP_000417
NM_000426
Human laminin α3 chain
NP_000218
NM_000227
Human laminin α4 chain
NP_002281
NM_002290
Human laminin α5 chain
NP_005551
NM_005560
Human laminin β1 chain
NP_002282
NM_002291
Human laminin β2 chain
NP_002283
NM_002292
Human laminin β3 chain
NP_000219
NM_000228
Human laminin γ1 chain
NP_002284
NM_002293
Human laminin γ2 chain
NP_005553
NM_005562
Human laminin γ3 chain
NP_006050
NM_006059
Mouse laminin α5 chain
NP_001074640
NM_001081171
Mouse laminin β1 chain
NP_032508
NM_008482
Mouse laminin γ1 chain
NP_034813
NM_010683
Rat laminin α5 chain
NP_001178538
NM_001191609
Rat laminin β1 chain
NP_001100191
NM_001106721
Rat laminin γ1 chain
NP_446418
NM_053966

Laminin E8 is a trimeric fragment formed of a C-terminal fragment of the α chain lacking globular domains 4 and 5 (hereinafter referred to as “α chain E8”), a C-terminal fragment of the β chain (hereinafter referred to as “β chain E8”), and a C-terminal fragment of the γ chain (hereinafter referred to as “γ chain E8”), and the molecular weight of the trimer is about 150 to 170 kDa. The α chain E8 generally consists of about 770 amino acids, of which about 230 amino acids from the N-terminus are involved in the trimer formation. The β chain E8 generally consists of about 220 to 230 amino acids. The γ chain E8 generally consists of about 240 to 250 amino acids. The glutamic acid residue at the third position from the C-terminus of the γ chain E8 is essential for the cell adhesion activity of laminin E8 (Hiroyuki Ido, Aya Nakamura, Reiko Kobayashi, Shunsuke Ito, Shaoliang Li, Sugiko Futaki, and Kiyotoshi Sekiguchi, “The requirement of the glutamic acid residue at the third position from the carboxyl termini of the laminin γ chains in integrin binding by laminins” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 282, 11144-11154, 2007).

The collagen binding molecule which constitutes the modified laminin of the present invention is not particularly limited as long as it is a molecule having a collagen binding domain. The collagen binding molecule may be a full-length molecule having a collagen binding domain, or a fragment having a collagen binding domain. The kind of the collagen as a binding target is not particularly limited and various kinds of collagens can be binding targets. Preferred are type I collagen, type II collagen, type III collagen, type IV collagen and type V collagen (Engvall et al., 1978, J. Exp. Med. 1584-1595, and Woodley et al., 1983, Biochemica et Biophysica Acta., 761, 278-283).

The collagen binding molecule is not particularly limited as long as it is a molecule capable of binding to collagens. Examples of the collagen binding molecule include the following (a) to (r):

(a) fibronectin or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(b) collagenase or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(c) integrin α1 chain or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(d) integrin α2 chain or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(e) integrin α10 chain or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(f) integrin α11 chain or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(g) platelet glycoprotein VI or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(h) discoidin domain receptor 1 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(i) discoidin domain receptor 2 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(j) mannose receptor or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(k) phospholipase A2 receptor or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(l) DEC205 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(m) Endo180 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(n) von Willebrand factor or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(o) MMP-2 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(p) MMP-9 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof,

(q) leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 1 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof, and

(r) leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 2 or a fragment having a collagen binding domain thereof.

The origin of the collagen binding molecule is not particularly limited and collagen binding molecules derived from various organisms can be used. Preferred are collagen binding molecules derived from mammals, including but not limited to humans, mice, rats, cattle and pigs. Among these, collagen binding molecules of human origin are particularly preferably used. In the culture of human stem cells for preparation of materials for human regenerative medicine, a xeno-free (no xenogeneic components are contained in the culture system) environment is required, and for this reason, collagen binding molecules of human origin are preferably used.

The method for producing the collagen binding molecule is not particularly limited. For example, the collagen binding molecule can be obtained by purification from cells expressing a collagen binding molecule of interest. Alternatively, the collagen binding molecule can be produced as a recombinant protein. The recombinant protein can be produced by appropriate known recombinant techniques. Information regarding the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the human genes encoding the above-listed collagen binding molecules (a) to (r) can be obtained from known databases (e.g., GenBank) with the use of the respective accession numbers shown in Table 3. Information regarding the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the genes encoding collagen binding molecules derived from non-human organisms can also be obtained from known databases (e.g., GenBank).


TABLE 3
Amino acid
Nucleotide
sequence
sequence
Fibronectin
NP_997647
NM_212482
Collagenase
NP_002412
NM_002421
Integrin α1 chain
NP_852478
NM_181501
Integrin α2 chain
NP_002194
NM_002203
Integrin α10 chain
NP_003628
NM_003637
Integrin α11 chain
NP_001004439
NM_001004439
Platelet glycoprotein VI
NP_001077368
NM_001083899
Discoidin domain receptor 1
NP_001945
NM_001954
Discoidin domain receptor 2
NP_006173
NM_006182
Mannose receptor
NP_002429
NM_002438
Phospholipase A2 receptor
NP_031392
NM_007366
DEC205
NP_002340
NM_002349
Endo180
NP_006030
NM_006039
von Willebrand factor
NP_000543
NM_000552
MMP-2
NP_004521
NM_004530
MMP-9
NP_004985
NM_004994
Leukocyte-associated
NP_002278
NM_002287
immunoglobulin-like receptor 1
Leukocyte-associated
NP_002279
NM_002288
immunoglobulin-like receptor 2

The location of the putative collagen binding domain in the amino acid sequence of each collagen binding molecule shown in Table 3 is as follows.

Fibronectin: Va1276-Thr604

Integrin α1 chain: Leu171-Ile351

Integrin α2 chain: Ile173-Lys353

Integrin α10 chain: Met166-Ile346

Integrin α11 chain: Met163-Ile341

Platelet glycoprotein VI: Pro26-Thr108

Discoidin domain receptor 1: Lys30-Cys185

Discoidin domain receptor 2: Cys30-Cys185

Mannose receptor: Asn162-Cys209

Phospholipase A2 receptor: Asn172-Cys219

DEC205: Asn163-Cys209

Endo180: Asn181-Cys228

von Willebrand factor: Leu1276-Gln1388 and Leu1690-Val1849 (2 locations)

MMP-2: Arg222-Ser396

MMP-9: Asn224-Cys388

Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 1: Pro27-Val120

Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 2: Pro27-Val120

In the modified laminin of the present invention, the above-described collagen binding molecule is conjugated to at least one site selected from the α chain N-terminus, the β chain N-terminus and the γ chain N-terminus of the laminin or the heterotrimeric laminin fragment, but is preferably conjugated to two or more of these sites. The modified laminin containing collagen binding molecules at two or three sites has remarkably higher collagen binding activity than that of the corresponding modified laminin containing a collagen binding molecule at one site. In the case where the collagen binding molecules are conjugated to two sites, the two sites are not particularly limited and may be any of the following combinations: the α chain N-terminus and the β chain N-terminus; the α chain N-terminus and the γ chain N-terminus; and the β chain N-terminus and the γ chain N-terminus. In the case where the collagen binding molecules are conjugated to two or more sites, the collagen binding molecules may be of one kind, or two or more kinds.

In the modified laminin of the present invention, a molecule other than the collagen binding molecule may be conjugated to the collagen binding molecule-unconjugated N-terminus of any constituent chain or conjugated to the α chain C-terminus. Examples of the molecule other than the collagen binding molecule include cell-growth regulatory molecules such as cell adhesion molecules and growth factor binding molecules (see Patent Literature 2).

The modified laminin of the present invention can be produced as a recombinant modified laminin by appropriate known recombinant techniques. For example, a modified laminin in which a collagen binding molecule is conjugated to the α chain N-terminus of laminin E8 can be produced as follows. First, a DNA encoding the laminin α chain E8 and a DNA encoding the collagen binding molecule are joined to give a fusion gene encoding a fusion protein in which the collagen binding molecule is conjugated to the α chain N-terminus of the laminin E8, and the fusion gene is inserted into an appropriate vector to give an expression vector. Subsequently, this expression vector, an expression vector for laminin β chain E8 and an expression vector for laminin γ chain E8 are co-transfected into appropriate host cells, and the expressed trimeric protein is purified by a known method. In a similar manner, modified laminins in which a cell adhesion molecule is conjugated to another site, and modified laminins in which cell adhesion molecules are conjugated to more than one site can also be produced. Alternatively, the modified laminin of the present invention can be produced by chemically conjugating a collagen binding molecule to at least one site selected from the α chain N-terminus, the β chain N-terminus and the γ chain N-terminus.

<Extracellular-Matrix Material>

The present invention provides an extracellular-matrix material comprising the modified laminin of the present invention, and collagen and/or gelatin. The extracellular-matrix material of the present invention may consist of the modified laminin and collagen, consist of the modified laminin and gelatin, consist of the modified laminin, collagen and gelatin, or contain these components and an additional component. The additional component is not particularly limited as long as it can be used for cell culture. For example, preferred are extracellular-matrix components other than collagen or gelatin. Examples of the extracellular-matrix components other than collagen or gelatin include fibronectin, Matrigel, proteoglycan, hyaluronic acid, tenascin, elastin, laminin and fibrinogen (fibrin).

The collagen and the gelatin used for the extracellular-matrix material of the present invention are not particularly limited and known collagens and gelatins used for cell culture can preferably be used. The extracellular-matrix material of the present invention can be provided in the form of a liquid, a gel, a sponge, a sheet or the like, and can be used for coating plates or as a three-dimensional matrix.

The extracellular-matrix material of the present invention contains a laminin as a suitable scaffold for stem cells, and thus can be used as a three-dimensional culture matrix for directed differentiation of stem cells leading to the formation of a three-dimensional tissue structure for regenerative medicine. In addition, the extracellular-matrix material of the present invention can be used not only for three-dimensional cell culture but also as an implantable device for guided tissue regeneration. Moreover, a three-dimensional culture environment optimized to directed differentiation of stem cells can be provided through conjugation of any laminin isoform to a three-dimensional collagen or gelatin matrix with a suitable stiffness.

<Culture Substrate>

The present invention provides a culture substrate coated with the modified laminin of the present invention, and collagen and/or gelatin. The cells to be cultured with the culture substrate of the present invention are not particularly limited and may be any cells that can be cultured. Mammalian cells are preferred, and mammalian stem cells are more preferred. The stem cells include somatic stem cells and pluripotent stem cells. Examples of the somatic stem cells include neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, cardiac stem cells, hepatic stem cells and small intestinal stem cells. Examples of the pluripotent stem cells include ES cells (embryonic stem cells), iPS cells (induced pluripotent stem cells), mGS cells (multipotent germ stem cells) and hybridomas of ES cells and somatic cells. Examples of the mammal as the origin of the cells include humans, mice, rats, cattle and pigs. Particularly preferred are humans. The culture substrate of the present invention is useful also in the case of feeder-free culture of cells that are conventionally cultured on feeder cells.

The method for producing the culture substrate of the present invention is not particularly limited. For example, a culture substrate may be coated with a mixed solution of collagen and/or gelatin, and the modified laminin. Alternatively, a culture substrate may be coated with collagen, gelatin or a mixture thereof, and subsequently with the modified laminin of the present invention. In the latter case, the modified laminin of the present invention is diluted with a suitable solvent, such as PBS, physiological saline and a physiological saline adjusted to a neutral pH with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane or 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazine ethanesulfonic acid, followed by addition of the diluted solution onto a culture substrate coated with collagen and/or gelatin and subsequent incubation at about 4 to 37° C. for about 1 to 12 hours. As a result, the modified laminin is allowed to bind to the collagen or the gelatin and the coating is completed. A culture substrate for three-dimensional culture can also be produced by coating a culture substrate with collagen in a gel form and subsequently with the modified laminin. The culture substrate to be coated is not limited as long as it can be used for cell culture, and the examples include glass or plastic dishes, flasks, multiwell plates, culture slides and microcarriers, and polymer membranes such as a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane.

The collagen and the gelatin used for coating are not particularly limited and known collagens and gelatins used for cell culture can preferably be used. The collagen and the gelatin used for cell culture for regenerative medicine are preferably selected from collagens and gelatins confirmed safe for medical use, and preferably of human origin. Examples of the collagen and the gelatin certified safe for use in medicine include atelocollagen (KOKEN CO., LTD.), porcine skin collagen solution (Nipponham), Nippi high-grade gelatin (Nippi, Inc.) and MEDIGELATIN (Nippi, Inc.).

<Scaffold>

The present invention provides a scaffold for directed differentiation of stem cells leading to the formation of a three-dimensional tissue structure. The scaffold of the present invention is not particularly limited as long as it contains the modified laminin of the present invention, and collagen and/or gelatin. The component of the scaffold of the present invention may be any kind of material serving as a scaffold for cells, and is not particularly limited. Examples of the scaffold component include natural polymers such as collagen, gelatin, fibrin, hyaluronic acid, alginic acid, starch, chitin and pectic acid; self-assembling amphiphilic peptides; synthetic polymers such as polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid, a copolymer of lactic acid and glycolic acid, poly-ε-caprolactone, a copolymer of ε-caprolactone with lactic acid or glycolic acid, poly(citric acid), poly(malic acid), poly-α-cyanoacrylate, poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid, poly(trimethylene oxalate), poly(tetramethylene oxalate), poly(propylene carbonate), poly-γ-benzyl-L-glutamate, poly-γ-methyl-L-glutamate and poly-L-alanine; and inorganic materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate. The scaffold may be in any three-dimensional form such as a gel, a sponge, a film, a mesh, a non-woven fabric and a knitted or woven fabric. Particularly, it is preferable that the scaffold is in a gel or film form with a fine network structure.

In the case where collagen or gelatin itself constitutes a scaffold (for example, collagen gel, collagen sponge, gelatin sponge, etc.), the modified laminin is made to bind thereto to give the scaffold of the present invention. In the case where a material other than collagen or gelatin constitutes a scaffold, the scaffold surface is coated with collagen and/or gelatin, and the modified laminin is made to bind to the collagen and/or the gelatin to give the scaffold of the present invention. The collagen and the gelatin that can be used for the scaffold of the present invention are the same as those used for the culture substrate of the present invention.

The scaffold of the present invention can preferably be used for three-dimensional culture of cells that can be cultured on the culture substrate of the present invention. The scaffold of the present invention contains a laminin as a suitable scaffold for stem cells, and thus is a very excellent three-dimensional culture scaffold for directed differentiation of stem cells leading to the formation of a three-dimensional tissue structure for regenerative medicine. In addition, the scaffold of the present invention can be used not only for three-dimensional cell culture but also as an implantable device for guided tissue regeneration.

<Method for Culturing Mammalian Cells>

The present invention provides a method for culturing mammalian cells in the presence of the modified laminin of the present invention, and collagen and/or gelatin. A culture method using collagen or gelatin bound to the modified laminin of the present invention as an extracellular matrix providing a scaffold for mammalian cells enables feeder-free culture of cells that are conventionally cultured on feeder cells. Moreover, this method enables stem cells with low affinity for collagen to be cultured on collagen and differentiated efficiently to form a three-dimensional tissue structure for regenerative medicine.

The culture method of the present invention is applicable to the culture of any mammalian cells, but is preferably applied to the culture of stem cells. The stem cells refer to cells having the self-renewal capacity and pluripotency, and include somatic stem cells and pluripotent stem cells. Examples of the somatic stem cells include neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, cardiac stem cells, hepatic stem cells and small intestinal stem cells. Examples of the pluripotent stem cells include ES cells (embryonic stem cells), iPS cells (induced pluripotent stem cells), mGS cells (multipotent germ stem cells) and hybridomas of ES cells and somatic cells. The mammal as the origin of the cells is not particularly limited, and the examples include humans, mice, rats, cattle and pigs. Particularly preferred are humans. That is, the culture method of the present invention is preferably used for human stem cell culture. In the case where the culture method of the present invention is used for human stem cell culture, the modified laminin of human origin is preferably used.

The culture method of the present invention is not particularly limited as long as it is a method for culturing mammalian cells in the presence of the modified laminin of the present invention, and collagen and/or gelatin. The examples include a culture method using a medium containing the modified laminin of the present invention, and collagen and/or gelatin as separate components; a culture method using a medium containing a complex of the modified laminin of the present invention and collagen, or a complex of the modified laminin of the present invention and gelatin; and a culture method using a culture substrate coated with collagen and/or gelatin, and a medium containing the modified laminin of the present invention. Preferred is a culture method using the culture substrate of the present invention or the scaffold of the present invention.

An embodiment in which human iPS cells are cultured according to the culture method of the present invention is described below. The culture method of the present invention is not limited to this embodiment and can also preferably be used for culture of mammalian cells other than human iPS cells.

(1) Collection of Human iPS Cells from Co-Culture System with Feeder Cells

Human iPS cells are collected from a co-culture system with feeder cells according to the following method 1 or 2.

Method 1:

To a culture dish in which human iPS cells have been co-cultured with feeder cells (for example, MEFs) (Day 3 to Day 5), 0.25% trypsin/DMEM-F12 (for example, 1 ml/60 mm dish) is added, and incubation was performed at 37° C. for 2 to 3 minutes. The culture dish is washed with DMEM-F12 and thereby feeder cells are removed. A culture medium is added to the culture dish and the cells on the entire culture dish are physically detached. By filtering the resulting cell suspension through a BD Falcon 100-μm cell strainer (BD Falcon #352460) and subsequently washing the strainer, only human iPS cell colonies are separated and collected.

Method 2:

To a culture dish in which human iPS cells have been co-cultured with feeder cells (for example, MEF's) (Day 3 to Day 5), a cell detachment solution (for example, Dissociation Solution for ES/iPS Cells (RCHETP002, ReproCELL Inc.), 1 mg/ml dispase/DMEM-F12, 10 mg/ml collagenase IV/DMEM-F12, etc.) (for example, 1 ml/60 mm dish) is added, and incubation was performed at 37° C. for 5 minutes to detach the human iPS cells and the MEFs from the culture dish. The detached cells are transferred into a 15-ml centrifuge tube. To this tube, about 10 ml of a culture medium is added, the cells are suspended, the tube is left to stand for 5 minutes to allow only the colonies to sediment, and then the supernatant is removed. By repeating this procedure twice or more, only human iPS cell colonies are sedimented and collected.

(2) Transfer of Human iPS Cells onto Culture Substrate of Present Invention

The collected human iPS cell colonies are dissociated into single cells. The method for dissociating the colonies into single cells is not particularly limited, and the examples include trypsinization and also include several times of flushing in a culture medium using a Pipetman P-1000 or the like. The dissociated single cells are resuspended in an appropriate culture medium (for example, TeSR2 etc.), and seeded on a culture dish coated with, for example, collagen and the modified laminin. The culture is performed in a CO concentration suitable for the culture medium used, and the culture medium is replaced daily.

(3) Passage Culture

Cultured cells are passaged at the time when the space available for cell expansion becomes limited or cell death becomes noticeable in the colonies. In the culture method of the present invention, passage may be performed by seeding human iPS cells in the state of properly-sized colonies, as in conventional methods. Alternatively, passage may be performed by seeding human iPS cells in a dissociated single-cell state. Here, the “dissociated single-cell state” means not only a state in which all the cells in a cell suspension are present as single cells, but also a state in which some cells in a cell suspension are present as single cells and other cells therein are present in an aggregate form of about several cells to a little more than ten cells.

In the Case where the Cells are Dissociated into Single Cells:

To a culture dish in which human iPS cells have been cultured, TrypLE Select (trade name, Invitrogen #12563011) (for example, 1 ml/100 mm dish) is added, and incubation was performed at 37° C. for 5 minutes. The human iPS cell colonies are dissociated into single cells, for example, by several times of flushing in a culture medium using a Pipetman P-1000 or the like. After addition of a culture medium, the human iPS cells are suspended and then collected in a centrifuge tube. After the step of centrifugation (1000×g, 3 minutes) and subsequent washing with a culture medium is repeated twice, the human iPS cells are resuspended in a fresh culture medium and seeded in a single-cell state at a cell density of, for example, about 40,000 cells/cm on a culture dish coated with the modified laminin of human origin (for example, 1.0 μg/cm2). The culture is performed in a CO2 concentration suitable for the culture medium used, and the culture medium is replaced daily.

In the Case where the Cells are not Dissociated into Single Cells:

In this case, collagenase IV, dispase, Accutase or the like is used as the enzyme for cell detachment. To a culture dish in which human iPS cells have been cultured, 10 mg/ml collagenase/DMEM-F12, 2 mg/ml dispase/DMEM-F12 or Accutase (Millipore #SCR005) (for example, 1 ml/60 mm dish) is added, and incubation was performed at 37° C. for 5 minutes. After removal of the enzyme solution, a culture medium is added, and the human iPS cell colonies are split into smaller-sized colonies composed of about 50 to 100 cells, for example, by several times of flushing in a culture medium using a Pipetman P-1000 or the like. The cell suspension is collected in a centrifuge tube. After the step of centrifugation (200×g, 3 minutes) and subsequent washing with a culture medium is repeated twice, the human iPS cells are resuspended in a fresh culture medium and seeded in a 2- to 4-fold dilution on a culture dish coated with the modified laminin of human origin (for example, 1.5 μg/cm2). The culture is performed in a CO2 concentration suitable for the culture medium used, and the culture medium is replaced daily.

The culture method of the present invention enables directed differentiation of stem cells into various somatic cells. The protocol for directed differentiation is not particularly limited, and any known protocol therefor can be selected as appropriate. Hereinafter, an exemplary protocol for directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells and an exemplary protocol for directed differentiation of somatic stem cells are described, but these are non-limiting examples.

(i) Protocol for Hepatic Differentiation of Human ES or iPS Cells

Human ES or iPS cells are dissociated into single cells by Accutase (Millipore) and cultured for 2 days on Matrigel in a differentiation medium (a hESF-DIF medium (Cell Science & Technology Institute) supplemented with 10 μg/ml human recombinant insulin, 5 μg/ml human apotransferrin, 10 μM 2-mercaptoethanol, 10 μM sodium selenate and 0.5 mg/ml bovine serum albumin) supplemented with 100 ng/ml activin A and 10 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The resulting mesendoderm cells are transduced with an adenovirus vector for FOXA2 gene expression and cultured on Matrigel in the same manner as above until day 6 for differentiation into definitive endoderm cells. These cells are transduced with an adenovirus vector for FOXA2 gene expression and an adenovirus vector for HNF1α gene expression and cultured for another 3 days on Matrigel in a hepatocyte culture medium (HCM, Lonza) supplemented with 30 ng/ml bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and 20 ng/ml FGF4 for differentiation into hepatoblasts. These hepatoblasts are transduced with an adenovirus vector for FOXA2 gene expression and an adenovirus vector for HNF1α gene expression and cultured for 3 days on Matrigel in an HCM medium supplemented with 10 ng/ml HGF, 10 ng/ml FGF1, 10 ng/ml FGF4 and 10 ng/ml FGF10 for differentiation into hepatic progenitor cells. For hepatic maturation, these cells are cultured for 8 days on Matrigel in a L15 medium (Invitrogen) supplemented with 8.3% tryptose phosphate broth (BD), 10% FBS, 10 μM hydrocortisone 21-hemisuccinate, 1 μM insulin, 25 mM NaHCO3, 20 ng/ml HGF, 20 ng/ml oncostatin M and 10 μM dexamethasone. This directed differentiation protocol reportedly allows the generation of hepatocyte-like cells with drug metabolizing capacity (reference: Takayama et al., J. Hepatology, 2012, 57, 628-636). This protocol can be performed using, instead of Matrigel, a three-dimensional matrix composed of a combination of the modified laminin of the present invention and a collagen gel, thereby providing safe hepatic cells for regenerative medicine in humans.

(ii) Protocol for Hepatic Differentiation of Somatic Stem Cells

Delta-like leucine zipper kinase (Dlk)-positive mouse fetal hepatic cells are cultured on EHS-laminin. The cells, which are designated as HPPL (hepatic progenitor cells proliferating on laminin), are seeded on 6-well plates at 2×105 cells/well and cultured until confluency. The medium is replaced with a DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 20 ng/ml oncostatin M and the culture is continued for 5 days. Subsequently, the medium is replaced with 300 μl of Matrigel diluted 6-fold in DMEM/F12 medium, which forms a gel onto the cell layer. After additional 5 days of culture, the production of polysaccharides and the generation of PAS-positive hepatic cells are observed as described in the report (reference: Tanimizu et, al., J. Cell Sci., 2004, 117, 6425-6434). This protocol can be performed using, instead of the HPPL cells and the EHS gel, human stem cells and a three-dimensional matrix composed of a combination of the modified laminin of the present invention and a collagen gel, thereby providing safe hepatic cells for regenerative medicine in humans.

(iii) Protocol for Differentiation of Somatic Stem Cells into Cholangiocytes

The HPPL cells are cultured for 2 days on a 20% Matrigel-containing type I collagen gel on the upper surface of a 1-cm diameter culture insert. Subsequently, a gel of the same composition is cast on the cells and left to stand at 37° C. for 2 hours for solidification. To the upper and bottom chambers of the culture insert, 500 μl each of a DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 5 ng/ml each of EGF and HGF is added. After 2 to 3 days of culture, the formation of tubular structures and the expression of a cholangiocyte marker cytokeratin 19 are observed as described in the report (reference: Tanimizu et al., Mol. Biol. Cell, 2009, 20, 2486-2494). This protocol is called “sandwich culture.” The sandwich culture can be performed using, instead of the HPPL cells and Matrigel, human stem cells and a three-dimensional matrix composed of a combination of the modified laminin of the present invention and a collagen gel, thereby providing safe cholangiocytes for regenerative medicine in humans.

(iv) Three-Dimensional Culture of Small Intestinal Stem Cells

From mouse small intestinal crypts, Lgr5-positive cells are collected in a crypt culture medium (an Advanced DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 10 to 50 ng/ml EGF, 500 ng/ml R-spondin 1 and 100 ng/ml noggin), and embedded one by one into 5 μl of Matrigel containing 1 μM Jagged-1 peptide (AnaSpec). To this, 100 μl of a crypt culture medium supplemented with 10 μM Y-27632 is added. The growth factors are added to the medium every other day, and the entire medium is replaced with a fresh one every four days. After the culture under such conditions is continued for 1 to 2 weeks, the reconstruction of the crypt structure is observed as described in the report (reference: Sato et al., Nature, 2009, 459, 262-265). This protocol can be performed using, instead of the mouse small intestinal stem cells and Matrigel, human cells and a three-dimensional matrix composed of a combination of the modified laminin of the present invention and a collagen gel, thereby enabling three-dimensional culture of safe small intestinal cells for regenerative medicine in humans.

EXAMPLES

Hereinafter, the present invention will be illustrated in detail by examples, but is not limited thereto.

Example 1: Preparation of Recombinant Proteins Composed of Laminin 511E8 Fused with Collagen Binding Domain of Human Fibronectin

For preparation of recombinant proteins composed of laminin 511E8 fused with the collagen binding domain of human fibronectin (hereinafter, referred to as “CBD”), an expression vector for human laminin α5 chain E8, an expression vector for human laminin β1 chain E8, an expression vector for human laminin γ1 chain E8, an expression vector for human laminin α5 chain E8 fused with an N-terminal CBD, an expression vector for human laminin β1 chain E8 fused with an N-terminal CBD, and an expression vector for human laminin γ1 chain E8 fused with an N-terminal CBD were prepared, and these vectors were co-transfected in a given combination into host cells for expression of a recombinant protein of interest.

(1) Construction of Expression Vectors

A fragment composed of a cDNA encoding human laminin α5E8 (accession number: NP_005551 (see Table 2), Ala2534-Ala3327) and a 6×His tag-encoding DNA fused to the 5′ end of the cDNA, a fragment composed of a cDNA encoding human laminin β1E8 (accession number: NP_002282 (see Table 2), Leu1561-Leu1786) and an HA tag-encoding DNA fused to the 5′ end of the cDNA, and a fragment composed of a cDNA encoding human laminin γ1E8 (accession number: NP_002284 (see Table 2), Asn1364-Pro1609) and a FLAG tag-encoding DNA fused to the 5′ end of the cDNA were separately amplified by PCR. These amplified fragments were separately inserted in the HindIII/EcoRV site (for α5E8) or the HindIII/EcoRI site (for β1E8 and γ1E8) of a pSecTag2B vector (Invitrogen) to give pSec-LNα5E8, pSec-LNβ1E8 and pSec-LNγ1E8 (Ido H. et al., J. Biol. Chem. 2007, 282, 11144-11154). A cDNA encoding CBD (accession number: NP_997647 (see Table 3), Va1276-Thr604) was amplified by PCR to give a product with a 5′-end HindIII site. A fragment composed of a human laminin α5E8-encoding cDNA and a 6×His tag-encoding DNA fused to the 5′ end of the cDNA, a fragment composed of a human laminin β1E8-encoding cDNA and an HA tag-encoding DNA fused to the 5′ end of the cDNA, and a fragment composed of a human laminin γ1E8-encoding cDNA and a FLAG tag-encoding DNA fused to the 5′ end of the cDNA were separately amplified by PCR, and then separately fused to the CBD-encoding DNA fragment by PCR. The resulting fragments were separately inserted into the HindIII/ClaI site of the pSec-LNα5E8 (for α5E8) or the HindIII/EcoRI site of a pSecTag2B vector (Invitrogen) (for β1E8 and γ1E8) to give pSec-CBD-LNα5E8, pSec-CBD-LNβ1E8 and pSec-CBD-LNγ1E8.

The amino acid sequence of a protein expressed by the pSec-CBD-LNα5E8 (CBD-LNα5E8) is shown in SEQ ID NO: 1, and the nucleotide sequence of the corresponding DNA (contained in the pSec-CBD-LNα5E8) is shown in SEQ ID NO: 2. The amino acid sequence of a protein expressed by the pSec-CBD-LNβ1E8 (CBD-LNβ1E8) is shown in SEQ ID NO: 3, and the nucleotide sequence of the corresponding DNA (contained in the pSec-CBD-LNβ1E8) is shown in SEQ ID NO: 4. The amino acid sequence of a protein expressed by the pSec-CBD-LNγ1E8 (CBD-LNβ1E8) is shown in SEQ ID NO: 5, and the nucleotide sequence of the corresponding DNA (contained in the pSec-CBD-LNγ1E8) is shown in SEQ ID NO: 6.

(2) Expression and Purification of Recombinant CBD-Fused Laminin 511E8 Fragments

Recombinant CBD-fused laminin 511E8 fragments and a recombinant laminin 511E8 fragment were prepared using the FreeStyle™ 293 Expression System (Invitrogen). In each case, FreeStyle™ 293-F cells were transfected with a given combination of three kinds of expression vectors (see Table 1) using 293fectin (Invitrogen) and grown in serum-free FreeStyle™ 293 expression medium for 72 hours. The conditioned medium was collected and clarified by centrifugation. The clarified conditioned medium was first subjected to affinity chromatography using Ni-NTA-agarose. After column washing with TBS, the bound protein was eluted with a TBS containing 200 mM imidazole. Next, the imidazole eluate was applied to an anti-FLAG M2-agarose column, and the bound protein was eluted with 100 μg/ml FLAG peptide in TBS. The eluted protein was dialyzed against PBS. The dialyzed product was sterilized by filtration through a 0.22-μm disk syringe filter (Millipore, #SLGV033RS) and the filtrate was stored at −80° C. The combinations of the expression vectors used for the preparation of the recombinant CBD-fused laminin 511E8 fragments and the recombinant laminin 511E8 fragment are shown in Table 4.


TABLE 4
α5E8 expression
β1E8 expression
γ1E8 expression
vector
vector
vector
LN511-E8
LNα5E8
LNβ1E8
LNγ1E8
CBD-E8(β)
LNα5E8
CBD-LNβ1E8
LNγ1E8
CBD-E8(γ)
LNα5E8
LNβ1E8
CBD-LNγ1E8
CBD-E8(βγ)
LNα5E8
CBD-LNβ1E8
CBD-LNγ1E8
CBD-E8(αβγ)
CBD-LNα5E8
CBD-LNβ1E8
CBD-LNγ1E8

(3) SDS-PAGE Analysis of Recombinant CBD-Fused Laminin 511E8 Fragments

The concentrations of the purified proteins were determined by the BCA assay using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a standard. The purities of the purified proteins were determined by non-reducing SDS-PAGE and subsequent Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining.

The results of the SDS-PAGE are shown in FIG. 1. In each sample, two bands corresponding to a monomer of α5 chain E8 and a dimer of β1 chain E8 and γ1 chain E8 were detected under non-reducing conditions, revealing that the recombinant laminin 511E8 fragment and the recombinant CBD-fused laminin 511E8 fragments were successfully purified as heterotrimeric proteins.

Example 2: Examination on Collagen or Gelatin Binding Activities of CBD-Fused Laminin 511E8 Fragments

(1) Binding Activity Measurement

Type I collagen (Nitta Gelatin Inc., type I-A: porcine origin) or gelatin (Sigma, G1890-100G: porcine origin) was diluted at 10 μg/ml in 0.1 M NaHCO3, and a 96-well immuno plate (Nunc Maxisorp) was coated with 50 μl/well of the diluted solution at 4° C. overnight. The coating solution on the plate was removed, a TBS containing 1% BSA was added to the plate, and incubation was performed at room temperature for 2 hours for blocking. After this, the plate was washed twice with a TBS containing 0.1% BSA and 0.02% Tween-20 (hereinafter, referred to as “wash buffer”). Subsequently, each CBD-fused laminin 511E8 was diluted at various concentrations in a wash buffer, the diluted solutions were added and the plate was incubated with agitation at room temperature for 3 hours. The plate was washed 3 times with a wash buffer and then an anti-laminin α5 antibody 5D6-containing antiserum diluted 3000-fold in a wash buffer was added at 50 μl/well. The plate was incubated with agitation at room temperature for 1 hour and then washed 3 times with a wash buffer. An HRP-labeled anti-mouse IgG antibody diluted 3000-fold in a wash buffer was added at 50 μl/well and the plate was incubated with agitation at room temperature for 1 hour. The plate was washed 3 times with a wash buffer and an o-phenylenediamine solution was added at 50 μl/well for color development. The color development was stopped with the addition of 50 μl/well of 2.5 M sulfuric acid and the absorbance at 490 nm was measured.

(2) Experimental Results

The results on type I collagen binding activities are shown in FIG. 2. The CBD-free laminin 511E8 (indicated as LN511-E8 in the figure) hardly bound to type I collagen, but CBD-E8 (β) and CBD-E8 (γ), which contained a single CBD fused to the β1 or γ1 chain, were remarkably capable of binding to type I collagen. In addition, CBD-E8 (βγ), which contained CBDs fused to both the β1 and γ1 chains, and CBD-E8 (αβγ), which contained CBDs fused to all the three chains (α, β and γ chains), bound to type I collagen at lower concentrations as compared with the single CBD-fused E8 fragments, and the binding activities reached saturation at 10 nM. These results showed that the type I collagen binding activities of the forms with two or more CBDs (divalent or higher valent forms) were higher by approximately one order of magnitude than those of the forms with a single CBD (monovalent forms). However, no difference was found between the divalent form and the trivalent form. In addition, CBD-E8 (αβ), which contained CBDs fused to both the α5 and β1 chains, CBD-E8 (αγ), which contained CBDs fused to both the α5 and γ1 chains, had binding activities equivalent to that of CBD-E8 (βγ) (data not shown).

The results on gelatin binding activities are shown in FIG. 3. As is the case with the type I collagen binding activity, the CBD-free LN511-E8 hardly bound to gelatin, but the CBD-f used LN511-E8 fragments were remarkably capable of binding to gelatin, and the binding activities of the divalent or higher valent forms were approximately 3-fold stronger than those of the monovalent forms.

Example 3: Human iPS Cell Culture Using CBD-Fused Laminin 511E8 Fragments

(1) Human iPS Cells

The human iPS cells used were a cell line (clone name: tic (JCRB1331)) purchased from the Japanese Collection of Research Bioresources (JCRB) Cell Bank, the National Institute of Biomedical Innovation. The tic cells were maintained in co-culture with mouse feeder cells according to the method recommended by the JCRB Cell Bank, the National Institute of Biomedical Innovation. To the co-culture dish, 1 U/ml dispase/DMEM-F12 was added and colonies of the tic cells were harvested with a scraper. By filtrating the cell suspension containing the tic cell colonies and the mouse feeder cells through a BD Falcon 100-μm cell strainer and subsequently washing the cell strainer, the tic cell colonies were separated. The colonies remaining in the cell strainer were collected in a mTeSR1 (trade name, STEMCELL TECHNOLOGIES) medium, split into smaller colonies with the use of a Pipetman P-1000, resuspended in a mTeSR1 medium and seeded on a Matrigel-coated culture substrate. Expansion culture was performed at 37° C. in a 5% CO2 atmosphere for 4 to 5 days. During the expansion culture, the culture medium was replaced daily. After the expansion culture, the cells were used for the experiments.

(2) Culture Method

A solution of type I collagen (Nitta Gelatin Inc., type I-C: porcine origin) diluted at 200 μg/ml in PBS, or 0.1% gelatin (Sigma) was added to a 12-well plate at 1 ml/well, and incubation was performed at 37° C. for 1 hour. For the collagen-coated plate, the collagen solution was subsequently aspirated off, 0.1% gelatin was added at 1 ml/well, and incubation was performed at 37° C. for 2 hours for blocking. The gelatin solution on each plate was removed and the plate was washed twice with PBS. Various laminin E8 fragments were separately diluted at 8 nM in PBS, the diluted solutions were added at 1 ml/well, and incubation was performed at 4° C. overnight. After this, the plate was washed 3 times with PBS.

The culture medium of the above-described iPS cells cultured on a Matrigel-coated dish (10 cm) was aspirated off, a PBS containing 4.8 mM EDTA was added, and incubation was performed at room temperature for 3 minutes. The EDTA solution was removed, TrypLE Express (Gibco) was added at 1 ml per dish, and incubation was performed at 37° C. for 1 minute to detach the iPS cells. The cells were suspended in a mTeSR1 medium (STEMCELL TECHNOLOGIES) containing supplements, transferred into a 15-ml tube, and centrifuged at 1000 rpm for 3 minutes. The supernatant was aspirated off and the cells were suspended at a concentration of 7.6×104 cells/ml in a mTeSR1 medium containing supplements. The PBS on the plate was aspirated off and the iPS cells were seeded on the plate at 1 ml/well. The plate was placed in an incubator with 5% CO2 at 37° C. for cell culture. The duration of the cell culture was 3 days, during which the culture medium was replaced daily.

(3) Experimental Results

The images of the iPS cells on day 3 of culture under type I collagen-coating conditions are shown in FIG. 4. As is clear from FIG. 4, the iPS cells hardly proliferated when seeded on the plate coated only with type I collagen (indicated as “Col I only” in the figure). Similarly, the iPS cells hardly proliferated when seeded on the plate coated additionally with the CBD-free LN511-E8 (indicated as “+511E8” in the figure). However, when the plates were coated additionally with the LN511-E8 fused with a single CBD (indicated as “+CBD-E8 (β)” and “+CBD-E8 (γ)” in the figure), the iPS cells slightly proliferated. On the plate coated additionally with the LN511-E8 fused with two CBDs (indicated as “+CBD-E8 (βγ)” in the figure), the number of iPS cells was greater than those observed on the plates coated additionally with the LN511-E8 fused with a single CBD.

The images of the iPS cells on day 3 of culture under gelatin-coating conditions are shown in FIG. 5. As is clear from FIG. 5, the gelatin-coating conditions produced more remarkable differences in the proliferation of iPS cells than the type I collagen-coating conditions. The iPS cells only slightly proliferated on the plate coated only with gelatin (indicated as “Gelatin only” in the figure), and the same was the case on the plate coated additionally with the CBD-free LN511-E8 (indicated as “+51E8” in the figure). When the plates were coated additionally with the LN511-E8 fused with a single CBD (indicated as “+CBD-E8 (β)” and “+CBD-E8 (γ)” in the figure), proliferation of the iPS cells was observed. On the plate coated additionally with the LN511-E8 fused with two CBDs (indicated as “+CBD-E8 (βγ)” in the figure), the number of iPS cells was greater than those observed on the plates coated additionally with the LN511-E8 fused with a single CBD.

Example 4: Preparation of Recombinant CBD-Fused Laminin E8 Fragments Derived from Laminin Isoforms Other than Laminin 511

In addition to the expression vectors for the E8 fragments of the chains prepared in Example 1, expression vectors for the E8 fragments of human laminin α chains other than the α5 chain (α1 chain E8, α2 chain E8, α3 chain E8 and α4 chain E8), an expression vector for laminin β2 chain E8, and an expression vector for CBD-fused laminin β2 chain E8 were separately prepared. Regarding the γ chain, the expression vector for laminin γ1 chain E8 and the expression vector for CBD-fused laminin γ1 chain E8 prepared in Example 1 were used. These vectors were co-transfected in a given combination into host cells for preparation of recombinant laminin E8 fragments and recombinant CBD-f used laminin E8 fragments derived from laminin isoforms other than laminin 511.

(1) Construction of Expression Vectors

(1-1) Preparation of Expression Vector for Human Laminin α1 Chain E8 Fragment

PCR was performed using a cloning plasmid pBluescript KS(+) (Stratagene) as a template to prepare a pBluescript KS(+) containing a restriction enzyme AscI recognition sequence and a 6×His tag-encoding DNA at the 5′ end of the EcoRV site in the multicloning site. The set of primers used for the PCR is the following (i).

(i) Primers for Insertion of 6×His Tag and AscI Site


(forward, SEQ ID NO: 7)
5′-ATGATGATGGGCGCGCCAAGCTTATCGATACCGT-3′
(reverse, SEQ ID NO: 8)
5′-CATCATCATGATATCGAATTCCTGC-3′

Next, PCR was performed using a plasmid containing the cDNA sequence of the human laminin α1 chain (Ido et al., J. Biol. Chem., 279, 10946-10954, 2004) as a template to amplify a region corresponding to the α1 chain (accession number: NP_005550 (see Table 2), Phe1878 to Gln2700). The reverse primer contained a BamHI recognition sequence in the 5′-terminal region.

The amplified cDNA was inserted into the EcoRV-BamHI site in the multicloning site of the above-prepared pBluescript KS(+) containing an AscI recognition sequence and a 6×His tag-encoding sequence. From the resulting plasmid, a cDNA encompassing the α1 chain E8 fragment-encoding sequence and the 5′-terminal 6×His tag-encoding sequence was cut out with restriction enzymes AscI and BamHI, and inserted into the corresponding restriction site of a mammalian cell expression vector pSecTag2A (Invitrogen) to give an expression vector for the human α1 chain E8 fragment (containing a 6×His tag in the N-terminal region), which was named pSec-LNα1E8.

(1-2) Preparation of Expression Vector for Human Laminin α2 Chain E8 Fragment

PCR was performed using a plasmid containing the cDNA sequence of the human laminin α2 chain (Ido et al., J. Biol. Chem., 283, 28149-28157, 2008) as a template to amplify a region corresponding to the α2 chain (accession number: NP_000417 (see Table 2), Leu1900 to Ala2722). The reverse primer contained a BamHI recognition sequence (GGATCC) in the 5′-terminal region.

The amplified cDNA was inserted into the EcoRV-BamHI site in the multicloning site of the above-prepared pBluescript KS(+) containing an AscI recognition sequence and a 6×His tag-encoding sequence. From the resulting plasmid, a cDNA encompassing the α1 chain E8 fragment-encoding sequence and the 5′-terminal 6×His tag-encoding sequence was cut out with restriction enzymes AscI and BamHI, and inserted into the corresponding restriction site of a mammalian cell expression vector pSecTag2A (Invitrogen) to give an expression vector for the human α2 chain E8 fragment (containing a 6×His tag in the N-terminal region), which was named pSec-LNα2E8.

(1-3) Preparation of Expression Vector for Human Laminin α3 Chain E8 Fragment

PCR was performed using a plasmid containing the cDNA sequence of the human laminin α3 chain (lacking the 4th and 5th laminin globular domains) (Ido et al., J. Biol. Chem., 282, 11144-11154, 2007) as a template to amplify a region corresponding to the α3 chain (accession number: NP_000218 (see Table 2), Ala579 to Ala1364). The reverse primer contained a XbaI recognition sequence in the 5′-terminal region.

The amplified cDNA was inserted into the EcoRV-XbaI site in the multicloning site of the above-prepared pBluescript KS(+) containing an AscI recognition sequence and a 6×His tag-encoding sequence. From the resulting plasmid, a cDNA encompassing the α3 chain E8 fragment-encoding sequence and the 5′-terminal 6×His tag-encoding sequence was cut out with restriction enzymes AscI and NotI, and inserted into the corresponding restriction site of a mammalian cell expression vector pSecTag2A (Invitrogen) to give an expression vector for the human α3 chain E8 fragment (containing a 6×His tag in the N-terminal region), which was named pSec-LNα3E8.

(1-4) Preparation of Expression Vector for Human Laminin α4 Chain E8 Fragment

For preparation of a cDNA fragment encoding a mouse Ig-κ chain V-J2-C signal peptide, a 6×His tag and an α4 chain E8 fragment in this order from the 5′ end, a cDNA fragment encoding the mouse Ig-κ chain V-J2-C signal peptide and the 6×His tag, and a cDNA fragment encoding the α4 chain E8 were separately obtained, and these two fragments were joined and amplified by extension PCR.

First, PCR was performed using an expression vector for human laminin α5 chain E8 (Ido et al., J. Biol. Chem., 282, 11144-11154, 2007) as a template to amplify a region corresponding to the mouse Ig-κ chain V-J2-C signal peptide and the 6×His tag. The set of primers used for the PCR is the below (ii). The reverse primer contained a sequence used for extension PCR in the 5′-terminal region.

(ii) Primers for Amplification of Signal Peptide Sequence and 6×His Tag Sequence


(forward, SEQ ID NO: 9)
5′-GAGGTCTATATAAGCAGAGCTCTCTGGCTAACTA-3′
(reverse, SEQ ID NO: 10)
5′-CATTGGCTTCATCATGATGATGATGATGATGAAGC-3′

Next, PCR was performed using a plasmid containing the cDNA sequence of the human laminin α4 chain (Hayashi et al., Biochem Biophys Res Commun., 299, 498-504, 2002) as a template to amplify a region corresponding to the α4 chain (accession number: NP_002281 (see Table 2), Glu629 to His1449). The forward primer contained a sequence used for extension PCR in the 5′-terminal region, and the reverse primer contained an EcoRI recognition sequence in the 5′-terminal region.

The obtained two kinds of cDNA fragments were joined and amplified by extension PCR to give a cDNA fragment encoding the mouse Ig-κ chain V-J2-C signal peptide, the 6×His tag and the α4 chain E8. The amplified cDNA was digested with restriction enzymes HindIII and EcoRI. The digested fragment was inserted into the corresponding restriction site of a mammalian cell expression vector pSecTag2B (invitrogen) to give an expression vector for the human α4 chain E8 fragment (containing a 6×His tag in the N-terminal region), which was named pSec-LNα4E8.

(1-5) Preparation of Expression Vector for Human Laminin β2 Chain E8 Fragment

PCR was performed using a plasmid containing the cDNA sequence of the human laminin β2 chain (Ido et al., J. Biol. Chem., 283, 28149-28157, 2008) as a template to amplify a region corresponding to human laminin β2E8 (accession number: NP_002283 (see Table 2), Leu1573-Gln1798). The reverse primer contained an EcoRI recognition sequence in the 5′-terminal region. A fragment containing a cDNA and an HA tag-encoding DNA fused to the 5′ end of the cDNA was amplified by PCR.

The amplified cDNA was inserted into the EcoRV-EcoRI site in the multicloning site of a pBluescript KS(+) containing an HA tag-encoding sequence. From the resulting plasmid, a cDNA encompassing the β2 chain E8 fragment-encoding sequence and the 5′-terminal HA tag-encoding sequence was cut out with restriction enzymes KpnI and EcoRI, and inserted into the corresponding restriction site of a mammalian cell expression vector pSecTag2B (Invitrogen) to give an expression vector for the human β2 chain E8 fragment (containing an HA tag in the N-terminal region), which was named pSec-LNβ2E8 (Taniguchi Y. et al., J. Biol. Chem. 2009, 284-7820-7831).

(1-6) Preparation of Expression Vector for CBD-Fused Human Laminin 32 Chain E8 Fragment

A cDNA encoding CBD (accession number: NP_997647 (see Table 3), Val276-Thr604) was amplified by PCR to give a product with a 5′-end HindIII site. A fragment composed of a human laminin β2E8-encoding cDNA and an HA tag-encoding DNA fused to the 5′ end of the cDNA was amplified by PCR, and then fused to the CBD-encoding DNA fragment by PCR. The resulting fragment was inserted into the HindIII/EcoRI site of a pSecTag2B vector (Invitrogen) to give pSec-CBD-LNβ2E3.

The amino acid sequence of a protein expressed by the pSec-CBD-LNβ2E8 (CBD-LNβ2E8) is shown in SEQ ID NO: 11, and the nucleotide sequence of the corresponding DNA (contained in the Sec-CBD-LNβ2E8) is shown in SEQ ID NO: 12.

(2) Expression and Purification of Recombinant Laminin E8 Fragments and Recombinant CBD-Fused Laminin E8 Fragments

Recombinant laminin E8 fragments and recombinant CBD-fused laminin E8 fragments were prepared using the FreeStyle™ 293 Expression System (Invitrogen) according to the procedure described in Example 1. For purification of each recombinant protein secreted in the culture medium, the conditioned medium was subjected to two-step affinity chromatography using Ni-NTA agarose and anti-FLAG M2 agarose according to the procedure described in Example 1. Each purified recombinant protein was dialyzed against PBS, the dialyzed product was sterilized by filtration through a 22-μm disk syringe filter (Millipore, #SLGV033RS) and the filtrate was stored at −80° C. The combinations of the expression vectors used for the preparation of the recombinant CBD-fused laminin E8 fragments and the recombinant laminin E8 fragments are shown in Table 5.


TABLE 5
α chain E8
β chain E8
γ chain E8
expression vector
expression vector
expression vector
LN111-E8
LNα1E8
LNβ1E8
LNγ1E8
111β
LNα1E8
CBD-LNβ1E8
LNγ1E8
111βγ
LNα1E8
CBD-LNβ1E8
CBD-LNγ1E8
LN121E8
LNα1E8
LNβ2E8
LNγ1E8
121β
LNα1E8
CBD-LNβ2E8
LNγ1E8
121βγ
LNα1E8
CBD-LNβ2E8
CBD-LNγ1E8
LN211E8
LNα2E8
LNβ1E8
LNγ1E8
211β
LNα2E8
CBD-LNβ1E8
LNγ1E8
211βγ
LNα2E8
CBD-LNβ1E8
CBD-LNγ1E8
LN221E8
LNα2E8
LNβ2E8
LNγ1E8
221β
LNα2E8
CBD-LNβ2E8
LNγ1E8
221βγ
LNα2E8
CBD-LNβ2E8
CBD-LNγ1E8
LN311E8
LNα3E8
LNβ1E8
LNγ2E8
311β
LNα3E8
CBD-LNβ1E8
LNγ1E8
311βγ
LNα3E8
CBD-LNβ1E8
CBD-LNγ1E8
LN321E8
LNα3E8
LNβ2E8
LNγ1E8
321β
LNα3E8
CBD-LNβ2E8
LNγ1E8
321βγ
LNα3E8
CBD-LNβ2E8
CBD-LNγ1E8
LN411E8
LNα4E8
LNβ1E8
LNγ1E8
411β
LNα4E8
CBD-LNβ1E8
LNγ1E8
411βγ
LNα4E8
CBD-LNβ1E8
CBD-LNγ1E8
LN421E8
LNα4E8
LNβ2E8
LNγ1E8
421β
LNα4E8
CBD-LNβ2E8
LNγ1E8
421βγ
LNα4E8
CBD-LNβ2E8
CBD-LNγ1E8
LN521E8
LNα5E8
Lnβ2E8
LNγ1E8
521β
LNα5E8
CBD-LNβ2E8
LNγ1E8
521βγ
LNα5E8
CBD-LNβ2E8
CBD-LNγ1E8

(3) SDS-PAGE Analysis of Recombinant Laminin E8 Fragments and Recombinant CBD-Fused Laminin E8 Fragments

The concentrations of the purified proteins were determined by the BCA assay using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a standard. The purities of the purified proteins were determined by non-reducing SDS-PAGE and subsequent Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining.

The results of the SDS-PAGE of the recombinant laminin. E8 fragments and the recombinant CBD-fused laminin E8 fragments derived from various isoforms are shown in FIGS. 6 to 14. In each sample, two bands corresponding to a monomer of α chain E8 and a dimer of β chain E8 and γ1 chain E8 were detected under non-reducing conditions, revealing that the recombinant laminin E8 fragments and the recombinant CBD-fused laminin E8 fragments were successfully purified as heterotrimeric proteins, as is the case with the laminin 511E8 fragment and the CBD-fused laminin 511E8 fragments.

Example 5: Examination on Collagen Binding Activities of Recombinant CBD-Fused Laminin E8 Fragments Derived from Laminin Isoforms Other than Laminin 511

(1) Binding Activity Measurement

Collagen binding activities were measured in the same manner as in Example 2 (1) except that “an anti-FLAG antibody M2 (Sigma) diluted 2000-fold in a wash buffer” was used instead of “the anti-laminin α5 antibody 5D6-containing antiserum diluted 3000-fold in a wash buffer.”

The results on type I collagen binding activities are shown in FIGS. 15 to 23. The CBD-free laminin E8 fragments (indicated as LN111E8, LN121E8, LN211E8, LN221E8, LN311E8, LN321E8, LN411E8, LN421E8 and LN521E8 in the figures) hardly bound to type I collagen, but 111β, 121β, 211β, 221β, 311β, 321β, 411β, 421β and 521β, which contained a single CBD fused to the β chain, were remarkably capable of binding to type I collagen. In addition, 111βγ, 121βγ, 211βγ, 221βγ, 311βγ, 321βγ, 411βγ, 421βγ and 521βγ, which contained CBDs fused to both the β and γ1 chains, bound to type I collagen at lower concentrations as compared with the corresponding single CBD-fused E8 fragments. These results showed that the type I collagen binding activities of the forms with two CBDs (divalent forms) were higher by 10-fold or more than those of the forms with a single CBD (monovalent forms).

The present invention is not limited to the particular embodiments and examples described above, and various modifications can be made within the scope of the appended claims. Other embodiments provided by suitably combining technical means disclosed in separate embodiments of the present invention are also within the technical scope of the present invention. All the academic publications and patent literature cited in the description are incorporated herein by reference.

<160> NUMBER OF SEQ ID NOS: 12

<210> SEQ ID NO: 1

<211> LENGTH: 1164

<212> TYPE: PRT

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: Protein expressed by CBD-LN5E8

<400> SEQENCE: 1

Met Glu Thr Asp Thr Leu Leu Leu Trp Val Leu Leu Leu Trp Val Pro

1 5 10 15

Gly Ser Thr Gly Asp Ala Ala Gln Pro Ala Arg Arg Ala Arg Arg Thr

20 25 30

Lys Leu Val Gln Thr Thr Ser Ser Gly Ser Gly Pro Phe Thr Asp Val

35 40 45

Arg Ala Ala Val Tyr Gln Pro Gln Pro His Pro Gln Pro Pro Pro Tyr

50 55 60

Gly His Cys Val Thr Asp Ser Gly Val Val Tyr Ser Val Gly Met Gln

65 70 75 80

Trp Leu Lys Thr Gln Gly Asn Lys Gln Met Leu Cys Thr Cys Leu Gly

85 90 95

Asn Gly Val Ser Cys Gln Glu Thr Ala Val Thr Gln Thr Tyr Gly Gly

100 105 110

Asn Ser Asn Gly Glu Pro Cys Val Leu Pro Phe Thr Tyr Asn Gly Arg

115 120 125

Thr Phe Tyr Ser Cys Thr Thr Glu Gly Arg Gln Asp Gly His Leu Trp

130 135 140

Cys Ser Thr Thr Ser Asn Tyr Glu Gln Asp Gln Lys Tyr Ser Phe Cys

145 150 155 160

Thr Asp His Thr Val Leu Val Gln Thr Arg Gly Gly Asn Ser Asn Gly

165 170 175

Ala Leu Cys His Phe Pro Phe Leu Tyr Asn Asn His Asn Tyr Thr Asp

180 185 190

Cys Thr Ser Glu Gly Arg Arg Asp Asn Met Lys Trp Cys Gly Thr Thr

195 200 205

Gln Asn Tyr Asp Ala Asp Gln Lys Phe Gly Phe Cys Pro Met Ala Ala

210 215 220

His Glu Glu Ile Cys Thr Thr Asn Glu Gly Val Met Tyr Arg Ile Gly

225 230 235 240

Asp Gln Trp Asp Lys Gln His Asp Met Gly His Met Met Arg Cys Thr

245 250 255

Cys Val Gly Asn Gly Arg Gly Glu Trp Thr Cys Ile Ala Tyr Ser Gln

260 265 270

Leu Arg Asp Gln Cys Ile Val Asp Asp Ile Thr Tyr Asn Val Asn Asp

275 280 285

Thr Phe His Lys Arg His Glu Glu Gly His Met Leu Asn Cys Thr Cys

290 295 300

Phe Gly Gln Gly Arg Gly Arg Trp Lys Cys Asp Pro Val Asp Gln Cys

305 310 315 320

Gln Asp Ser Glu Thr Gly Thr Phe Tyr Gln Ile Gly Asp Ser Trp Glu

325 330 335

Lys Tyr Val His Gly Val Arg Tyr Gln Cys Tyr Cys Tyr Gly Arg Gly

340 345 350

Ile Gly Glu Trp His Cys Gln Pro Leu Gln Thr His His His His His

355 360 365

His Asp Ala Ala Glu Asp Ala Ala Gly Gln Ala Leu Gln Gln Ala Asp

370 375 380

His Thr Trp Ala Thr Val Val Arg Gln Gly Leu Val Asp Arg Ala Gln

385 390 395 400

Gln Leu Leu Ala Asn Ser Thr Ala Leu Glu Glu Ala Met Leu Gln Glu

405 410 415

Gln Gln Arg Leu Gly Leu Val Trp Ala Ala Leu Gln Gly Ala Arg Thr

420 425 430

Gln Leu Arg Asp Val Arg Ala Lys Lys Asp Gln Leu Glu Ala His Ile

435 440 445

Gln Ala Ala Gln Ala Met Leu Ala Met Asp Thr Asp Glu Thr Ser Lys

450 455 460

Lys Ile Ala His Ala Lys Ala Val Ala Ala Glu Ala Gln Asp Thr Ala

465 470 475 480

Thr Arg Val Gln Ser Gln Leu Gln Ala Met Gln Glu Asn Val Glu Arg

485 490 495

Trp Gln Gly Gln Tyr Glu Gly Leu Arg Gly Gln Asp Leu Gly Gln Ala

500 505 510

Val Leu Asp Ala Gly His Ser Val Ser Thr Leu Glu Lys Thr Leu Pro

515 520 525

Gln Leu Leu Ala Lys Leu Ser Ile Leu Glu Asn Arg Gly Val His Asn

530 535 540

Ala Ser Leu Ala Leu Ser Ala Ser Ile Gly Arg Val Arg Glu Leu Ile

545 550 555 560

Ala Gln Ala Arg Gly Ala Ala Ser Lys Val Lys Val Pro Met Lys Phe

565 570 575

Asn Gly Arg Ser Gly Val Gln Leu Arg Thr Pro Arg Asp Leu Ala Asp

580 585 590

Leu Ala Ala Tyr Thr Ala Leu Lys Phe Tyr Leu Gln Gly Pro Glu Pro

595 600 605

Glu Pro Gly Gln Gly Thr Glu Asp Arg Phe Val Met Tyr Met Gly Ser

610 615 620

Arg Gln Ala Thr Gly Asp Tyr Met Gly Val Ser Leu Arg Asp Lys Lys

625 630 635 640

Val His Trp Val Tyr Gln Leu Gly Glu Ala Gly Pro Ala Val Leu Ser

645 650 655

Ile Asp Glu Asp Ile Gly Glu Gln Phe Ala Ala Val Ser Leu Asp Arg

660 665 670

Thr Leu Gln Phe Gly His Met Ser Val Thr Val Glu Arg Gln Met Ile

675 680 685

Gln Glu Thr Lys Gly Asp Thr Val Ala Pro Gly Ala Glu Gly Leu Leu

690 695 700

Asn Leu Arg Pro Asp Asp Phe Val Phe Tyr Val Gly Gly Tyr Pro Ser

705 710 715 720

Thr Phe Thr Pro Pro Pro Leu Leu Arg Phe Pro Gly Tyr Arg Gly Cys

725 730 735

Ile Glu Met Asp Thr Leu Asn Glu Glu Val Val Ser Leu Tyr Asn Phe

740 745 750

Glu Arg Thr Phe Gln Leu Asp Thr Ala Val Asp Arg Pro Cys Ala Arg

755 760 765

Ser Lys Ser Thr Gly Asp Pro Trp Leu Thr Asp Gly Ser Tyr Leu Asp

770 775 780

Gly Thr Gly Phe Ala Arg Ile Ser Phe Asp Ser Gln Ile Ser Thr Thr

785 790 795 800

Lys Arg Phe Glu Gln Glu Leu Arg Leu Val Ser Tyr Ser Gly Val Leu

805 810 815

Phe Phe Leu Lys Gln Gln Ser Gln Phe Leu Cys Leu Ala Val Gln Glu

820 825 830

Gly Ser Leu Val Leu Leu Tyr Asp Phe Gly Ala Gly Leu Lys Lys Ala

835 840 845

Val Pro Leu Gln Pro Pro Pro Pro Leu Thr Ser Ala Ser Lys Ala Ile

850 855 860

Gln Val Phe Leu Leu Gly Gly Ser Arg Lys Arg Val Leu Val Arg Val

865 870 875 880

Glu Arg Ala Thr Val Tyr Ser Val Glu Gln Asp Asn Asp Leu Glu Leu

885 890 895

Ala Asp Ala Tyr Tyr Leu Gly Gly Val Pro Pro Asp Gln Leu Pro Pro

900 905 910

Ser Leu Arg Arg Leu Phe Pro Thr Gly Gly Ser Val Arg Gly Cys Val

915 920 925

Lys Gly Ile Lys Ala Leu Gly Lys Tyr Val Asp Leu Lys Arg Leu Asn

930 935 940

Thr Thr Gly Val Ser Ala Gly Cys Thr Ala Asp Leu Leu Val Gly Arg

945 950 955 960

Ala Met Thr Phe His Gly His Gly Phe Leu Arg Leu Ala Leu Ser Asn

965 970 975

Val Ala Pro Leu Thr Gly Asn Val Tyr Ser Gly Phe Gly Phe His Ser

980 985 990

Ala Gln Asp Ser Ala Leu Leu Tyr Tyr Arg Ala Ser Pro Asp Gly Leu

995 1000 1005

Cys Gln Val Ser Leu Gln Gln Gly Arg Val Ser Leu Gln Leu Leu

1010 1015 1020

Arg Thr Glu Val Lys Thr Gln Ala Gly Phe Ala Asp Gly Ala Pro

1025 1030 1035

His Tyr Val Ala Phe Tyr Ser Asn Ala Thr Gly Val Trp Leu Tyr

1040 1045 1050

Val Asp Asp Gln Leu Gln Gln Met Lys Pro His Arg Gly Pro Pro

1055 1060 1065

Pro Glu Leu Gln Pro Gln Pro Glu Gly Pro Pro Arg Leu Leu Leu

1070 1075 1080

Gly Gly Leu Pro Glu Ser Gly Thr Ile Tyr Asn Phe Ser Gly Cys

1085 1090 1095

Ile Ser Asn Val Phe Val Gln Arg Leu Leu Gly Pro Gln Arg Val

1100 1105 1110

Phe Asp Leu Gln Gln Asn Leu Gly Ser Val Asn Val Ser Thr Gly

1115 1120 1125

Cys Ala Pro Ala Leu Gln Ala Gln Thr Pro Gly Leu Gly Pro Arg

1130 1135 1140

Gly Leu Gln Ala Thr Ala Arg Lys Ala Ser Arg Arg Ser Arg Gln

1145 1150 1155

Pro Ala Arg His Pro Ala

1160

<210> SEQ ID NO: 2

<211> LENGTH: 3495

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: DNA of protein expressed by CBD-LN5E8

<400> SEQENCE: 2

atggagacag acacactcct gctatgggta ctgctgctct gggttccagg ttccactggt 60

gacgcggccc agccggccag gcgcgcgcgc cgtacgaagc ttgtgcagac cacatcgagc 120

ggatctggcc ccttcaccga tgttcgtgca gctgtttacc aaccgcagcc tcacccccag 180

cctcctccct atggccactg tgtcacagac agtggtgtgg tctactctgt ggggatgcag 240

tggctgaaga cacaaggaaa taagcaaatg ctttgcacgt gcctgggcaa cggagtcagc 300

tgccaagaga cagctgtaac ccagacttac ggtggcaact caaatggaga gccatgtgtc 360

ttaccattca cctacaatgg caggacgttc tactcctgca ccacagaagg gcgacaggac 420

ggacatcttt ggtgcagcac aacttcgaat tatgagcagg accagaaata ctctttctgc 480

acagaccaca ctgttttggt tcagactcga ggaggaaatt ccaatggtgc cttgtgccac 540

ttccccttcc tatacaacaa ccacaattac actgattgca cttctgaggg cagaagagac 600

aacatgaagt ggtgtgggac cacacagaac tatgatgccg accagaagtt tgggttctgc 660

cccatggctg cccacgagga aatctgcaca accaatgaag gggtcatgta ccgcattgga 720

gatcagtggg ataagcagca tgacatgggt cacatgatga ggtgcacgtg tgttgggaat 780

ggtcgtggag aatggacatg cattgcctac tcgcagcttc gagatcagtg cattgttgat 840

gacatcactt acaatgtgaa cgacacattc cacaagcgtc atgaagaggg gcacatgctg 900

aactgtacat gcttcggtca gggtcggggc aggtggaagt gtgatcccgt cgaccaatgc 960

caggattcag agactgggac gttttatcaa attggagatt catgggagaa gtatgtgcat 1020

ggtgtcagat accagtgcta ctgctatggc cgtggcattg gggagtggca ttgccaacct 1080

ttacagaccc atcatcatca tcatcatgat gctgccgagg atgctgctgg ccaggccctg 1140

cagcaggcgg accacacgtg ggcgacggtg gtgcggcagg gcctggtgga ccgagcccag 1200

cagctcctgg ccaacagcac tgcactagaa gaggccatgc tccaggaaca gcagaggctg 1260

ggccttgtgt gggctgccct ccagggtgcc aggacccagc tccgagatgt ccgggccaag 1320

aaggaccagc tggaggcgca catccaggcg gcgcaggcca tgcttgccat ggacacagac 1380

gagacaagca agaagatcgc acatgccaag gctgtggctg ctgaagccca ggacaccgcc 1440

acccgtgtgc agtcccagct gcaggccatg caggagaatg tggagcggtg gcagggccag 1500

tacgagggcc tgcggggcca ggacctgggc caggcagtgc ttgacgcagg ccactcagtg 1560

tccaccctgg agaagacgct gccccagctg ctggccaagc tgagcatcct ggagaaccgt 1620

ggggtgcaca acgccagcct ggccctgtcc gccagcattg gccgcgtgcg agagctcatt 1680

gcccaggccc ggggggctgc cagtaaggtc aaggtgccca tgaagttcaa cgggcgctca 1740

ggggtgcagc tgcgcacccc acgggatctt gccgaccttg ctgcctacac tgccctcaag 1800

ttctacctgc agggcccaga gcctgagcct gggcagggta ccgaggatcg ctttgtgatg 1860

tacatgggca gccgccaggc cactggggac tacatgggtg tgtctctgcg tgacaagaag 1920

gtgcactggg tgtatcagct gggtgaggcg ggccctgcag tcctaagcat cgatgaggac 1980

attggggagc agttcgcagc tgtcagcctg gacaggactc tccagtttgg ccacatgtcc 2040

gtcacagtgg agagacagat gatccaggaa accaagggtg acacggtggc ccctggggca 2100

gaggggctgc tcaacctgcg gccagacgac ttcgtcttct acgtcggggg gtaccccagt 2160

accttcacgc cccctcccct gcttcgcttc cccggctacc ggggctgcat cgagatggac 2220

acgctgaatg aggaggtggt cagcctctac aacttcgaga ggaccttcca gctggacacg 2280

gctgtggaca ggccttgtgc ccgctccaag tcgaccgggg acccgtggct cacggacggc 2340

tcctacctgg acggcaccgg cttcgcccgc atcagcttcg acagtcagat cagcaccacc 2400

aagcgcttcg agcaggagct gcggctcgtg tcctacagcg gggtgctctt cttcctgaag 2460

cagcagagcc agttcctgtg cttggccgtg caagaaggca gcctcgtgct gttgtatgac 2520

tttggggctg gcctgaaaaa ggccgtccca ctgcagcccc caccgcccct gacctcggcc 2580

agcaaggcga tccaggtgtt cctgctgggg ggcagccgca agcgtgtgct ggtgcgtgtg 2640

gagcgggcca cggtgtacag cgtggagcag gacaatgatc tggagctggc cgacgcctac 2700

tacctggggg gcgtgccgcc cgaccagctg cccccgagcc tgcgacggct cttccccacc 2760

ggaggctcag tccgtggctg cgtcaaaggc atcaaggccc tgggcaagta tgtggacctc 2820

aagcggctga acacgacagg cgtgagcgcc ggctgcaccg ccgacctgct ggtggggcgc 2880

gccatgactt tccatggcca cggcttcctt cgcctggcgc tctcgaacgt ggcaccgctc 2940

actggcaacg tctactccgg cttcggcttc cacagcgccc aggacagtgc cctgctctac 3000

taccgggcgt ccccggatgg gctatgccag gtgtccctgc agcagggccg tgtgagccta 3060

cagctcctga ggactgaagt gaaaactcaa gcgggcttcg ccgatggtgc cccccattac 3120

gtcgccttct acagcaatgc cacgggagtc tggctgtatg tcgatgacca gctccagcag 3180

atgaagcccc accggggacc accccccgag ctccagccgc agcctgaggg gcccccgagg 3240

ctcctcctgg gaggcctgcc tgagtctggc accatttaca acttcagtgg ctgcatcagc 3300

aacgtcttcg tgcagcggct cctgggccca cagcgcgtat ttgatctgca gcagaacctg 3360

ggcagcgtca atgtgagcac gggctgtgca cccgccctgc aagcccagac cccgggcctg 3420

gggcctagag gactgcaggc caccgcccgg aaggcctccc gccgcagccg tcagcccgcc 3480

cggcatcctg cctag 3495

<210> SEQ ID NO: 3

<211> LENGTH: 599

<212> TYPE: PRT

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: Protein expressed by CBD-LN1E8

<400> SEQENCE: 3

Met Glu Thr Asp Thr Leu Leu Leu Trp Val Leu Leu Leu Trp Val Pro

1 5 10 15

Gly Ser Thr Gly Asp Ala Ala Gln Pro Ala Arg Arg Ala Arg Arg Thr

20 25 30

Lys Leu Val Gln Thr Thr Ser Ser Gly Ser Gly Pro Phe Thr Asp Val

35 40 45

Arg Ala Ala Val Tyr Gln Pro Gln Pro His Pro Gln Pro Pro Pro Tyr

50 55 60

Gly His Cys Val Thr Asp Ser Gly Val Val Tyr Ser Val Gly Met Gln

65 70 75 80

Trp Leu Lys Thr Gln Gly Asn Lys Gln Met Leu Cys Thr Cys Leu Gly

85 90 95

Asn Gly Val Ser Cys Gln Glu Thr Ala Val Thr Gln Thr Tyr Gly Gly

100 105 110

Asn Ser Asn Gly Glu Pro Cys Val Leu Pro Phe Thr Tyr Asn Gly Arg

115 120 125

Thr Phe Tyr Ser Cys Thr Thr Glu Gly Arg Gln Asp Gly His Leu Trp

130 135 140

Cys Ser Thr Thr Ser Asn Tyr Glu Gln Asp Gln Lys Tyr Ser Phe Cys

145 150 155 160

Thr Asp His Thr Val Leu Val Gln Thr Arg Gly Gly Asn Ser Asn Gly

165 170 175

Ala Leu Cys His Phe Pro Phe Leu Tyr Asn Asn His Asn Tyr Thr Asp

180 185 190

Cys Thr Ser Glu Gly Arg Arg Asp Asn Met Lys Trp Cys Gly Thr Thr

195 200 205

Gln Asn Tyr Asp Ala Asp Gln Lys Phe Gly Phe Cys Pro Met Ala Ala

210 215 220

His Glu Glu Ile Cys Thr Thr Asn Glu Gly Val Met Tyr Arg Ile Gly

225 230 235 240

Asp Gln Trp Asp Lys Gln His Asp Met Gly His Met Met Arg Cys Thr

245 250 255

Cys Val Gly Asn Gly Arg Gly Glu Trp Thr Cys Ile Ala Tyr Ser Gln

260 265 270

Leu Arg Asp Gln Cys Ile Val Asp Asp Ile Thr Tyr Asn Val Asn Asp

275 280 285

Thr Phe His Lys Arg His Glu Glu Gly His Met Leu Asn Cys Thr Cys

290 295 300

Phe Gly Gln Gly Arg Gly Arg Trp Lys Cys Asp Pro Val Asp Gln Cys

305 310 315 320

Gln Asp Ser Glu Thr Gly Thr Phe Tyr Gln Ile Gly Asp Ser Trp Glu

325 330 335

Lys Tyr Val His Gly Val Arg Tyr Gln Cys Tyr Cys Tyr Gly Arg Gly

340 345 350

Ile Gly Glu Trp His Cys Gln Pro Leu Gln Thr Tyr Pro Tyr Asp Val

355 360 365

Pro Asp Tyr Ala Asp Leu Gln His Ser Ala Ala Asp Ile Ala Arg Ala

370 375 380

Glu Met Leu Leu Glu Glu Ala Lys Arg Ala Ser Lys Ser Ala Thr Asp

385 390 395 400

Val Lys Val Thr Ala Asp Met Val Lys Glu Ala Leu Glu Glu Ala Glu

405 410 415

Lys Ala Gln Val Ala Ala Glu Lys Ala Ile Lys Gln Ala Asp Glu Asp

420 425 430

Ile Gln Gly Thr Gln Asn Leu Leu Thr Ser Ile Glu Ser Glu Thr Ala

435 440 445

Ala Ser Glu Glu Thr Leu Phe Asn Ala Ser Gln Arg Ile Ser Glu Leu

450 455 460

Glu Arg Asn Val Glu Glu Leu Lys Arg Lys Ala Ala Gln Asn Ser Gly

465 470 475 480

Glu Ala Glu Tyr Ile Glu Lys Val Val Tyr Thr Val Lys Gln Ser Ala

485 490 495

Glu Asp Val Lys Lys Thr Leu Asp Gly Glu Leu Asp Glu Lys Tyr Lys

500 505 510

Lys Val Glu Asn Leu Ile Ala Lys Lys Thr Glu Glu Ser Ala Asp Ala

515 520 525

Arg Arg Lys Ala Glu Met Leu Gln Asn Glu Ala Lys Thr Leu Leu Ala

530 535 540

Gln Ala Asn Ser Lys Leu Gln Leu Leu Lys Asp Leu Glu Arg Lys Tyr

545 550 555 560

Glu Asp Asn Gln Arg Tyr Leu Glu Asp Lys Ala Gln Glu Leu Ala Arg

565 570 575

Leu Glu Gly Glu Val Arg Ser Leu Leu Lys Asp Ile Ser Gln Lys Val

580 585 590

Ala Val Tyr Ser Thr Cys Leu

595

<210> SEQ ID NO: 4

<211> LENGTH: 1800

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: DNA of protein expressed by CBD-LN1E8

<400> SEQENCE: 4

atggagacag acacactcct gctatgggta ctgctgctct gggttccagg ttccactggt 60

gacgcggccc agccggccag gcgcgcgcgc cgtacgaagc ttgtgcagac cacatcgagc 120

ggatctggcc ccttcaccga tgttcgtgca gctgtttacc aaccgcagcc tcacccccag 180

cctcctccct atggccactg tgtcacagac agtggtgtgg tctactctgt ggggatgcag 240

tggctgaaga cacaaggaaa taagcaaatg ctttgcacgt gcctgggcaa cggagtcagc 300

tgccaagaga cagctgtaac ccagacttac ggtggcaact caaatggaga gccatgtgtc 360

ttaccattca cctacaatgg caggacgttc tactcctgca ccacagaagg gcgacaggac 420

ggacatcttt ggtgcagcac aacttcgaat tatgagcagg accagaaata ctctttctgc 480

acagaccaca ctgttttggt tcagactcga ggaggaaatt ccaatggtgc cttgtgccac 540

ttccccttcc tatacaacaa ccacaattac actgattgca cttctgaggg cagaagagac 600

aacatgaagt ggtgtgggac cacacagaac tatgatgccg accagaagtt tgggttctgc 660

cccatggctg cccacgagga aatctgcaca accaatgaag gggtcatgta ccgcattgga 720

gatcagtggg ataagcagca tgacatgggt cacatgatga ggtgcacgtg tgttgggaat 780

ggtcgtggag aatggacatg cattgcctac tcgcagcttc gagatcagtg cattgttgat 840

gacatcactt acaatgtgaa cgacacattc cacaagcgtc atgaagaggg gcacatgctg 900

aactgtacat gcttcggtca gggtcggggc aggtggaagt gtgatcccgt cgaccaatgc 960

caggattcag agactgggac gttttatcaa attggagatt catgggagaa gtatgtgcat 1020

ggtgtcagat accagtgcta ctgctatggc cgtggcattg gggagtggca ttgccaacct 1080

ttacagacct atccatatga tgtgccagat tatgcagatc ttcagcatag tgctgctgac 1140

attgccagag ctgagatgtt gttagaagaa gctaaaagag caagcaaaag tgcaacagat 1200

gttaaagtca ctgcagatat ggtaaaggaa gctctggaag aagcagaaaa ggcccaggtc 1260

gcagcagaga aggcaattaa acaagcagat gaagacattc aaggaaccca gaacctgtta 1320

acttcgattg agtctgaaac agcagcttct gaggaaacct tgttcaacgc gtcccagcgc 1380

atcagcgagt tagagaggaa tgtggaagaa cttaagcgga aagctgccca aaactccggg 1440

gaggcagaat atattgaaaa agtagtatat actgtgaagc aaagtgcaga agatgttaag 1500

aagactttag atggtgaact tgatgaaaag tataaaaaag tagaaaattt aattgccaaa 1560

aaaactgaag agtcagctga tgccagaagg aaagccgaaa tgctacaaaa tgaagcaaaa 1620

actcttttag ctcaagcaaa tagcaagctg caactgctca aagatttaga aagaaaatat 1680

gaagacaatc aaagatactt agaagataaa gctcaagaat tagcaagact ggaaggagaa 1740

gtccgttcac tcctaaagga tataagccag aaagttgctg tgtatagcac atgcttgtaa 1800

<210> SEQ ID NO: 5

<211> LENGTH: 618

<212> TYPE: PRT

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: Protein expressed by CBD-LN1E8

<400> SEQENCE: 5

Met Glu Thr Asp Thr Leu Leu Leu Trp Val Leu Leu Leu Trp Val Pro

1 5 10 15

Gly Ser Thr Gly Asp Ala Ala Gln Pro Ala Arg Arg Ala Arg Arg Thr

20 25 30

Lys Leu Val Gln Thr Thr Ser Ser Gly Ser Gly Pro Phe Thr Asp Val

35 40 45

Arg Ala Ala Val Tyr Gln Pro Gln Pro His Pro Gln Pro Pro Pro Tyr

50 55 60

Gly His Cys Val Thr Asp Ser Gly Val Val Tyr Ser Val Gly Met Gln

65 70 75 80

Trp Leu Lys Thr Gln Gly Asn Lys Gln Met Leu Cys Thr Cys Leu Gly

85 90 95

Asn Gly Val Ser Cys Gln Glu Thr Ala Val Thr Gln Thr Tyr Gly Gly

100 105 110

Asn Ser Asn Gly Glu Pro Cys Val Leu Pro Phe Thr Tyr Asn Gly Arg

115 120 125

Thr Phe Tyr Ser Cys Thr Thr Glu Gly Arg Gln Asp Gly His Leu Trp

130 135 140

Cys Ser Thr Thr Ser Asn Tyr Glu Gln Asp Gln Lys Tyr Ser Phe Cys

145 150 155 160

Thr Asp His Thr Val Leu Val Gln Thr Arg Gly Gly Asn Ser Asn Gly

165 170 175

Ala Leu Cys His Phe Pro Phe Leu Tyr Asn Asn His Asn Tyr Thr Asp

180 185 190

Cys Thr Ser Glu Gly Arg Arg Asp Asn Met Lys Trp Cys Gly Thr Thr

195 200 205

Gln Asn Tyr Asp Ala Asp Gln Lys Phe Gly Phe Cys Pro Met Ala Ala

210 215 220

His Glu Glu Ile Cys Thr Thr Asn Glu Gly Val Met Tyr Arg Ile Gly

225 230 235 240

Asp Gln Trp Asp Lys Gln His Asp Met Gly His Met Met Arg Cys Thr

245 250 255

Cys Val Gly Asn Gly Arg Gly Glu Trp Thr Cys Ile Ala Tyr Ser Gln

260 265 270

Leu Arg Asp Gln Cys Ile Val Asp Asp Ile Thr Tyr Asn Val Asn Asp

275 280 285

Thr Phe His Lys Arg His Glu Glu Gly His Met Leu Asn Cys Thr Cys

290 295 300

Phe Gly Gln Gly Arg Gly Arg Trp Lys Cys Asp Pro Val Asp Gln Cys

305 310 315 320

Gln Asp Ser Glu Thr Gly Thr Phe Tyr Gln Ile Gly Asp Ser Trp Glu

325 330 335

Lys Tyr Val His Gly Val Arg Tyr Gln Cys Tyr Cys Tyr Gly Arg Gly

340 345 350

Ile Gly Glu Trp His Cys Gln Pro Leu Gln Thr Asp Tyr Lys Asp Asp

355 360 365

Asp Asp Lys Asp Asn Asp Ile Leu Asn Asn Leu Lys Asp Phe Asp Arg

370 375 380

Arg Val Asn Asp Asn Lys Thr Ala Ala Glu Glu Ala Leu Arg Lys Ile

385 390 395 400

Pro Ala Ile Asn Gln Thr Ile Thr Glu Ala Asn Glu Lys Thr Arg Glu

405 410 415

Ala Gln Gln Ala Leu Gly Ser Ala Ala Ala Asp Ala Thr Glu Ala Lys

420 425 430

Asn Lys Ala His Glu Ala Glu Arg Ile Ala Ser Ala Val Gln Lys Asn

435 440 445

Ala Thr Ser Thr Lys Ala Glu Ala Glu Arg Thr Phe Ala Glu Val Thr

450 455 460

Asp Leu Asp Asn Glu Val Asn Asn Met Leu Lys Gln Leu Gln Glu Ala

465 470 475 480

Glu Lys Glu Leu Lys Arg Lys Gln Asp Asp Ala Asp Gln Asp Met Met

485 490 495

Met Ala Gly Met Ala Ser Gln Ala Ala Gln Glu Ala Glu Ile Asn Ala

500 505 510

Arg Lys Ala Lys Asn Ser Val Thr Ser Leu Leu Ser Ile Ile Asn Asp

515 520 525

Leu Leu Glu Gln Leu Gly Gln Leu Asp Thr Val Asp Leu Asn Lys Leu

530 535 540

Asn Glu Ile Glu Gly Thr Leu Asn Lys Ala Lys Asp Glu Met Lys Val

545 550 555 560

Ser Asp Leu Asp Arg Lys Val Ser Asp Leu Glu Asn Glu Ala Lys Lys

565 570 575

Gln Glu Ala Ala Ile Met Asp Tyr Asn Arg Asp Ile Glu Glu Ile Met

580 585 590

Lys Asp Ile Arg Asn Leu Glu Asp Ile Arg Lys Thr Leu Pro Ser Gly

595 600 605

Cys Phe Asn Thr Pro Ser Ile Glu Lys Pro

610 615

<210> SEQ ID NO: 6

<211> LENGTH: 1857

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: DNA of protein expressed by CBD-LN1E8

<400> SEQENCE: 6

atggagacag acacactcct gctatgggta ctgctgctct gggttccagg ttccactggt 60

gacgcggccc agccggccag gcgcgcgcgc cgtacgaagc ttgtgcagac cacatcgagc 120

ggatctggcc ccttcaccga tgttcgtgca gctgtttacc aaccgcagcc tcacccccag 180

cctcctccct atggccactg tgtcacagac agtggtgtgg tctactctgt ggggatgcag 240

tggctgaaga cacaaggaaa taagcaaatg ctttgcacgt gcctgggcaa cggagtcagc 300

tgccaagaga cagctgtaac ccagacttac ggtggcaact caaatggaga gccatgtgtc 360

ttaccattca cctacaatgg caggacgttc tactcctgca ccacagaagg gcgacaggac 420

ggacatcttt ggtgcagcac aacttcgaat tatgagcagg accagaaata ctctttctgc 480

acagaccaca ctgttttggt tcagactcga ggaggaaatt ccaatggtgc cttgtgccac 540

ttccccttcc tatacaacaa ccacaattac actgattgca cttctgaggg cagaagagac 600

aacatgaagt ggtgtgggac cacacagaac tatgatgccg accagaagtt tgggttctgc 660

cccatggctg cccacgagga aatctgcaca accaatgaag gggtcatgta ccgcattgga 720

gatcagtggg ataagcagca tgacatgggt cacatgatga ggtgcacgtg tgttgggaat 780

ggtcgtggag aatggacatg cattgcctac tcgcagcttc gagatcagtg cattgttgat 840

gacatcactt acaatgtgaa cgacacattc cacaagcgtc atgaagaggg gcacatgctg 900

aactgtacat gcttcggtca gggtcggggc aggtggaagt gtgatcccgt cgaccaatgc 960

caggattcag agactgggac gttttatcaa attggagatt catgggagaa gtatgtgcat 1020

ggtgtcagat accagtgcta ctgctatggc cgtggcattg gggagtggca ttgccaacct 1080

ttacagaccg attacaagga tgatgatgat aaggataatg acattctcaa caacctgaaa 1140

gattttgata ggcgcgtgaa cgataacaag acggccgcag aggaggcact aaggaagatt 1200

cctgccatca accagaccat cactgaagcc aatgaaaaga ccagagaagc ccagcaggcc 1260

ctgggcagtg ctgcggcgga tgccacagag gccaagaaca aggcccatga ggcggagagg 1320

atcgcaagcg ctgtccaaaa gaatgccacc agcaccaagg cagaagctga aagaactttt 1380

gcagaagtta cagatctgga taatgaggtg aacaatatgt tgaagcaact gcaggaagca 1440

gaaaaagagc taaagagaaa acaagatgac gctgaccagg acatgatgat ggcagggatg 1500

gcttcacagg ctgctcaaga agccgagatc aatgccagaa aagccaaaaa ctctgttact 1560

agcctcctca gcattattaa tgacctcttg gagcagctgg ggcagctgga tacagtggac 1620

ctgaataagc taaacgagat tgaaggcacc ctaaacaaag ccaaagatga aatgaaggtc 1680

agcgatcttg ataggaaagt gtctgacctg gagaatgaag ccaagaagca ggaggctgcc 1740

atcatggact ataaccgaga tatcgaggag atcatgaagg acattcgcaa tctggaggac 1800

atcaggaaga ccttaccatc tggctgcttc aacaccccgt ccattgaaaa gccctag 1857

<210> SEQ ID NO: 7

<211> LENGTH: 34

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: Synthetic Primer

<400> SEQENCE: 7

atgatgatgg gcgcgccaag cttatcgata ccgt 34

<210> SEQ ID NO: 8

<211> LENGTH: 25

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: Synthetic Primer

<400> SEQENCE: 8

catcatcatg atatcgaatt cctgc 25

<210> SEQ ID NO: 9

<211> LENGTH: 34

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: Synthetic Primer

<400> SEQENCE: 9

gaggtctata taagcagagc tctctggcta acta 34

<210> SEQ ID NO: 10

<211> LENGTH: 35

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: Synthetic Primer

<400> SEQENCE: 10

cattggcttc atcatgatga tgatgatgat gaagc 35

<210> SEQ ID NO: 11

<211> LENGTH: 609

<212> TYPE: PRT

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: Protein expressed by CBD-LN2E8

<400> SEQENCE: 11

Met Glu Thr Asp Thr Leu Leu Leu Trp Val Leu Leu Leu Trp Val Pro

1 5 10 15

Gly Ser Thr Gly Asp Ala Ala Gln Pro Ala Arg Arg Ala Arg Arg Thr

20 25 30

Lys Leu Val Gln Thr Thr Ser Ser Gly Ser Gly Pro Phe Thr Asp Val

35 40 45

Arg Ala Ala Val Tyr Gln Pro Gln Pro His Pro Gln Pro Pro Pro Tyr

50 55 60

Gly His Cys Val Thr Asp Ser Gly Val Val Tyr Ser Val Gly Met Gln

65 70 75 80

Trp Leu Lys Thr Gln Gly Asn Lys Gln Met Leu Cys Thr Cys Leu Gly

85 90 95

Asn Gly Val Ser Cys Gln Glu Thr Ala Val Thr Gln Thr Tyr Gly Gly

100 105 110

Asn Ser Asn Gly Glu Pro Cys Val Leu Pro Phe Thr Tyr Asn Gly Arg

115 120 125

Thr Phe Tyr Ser Cys Thr Thr Glu Gly Arg Gln Asp Gly His Leu Trp

130 135 140

Cys Ser Thr Thr Ser Asn Tyr Glu Gln Asp Gln Lys Tyr Ser Phe Cys

145 150 155 160

Thr Asp His Thr Val Leu Val Gln Thr Arg Gly Gly Asn Ser Asn Gly

165 170 175

Ala Leu Cys His Phe Pro Phe Leu Tyr Asn Asn His Asn Tyr Thr Asp

180 185 190

Cys Thr Ser Glu Gly Arg Arg Asp Asn Met Lys Trp Cys Gly Thr Thr

195 200 205

Gln Asn Tyr Asp Ala Asp Gln Lys Phe Gly Phe Cys Pro Met Ala Ala

210 215 220

His Glu Glu Ile Cys Thr Thr Asn Glu Gly Val Met Tyr Arg Ile Gly

225 230 235 240

Asp Gln Trp Asp Lys Gln His Asp Met Gly His Met Met Arg Cys Thr

245 250 255

Cys Val Gly Asn Gly Arg Gly Glu Trp Thr Cys Ile Ala Tyr Ser Gln

260 265 270

Leu Arg Asp Gln Cys Ile Val Asp Asp Ile Thr Tyr Asn Val Asn Asp

275 280 285

Thr Phe His Lys Arg His Glu Glu Gly His Met Leu Asn Cys Thr Cys

290 295 300

Phe Gly Gln Gly Arg Gly Arg Trp Lys Cys Asp Pro Val Asp Gln Cys

305 310 315 320

Gln Asp Ser Glu Thr Gly Thr Phe Tyr Gln Ile Gly Asp Ser Trp Glu

325 330 335

Lys Tyr Val His Gly Val Arg Tyr Gln Cys Tyr Cys Tyr Gly Arg Gly

340 345 350

Ile Gly Glu Trp His Cys Gln Pro Leu Gln Thr Tyr Pro Tyr Asp Val

355 360 365

Pro Asp Tyr Ala Asp Tyr Pro Tyr Asp Val Pro Asp Tyr Ala Asp Leu

370 375 380

Ala Arg Thr Val Gly Asp Val Arg Arg Ala Glu Gln Leu Leu Gln Asp

385 390 395 400

Ala Arg Arg Ala Arg Ser Trp Ala Glu Asp Glu Lys Gln Lys Ala Glu

405 410 415

Thr Val Gln Ala Ala Leu Glu Glu Ala Gln Arg Ala Gln Gly Ile Ala

420 425 430

Gln Gly Ala Ile Arg Gly Ala Val Ala Asp Thr Arg Asp Thr Glu Gln

435 440 445

Thr Leu Tyr Gln Val Gln Glu Arg Met Ala Gly Ala Glu Arg Ala Leu

450 455 460

Ser Ser Ala Gly Glu Arg Ala Arg Gln Leu Asp Ala Leu Leu Glu Ala

465 470 475 480

Leu Lys Leu Lys Arg Ala Gly Asn Ser Leu Ala Ala Ser Thr Ala Glu

485 490 495

Glu Thr Ala Gly Ser Ala Gln Gly Arg Ala Gln Glu Ala Glu Gln Leu

500 505 510

Leu Arg Gly Pro Leu Gly Asp Gln Tyr Gln Thr Val Lys Ala Leu Ala

515 520 525

Glu Arg Lys Ala Gln Gly Val Leu Ala Ala Gln Ala Arg Ala Glu Gln

530 535 540

Leu Arg Asp Glu Ala Arg Asp Leu Leu Gln Ala Ala Gln Asp Lys Leu

545 550 555 560

Gln Arg Leu Gln Glu Leu Glu Gly Thr Tyr Glu Glu Asn Glu Arg Ala

565 570 575

Leu Glu Ser Lys Ala Ala Gln Leu Asp Gly Leu Glu Ala Arg Met Arg

580 585 590

Ser Val Leu Gln Ala Ile Asn Leu Gln Val Gln Ile Tyr Asn Thr Cys

595 600 605

Gln

<210> SEQ ID NO: 12

<211> LENGTH: 1830

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: DNA of protein expressed by CBD-LN2E8

<400> SEQENCE: 12

atggagacag acacactcct gctatgggta ctgctgctct gggttccagg ttccactggt 60

gacgcggccc agccggccag gcgcgcgcgc cgtacgaagc ttgtgcagac cacatcgagc 120

ggatctggcc ccttcaccga tgttcgtgca gctgtttacc aaccgcagcc tcacccccag 180

cctcctccct atggccactg tgtcacagac agtggtgtgg tctactctgt ggggatgcag 240

tggctgaaga cacaaggaaa taagcaaatg ctttgcacgt gcctgggcaa cggagtcagc 300

tgccaagaga cagctgtaac ccagacttac ggtggcaact caaatggaga gccatgtgtc 360

ttaccattca cctacaatgg caggacgttc tactcctgca ccacagaagg gcgacaggac 420

ggacatcttt ggtgcagcac aacttcgaat tatgagcagg accagaaata ctctttctgc 480

acagaccaca ctgttttggt tcagactcga ggaggaaatt ccaatggtgc cttgtgccac 540

ttccccttcc tatacaacaa ccacaattac actgattgca cttctgaggg cagaagagac 600

aacatgaagt ggtgtgggac cacacagaac tatgatgccg accagaagtt tgggttctgc 660

cccatggctg cccacgagga aatctgcaca accaatgaag gggtcatgta ccgcattgga 720

gatcagtggg ataagcagca tgacatgggt cacatgatga ggtgcacgtg tgttgggaat 780

ggtcgtggag aatggacatg cattgcctac tcgcagcttc gagatcagtg cattgttgat 840

gacatcactt acaatgtgaa cgacacattc cacaagcgtc atgaagaggg gcacatgctg 900

aactgtacat gcttcggtca gggtcggggc aggtggaagt gtgatcccgt cgaccaatgc 960

caggattcag agactgggac gttttatcaa attggagatt catgggagaa gtatgtgcat 1020

ggtgtcagat accagtgcta ctgctatggc cgtggcattg gggagtggca ttgccaacct 1080

ttacagacct atccatatga tgtgccagat tatgcagatt atccatatga tgtgccagat 1140

tatgcagatc tggcacgtac tgtaggagat gtgcgtcgtg ccgagcagct actgcaggat 1200

gcacggcggg caaggagctg ggctgaggat gagaaacaga aggcagagac agtacaggca 1260

gcactggagg aggcccagcg ggcacagggt attgcccagg gtgccatccg gggggcagtg 1320

gctgacacac gggacacaga gcagaccctg taccaggtac aggagaggat ggcaggtgca 1380

gagcgggcac tgagctctgc aggtgaaagg gctcggcagt tggatgctct cctggaggct 1440

ctgaaattga aacgggcagg aaatagtctg gcagcctcta cagcagaaga aacggcaggc 1500

agtgcccagg gtcgtgccca ggaggctgag cagctgctac gcggtcctct gggtgatcag 1560

taccagacgg tgaaggccct agctgagcgc aaggcccaag gtgtgctggc tgcacaggca 1620

agggcagaac aactgcggga tgaggctcgg gacctgttgc aagccgctca ggacaagctg 1680

cagcggctac aggaattgga aggcacctat gaggaaaatg agcgggcact ggagagtaag 1740

gcagcccagt tggacgggtt ggaggccagg atgcgcagcg tgcttcaagc catcaacttg 1800

caggtgcaga tctacaacac ctgccagtga 1830

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Patent Valuation

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26.0/100 Score

Market Attractiveness

It shows from an IP point of view how many competitors are active and innovations are made in the different technical fields of the company. On a company level, the market attractiveness is often also an indicator of how diversified a company is. Here we look into the commercial relevance of the market.

53.0/100 Score

Market Coverage

It shows the sizes of the market that is covered with the IP and in how many countries the IP guarantees protection. It reflects a market size that is potentially addressable with the invented technology/formulation with a legal protection which also includes a freedom to operate. Here we look into the size of the impacted market.

71.9/100 Score

Technology Quality

It shows the degree of innovation that can be derived from a company’s IP. Here we look into ease of detection, ability to design around and significance of the patented feature to the product/service.

59.0/100 Score

Assignee Score

It takes the R&D behavior of the company itself into account that results in IP. During the invention phase, larger companies are considered to assign a higher R&D budget on a certain technology field, these companies have a better influence on their market, on what is marketable and what might lead to a standard.

20.96/100 Score

Legal Score

It shows the legal strength of IP in terms of its degree of protecting effect. Here we look into claim scope, claim breadth, claim quality, stability and priority.

Citation

Patents Cited in This Cited by
Title Current Assignee Application Date Publication Date
Modified laminin and use thereof OSAKA UNIVERSITY,KYOTO UNIVERSITY 09 April 2012 08 May 2014
Implantable hyaluronic acid/collagen compositions ALLERGAN, INC. 06 September 2012 09 May 2013
Analyte detection using barcoded polymers U.S. GENOMICS, INC. 27 February 2006 27 August 2009
Procollagens THE VICTORIA UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER 30 August 1996 09 January 2001
Lipidated glycoprotein particles and methods of use RAMOT AT TEL-AVIV UNIVERSITY LTD. 08 July 2005 22 January 2009
See full citation <>

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US10000554 Modified laminin collagen binding 1 US10000554 Modified laminin collagen binding 2 US10000554 Modified laminin collagen binding 3