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Patent Analysis of

Prevention and diagnosis of visceral fat

Updated Time 12 June 2019

Patent Registration Data

Publication Number

US10000818

Application Number

US14/350957

Application Date

12 October 2012

Publication Date

19 June 2018

Current Assignee

GUT GUIDE OY

Original Assignee (Applicant)

GUT GUIDE OY

International Classification

C12Q1/68,A61K35/745,A61K31/702,A61K45/06,A61K35/747

Cooperative Classification

C12Q1/689,A23L33/135,A61K35/747,A61K35/745,A61K35/744

Inventor

MAYRA-MAKINEN, ANNIKA,MUNUKKA, EVELIINA

Abstract

The invention is based on a correlation observed between visceral fat and gut flora. The invention relates to a product increasing the relative proportion of bifidobacteria in the intestines and to be used for preventing formation of visceral fat or for reducing the amount thereof in the body. In particular, the product increases the ratio of bifidobacteria to Clostridia. The invention also relates to determining visceral fat in the body by determining the relative proportion of bifidobacteria or Clostridia or their ratio to each other in the intestines. The invention further relates to a method for estimating, in the same manner, the health risk associated with obesity.

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Claims

1. A method for determining visceral fat area in the body, comprising: a) determining in vitro the percentual proportions of bifidobacteria, F. prausnitzii, and clostridia in the intestines, wherein the determining is based on 16S rRNA hybridization, DNA staining and flow cytometry, b) calculating a ratio by dividing of the sum of the percentual proportions of bifidobacteria and F. prausnitzii by the percentual proportion of clostridia, and c) determining the visceral fat area in the body from the calculated ratio wherein the ratio of >2 represents a phenotype with a lower visceral fat area, than a ratio <2 which represents a phenotype with a higher visceral fat area.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the clostridia are non-pathogenic clostridia of the group XIVa.

3. The method according to claim 1, comprising determining in vitro the percentual proportions of bifidobacteria, F. prausnitzii, and clostridia in fecal microbiota, calculating a ratio by dividing of the sum of the percentual proportions of bifidobacteria and F. prausnitzii by the percentual proportion of clostridia, and further determining the health risk associated with obesity on the basis of the calculated ratio such that wherein the higher the ratio the lower the health risk.

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Claim Tree

  • 1
    1. A method for determining visceral fat area in the body, comprising:
    • a) determining in vitro the percentual proportions of bifidobacteria, F. prausnitzii, and clostridia in the intestines, wherein the determining is based on 16S rRNA hybridization, DNA staining and flow cytometry,
    • b) calculating a ratio by dividing of the sum of the percentual proportions of bifidobacteria and F. prausnitzii by the percentual proportion of clostridia, and
    • c) determining the visceral fat area in the body from the calculated ratio wherein the ratio of >2 represents a phenotype with a lower visceral fat area, than a ratio <2 which represents a phenotype with a higher visceral fat area.
    • 2. The method according to claim 1, wherein
      • the clostridia are non-pathogenic clostridia of the group XIVa.
    • 3. The method according to claim 1, comprising
      • determining in vitro the percentual proportions of bifidobacteria, F. prausnitzii, and clostridia in fecal microbiota, calculating a ratio by dividing of the sum of the percentual proportions of bifidobacteria and F. prausnitzii by the percentual proportion of clostridia, and further determining the health risk associated with obesity on the basis of the calculated ratio such that wherein the higher the ratio the lower the health risk.
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Description

RELATED APPLICATION DATA

This application is a National Stage Application under 35 U.S.C. 371 of co-pending PCT application PCT/FI2012/050979 designating the United States and filed Oct. 12, 2012; which claims the benefit of FI application number 20116008 and filed Oct. 12, 2011 each of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entireties.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to visceral fat and to the health risk associated therewith. More precisely, the invention relates to a product to be used for preventing and reducing visceral fat formation in the body. The invention also relates to a method for determining visceral fat in the body and for estimating the health risk associated with an obesity-related disease.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Overweight and the related diseases have increased over the past few decades like an epidemic in all western countries. What is particularly worrying is an increase in obesity in children and young people.

The obesity epidemic is partly explained by the imbalance between energy intake and energy consumption in the present-day society; in other words, we get more calories from the food that we eat than we consume. The reasons for becoming overweight are diverse: the diet and the small amount of exercise are essential factors, but partially overweight has been regarded as hereditary whereas in some cases it has been related to disorders of hormonal action and to some diseases. Over the past few years, the possible role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity has been researched (Bäckhed F, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004; 101:15718-15723).

The composition of gut microbiota has been demonstrated to have numerous effects on the wellbeing and health of the host (Hooper L. V., Gordon J. I., Science 2001; 292: 1115-8; and Bäckhed, F. et al. 2005. Science 307, 1915-1920). It has been proven that in both test animals and humans there are differences in the microbiota composition of normal and overweight individuals and that the gut microbiota has an effect on the nutrient supply and energy regulation of the host (Backhed F et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004; 101: 15718-15723, Ley R E et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2005; 102: 11070-11075, Ley R E et al. Nature 2006; 444: 1022-1023, Cani P D et al., Diabetes 2008; 57: 1470-1481, Turnbaugh P J et al. Nature 2006; 444: 1027-1031, and Turnbaugh P J et al. Nature 2009; 457: 480-484). On the basis of these research results, it can be assumed that gut microbes are significant to weight control and development of overweight. Thus, modifying gut microbiota could, in the future, be a novel method for preventing and treating overweight, and it would naturally also be significant to public health.

Rats were fed on bifidobacteria, the effect of which on their weight was monitored. The results were conflicting in the sense that after the first week, the weight gain of the rats having received bifidobacteria was smaller than that of the control rats but after another week it was greater (Desbonnet L et al. J Psychiatr Res. 2008; 43: 164-174). A disadvantage of animal testing is that the results are not directly applicable to humans. Use of probiotic bacteria has, however, been suggested for promoting development of early bifidogenic gut microbiota in order to reduce the risk of overweight or obesity in small children later in life (EP 1 974 734).

A weak point in studies in the field is usually that they focus on the body weight or, with humans, possibly on the body mass index (BMI), which is the body mass (kg) divided by the square of the height (m). These are, however, unreliable in the estimation of obesity-related health risks. Obesity or overweight harmful to the health of humans and most animals is not dependent on the body weight but on the amount of fat. There is adipose tissue under the skin, around internal organs and in bone marrow, muscles and breast tissue. The fat around internal organs is called visceral fat, and it differs from both subcutaneous fat and fat in muscles. There is visceral fat in the abdominal cavity, for example around the abdomen, liver, intestines and kidneys. It is known that excessive visceral fat correlates intensely with many serious diseases whereas subcutaneous fat does not. It has even been suggested that subcutaneous fat might have a protective effect.

It becomes apparent from the above that when looking for obesity-preventing products, it is desirable to find products that affect specifically visceral fat. Conventionally, formation of visceral fat has been attacked by diet and exercise. The present invention now provides a novel manner for avoiding visceral fat and the related health risk. Visceral fat is usually determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which requires both special equipment and special know-how. The present invention now provides a simpler and less expensive manner for determining it.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The invention is based on the finding that the relative proportion of bifidobacteria in the intestines correlates negatively with visceral fat. In particular, it was noted that the ratio of bifidobacteria to clostridia correlates negatively to visceral fat, whereas the relative proportion of clostridia in the intestines correlates positively with visceral fat. Further, the invention is based on the finding that the ratio of the total amount of bifidobacteria and F. prausnitzii, which are included in the normal flora in the intestines, to the amount of non-pathogenic clostridia in the intestines correlates negatively with the amount of visceral fat. The above correlations enable diagnostic methods for determining visceral fat or for estimating the obesity-related health risk by determining the relative proportion of bifidobacteria to clostridia, or their ratio to each other in the intestines.

The invention relates to a product which increases the relative proportion of bifidobacteria in the intestines and is to be used for preventing formation of visceral fat or for reducing the amount thereof in the body. The invention also relates to a product which increases the ratio of bifidobacteria to clostridia in the intestines and is to be used for preventing formation of visceral fat or for reducing the amount thereof in the body. The invention particularly relates to a product which increases the ratio of the total amount of bifidobacteria and F. prausnitzii to non-pathogenic clostridia in the intestines and is to be used for preventing formation of visceral fat or for reducing the amount thereof in the body.

The invention further relates to a method for determining visceral fat in the body, the method comprising determining in vitro the relative proportion of bifidobacteria in the intestines, whereby the relative proportion of bifidobacteria in the intestines correlates negatively with visceral fat. The invention also relates to a method for determining visceral fat in the body, comprising determining in vitro the ratio of bifidobacteria to clostridia in the intestines, whereby the ratio of bifidobacteria to clostridia correlates negatively with visceral fat. Particularly, the invention relates to a method for determining visceral fat in the body, comprising determining in vitro the ratio of the total amount of bifidobacteria and F. prausnitzii to clostridia in the intestines, whereby the ratio of the total amount of bifidobacteria and F. prausnitzii to clostridia correlates negatively with visceral fat. The invention further relates to a method for determining visceral fat in the body, the method comprising determining in vitro the relative proportion of clostridia in the intestines, whereby the relative proportion of clostridia in the intestines correlates positively with visceral fat.

The invention further relates to a method for estimating the health risk associated with obesity, the method comprising determining in vitro the relative proportion of bifidobacteria in the intestines, whereby the proportion of bifidobacteria correlates negatively with the health risk. The invention further relates to a method for estimating the health risk associated with obesity, the method comprising determining in vitro the ratio of bifidobacteria to clostridia in the intestines, whereby the ratio correlates negatively with the health risk. Furthermore, the invention relates to a method for estimating the health risk associated with obesity, the method comprising determining in vitro the relative proportion of clostridia in the intestines, whereby the relative proportion of clostridia correlates positively with the health risk.

Further, a method is disclosed for preventing formation of visceral fat and for reducing the amount thereof in the body, the method comprising administering an effective amount of a product that increases the relative proportion of bifidobacteria in the intestines to a subject in need of such treatment.

Preferred embodiments of the invention are disclosed in the dependent claims.

One of the advantages of the product used in accordance with the invention is that it is natural and safe. An advantage of the methods according to the invention is that they can be easily implemented without expensive devices or special know-how.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

“The relative proportion of bifidobacteria” refers to the ratio of bifidobacteria to other bacteria in the intestines, normally to the total bacteria and particularly to clostridia. The product according to the invention, to be used for preventing or reducing formation of visceral fat, is capable of increasing the relative proportion of bifidobacteria in the total bacteria in the intestines. In particular, it is capable of increasing the ratio of bifidobacteria to clostridia in the intestines. Even more particularly, it is capable of increasing the ratio of the total amount of bifidobacteria and F. prausnitzii to clostridia in the intestines. It may also have a decreasing effect on the relative proportion of clostridia to the total bacteria in the intestines.

The product increasing the relative proportion of bidifobacteria in the intestines may be selected from a group consisting of bifidobacteria, prebiotics, bifidobacteria+prebiotics, a product stimulating bifidobacteria, and any combination of these. Bifidobacteria are preferably selected from strains used as probiotics, such as Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium infantis and, for example, strains Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 and Bifidobacterium lactis B1. “A probiotic” is a microbe or a component thereof that has a positive effect on the health of the host. Usually it is a live microbe. “A prebiotic” is a component which is usually a carbohydrate (an oligo- or polysaccharide) and which has a selective promoting effect on the growth or activity of one or more bacterial strains in the colon. A prebiotic is preferably a fructo- or galacto-oligosaccharide, fibre, particularly cereal fibre, such as b-glucan of oat, poly-dextrose, special sugar, such as isomaltulose, or for example a fatty acid, such as omega-3 fatty acid, or any mixture of these. The product increasing the relative proportion of bifidobacteria preferably contains both bifidobacteria and prebiotics. The product stimulating bifidobacteria may be a product containing propionic acid bacteria, such as Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Propionibacterium shermanii, and/or lactobasilli, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei or Lactobacillus lactis.

According to an embodiment, the product of the invention is of the type increasing the ratio of the total amount of bifidobacteria and F. prausnitzii to clostridia in the intestines, such as lactic acid bacteria shown to inhibit the growth of clostridia, such as lactobacilli, for example certain Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei strains.

The above-described bacteria and/or prebiotics and/or other active substances affecting the gut flora may be administered mixed in food or drink, for example, or separately in the form of a capsule, granulate, powder or liquid, for example. In other words, the product described here may be in the form of a food, drink, capsule, granulate, powder or liquid containing substances acting on the gut flora. “An effective amount” of a product acting on the gut flora refers to an amount sufficient for changing the relative proportion of bifidobacteria or clostridia in the intestines and, in particular, the ratio of bifidobacteria to clostridia.

The above product may be used for preventing formation of visceral fat or for reducing the amount thereof in the body. In this way, health risks or cosmetic handicaps related to visceral fat can be prevented or reduced. In this context, “visceral fat” means adipose tissue formed on surfaces of internal organs in the abdominal cavity. The most reliable way to determine it is MRI. Thus, the product preventing formation of visceral fat or reducing the amount thereof can be used for preventing diseases related particularly to visceral fat, such as for preventing or treating metabolic syndrome, adult-onset diabetes or arterial hypertension.

The amount of visceral fat in the body and the obesity-related health risk are determined indirectly by analysing the microbiota in the body. More specifically, the relative proportion of bifidobacteria or clostridia in the intestines can be determined from the total bacteria in the intestines and, in particular, the ratio of bifidobacteria to clostridia is determined. This ratio is here referred to as the “MOODindex” and it is obtained by dividing the relative proportion of bifidobacteria by the relative proportion of clostridia. The MOODindex produces the best correlations.

The expression “correlates negatively” means that when one variable increases, another one decreases, while “correlates positively” means that when one variable increases, another one increases as well, and vice versa. Thus, the higher the relative proportion of bifidobacteria or particularly the MOODindex in a subject is, the less visceral fat he/she has (negative correlation). Correspondingly, the higher the relative proportion of clostridia, the more visceral fat there is in the body (positive correlation). Correspondingly, the higher a person's relative proportion of bifidobacteria or particularly his/her MOODindex is, the smaller is his/her risk of getting a disease associated with obesity (negative correlation). Further, the higher a person's relative proportion of clostridia is, the higher is his/her risk of getting a disease associated with obesity (positive correlation).

Gut microbiota is an extremely complex ecosystem (50 to 100 species, in total more than 1014 bacteria). A change in the percentual proportion of one bacteria group for instance during a diet or a probiotic intervention inevitably also changes the percentual proportions of other bacteria groups significant to health. For this reason, it is important to deal not only with the change in individual bacteria groups but also with the change in the whole system. In the present invention, the composition of the bacterial system is represented by a VF index that was observed to be negatively associated with the amount of visceral fat.

The VF index is a simple and understandable parameter representing the composition of gut microbiota. It is calculated from the percentual proportions of three bacteria groups and genera significant to health, i.e. by dividing the sum of the amount of bifidobacteria and F. prausnitzii in a sample by the amount of clostridia XIVa. Balance between these three bacteria groups is important with respect to health and wellbeing. The VF index can be used for representing a favourable change in the composition of the gut bacteria for instance when a person is slimming.

By means of the VF index, a customized probiotic and/or prebiotic intervention aiming at reducing the amount of visceral fat and slimming can be planned for the person. In an embodiment of this invention, the value 2.9 of the VF index represents a phenotype with a low visceral fat area (VFA), and the value 1.5, in turn, represents a phenotype with a large amount of visceral fat.

Normally a fecal sample of the subject is examined to quantitatively determine the bifidobacteria, clostridia and/or total bacteria by methods known per se. Bifidobacteria and clostridia are well known, taxonomically identifiable bacteria groups. “Bifidobacteria” are gram-positive, immobile anaerobic bacteria that appear in the digestive tract (and belong to the Bifidobacteriaceae family and particularly to the Bifidobacterium genus). “Clostridia” are spore-forming, gram-positive anaerobic bacteria (belonging to the Clostridia class), which includes Clostridium and Eubacterium genera, for example. In the context of the invention, clostridia are particularly clostridia included in the normal flora and belonging to the non-pathogenic clostridia group XIVa. F. prausnitzii is included in the normal gut microbiota in a healthy adult as one of the most numerous representatives of this microbiota. Preferably, the proportion of bifidobacteria, F. prausnitzii and/or clostridia in the total bacteria and/or the ratio of bifidobacteria to clostridia is determined by a method based on 16S rRNA hybridisation, DNA staining and flow cytometry (FCM-FISH), which allows different gut bacteria groups to be determined rapidly and reliably.

“A subject” in this context refers to an animal, particularly a mammal, including man. Preferably the subject is a person.

Example 1

Research Material and Methods

Fecal samples were collected from 57 Finnish basically healthy adults (19 men, 38 women). The samples were stored frozen and the bacteria were isolated from them using the method described previously (Vaahtovuo J et al. J Microbiol Methods. 2005; 63:276-286). The bacteria were fixed and the amounts of total bacteria (number per gram of dry matter) were determined from the samples, and also, the following six bacteria groups or genera significant to health and wellbeing were determined from them: bifidobacteria, Bacteroides, enteric group, Atopobium, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Clostridium XIVa, which means a cluster of clostridia XIVa, i.e. also known as the Erec group (Franks et al. 1998, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 3336-3345). All of the above bacteria groups are, in the light of present knowledge, part of what is called normal microbiota in a human. The determination was made using a patented method based on 16 S rRNA hybridisation, DNA staining and flow cytometry (FCM-FISH) (Vaahtovuo J et al. 2005 supra and WO2004/015421). In addition, the dry matter percentage of the samples was determined.

The body compositions of the test persons were determined by a method based on bioimpedance and by MRI, in which the surface area of visceral fat in the abdominal area is calculated from an image by computer tomography. The test persons filled in questionnaires on their way of life, medical history and medications, if any, and on physical activity. They also kept a food diary for three days. The fecal samples of two test persons had to be discarded from the material due to chronic bowel diseases.

Correlations between different variables were determined by using Pearson's correlation factor.

Results

Table 1 shows the basic data determined on the test persons in the study. In table 1 the test persons are grouped according to gender. Men were older and naturally also heavier than women. In contrast, the women had a higher fat percentage than the men.


TABLE 1
Basic data on the test persons (average, SD in parentheses)
Men
Women
T test
Age
52
(4)
36
(6)
***, p = 0.001
Weight (kg)
84
(12)
69
(13)
***, p < 0.001
Waistline (cm)
97
(10)
84
(13)
***, p < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2)
27.1
(4.1)
24.7
(4.6)
p = 0.066
Fat percentage
28
(7)
36
(10)
***, p = 0.002
Blood pressure
135/80
(12/9)
127/77
(16/10)
p = 0.051/0.208
(mmHg)

Table 2 shows the average values for dry matter content in feces as well as the relative proportions of different bacteria groups determined by FCM-FISH.


TABLE 2
Analyses of fecal samples (average, SD in parentheses)
Men
Women
T test
Dry matter in
24
(7)
27
(8)
p = 0.189
feces (%)
Bifidobacteria (%)
4.4
(2.9)
5.6
(5.3)
p = 0.915
Bacteroides (%)
3.6
(2.6)
2.9
(1.2)
p = 0.352
Enteric group (%)
0.4
(0.2)
0.8
(1.3)
***, p = 0.007
Atopobium (%)
3.7
(2.3)
3.5
(17)
p = 0.826
F. prausnitzii (%)
10.1
(4.8)
6.9
(4.1)
*, p = 0.012
Clostridium XIVa
12.4
(8.7)
8.5
(7.7)
p = 0.054

In the study, it was observed that visceral fat correlates positively with the relative proportion of the Clostridium XIVa group (p=0.002), while a clear negative trend was observed with the relative proportion of bifidobacteria (p=0.098). In addition, what is called a MOODindex was calculated for each sample, i.e. the relative proportion of bifidobacteria was divided by the relative proportion of clostridia (Clostridium XIVa). Between the MOODindex and visceral fat the correlation was negative (p=0.002). The results are shown in Table 3.


TABLE 3
Correlations, the entire material
Bifidobacteria (%)
Clostridium XIVa (%)
MOODindex
Visceral
neg. r,
mod. pos. r,
mod. neg. r,
Fat (%)
p = 0.098
p = 0.002**
p = 0.002**

Age and gender may affect the results. Statistical analyses were also carried out on a material consisting only of women (n=38, Table 2). In the material consisting only of women, visceral fat correlated negatively with the MOODindex (p=0.011) and almost significantly with bifidobacteria (p=0.066). A positive, significant correlation was observed between the Clostridium XIVa group and visceral fat (p=0.033). The results are shown in Table 4.


TABLE 4
Correlations, women
Bifidobacteria (%)
Clostridium XIVa (%)
MOODindex
Visceral
mod. neg.
mod. pos. r,
mod. neg. r,
Fat (%)
p = 0.066*
p = 0.033*
p = 0.011*

Example 2. Visceral Fat Index (VF Index)

From the research material described in Example 1, the amounts of total bacteria (number/g of dry matter in feces) and the proportions of certain gut bacteria groups and genera (% of total bacteria) were determined with the method described in Example 1.

The material was divided into tertiles with respect to the visceral fat area (VFA):

    • Group I (<33.3%)
    • Group II (>33.3% and <66.6%)
    • Group III (>66.6%)

From the microbiota results, what is called a visceral fat index (VFI) was calculated by dividing the sum of the amount of bifidobacteria and F. prausnitzii in a sample by the amount of clostridium XIVa. The VF index was calculated for each sample from the relative (%) proportions. The results are shown in Table 5.


TABLE 5
Amounts of total bacteria (g/dry matter), and percentages
and amounts of different bacteria groups and genera
Group II
Group I,
49.2 cm2
Group III
VFA <
VFA <
VFA >
P
49.2 cm2
91.1 cm2
91.1 cm2
I vs III
Total bacteria
2.8 · 1011
2.0 · 1011
2.5 · 1011
0.461
Bifidobacterium (%)
5.8
5.8
4.0
0.487
Clostridium XIV a (%)
5.9
10.1 
13.9 
0.021
F. prausnitzii (%)
6.0
8.6
8.2
0.100
Bididobacterium
1.5 · 1010
1.3 · 1010
1.1 · 1010
0.750
Clostridium XIVa
1.5 · 1010
2.0 · 1010
3.2 · 1010
0.001
VF Index*
2.9
2.0
1.5
0.071
*The index was calculated for each sample, i.e. the figure in the column is the average of the indices of all samples of the group.
The P value between groups I and III was calculated by using Student's T test.

A statistically significant difference between group III (high VFA) and group 1 (low VFA) in both the relative proportions and the amounts of clostridium XIVa as well as a trend in the VF index were observed in the study. Thus, on the basis of this material, the compositions of the gut microbiota in persons with a high and a low VFA, respectively, differ from each other.

The correlations between the amount of visceral fat (Visceral Fat Area, VFA) and the bacteria results (percentages and index) were calculated from the whole material by using Pearson's correlation factor (Table 6).


TABLE 6
The correlations between the amount of visceral fat (Visceral Fat
Area, VFA) and the bacteria results (percentages and VF index)
Visceral fat (VFA)
p value
Total bacteria
0.238
0.157
Bifidos (%)
0.249
0.099
Clostridium XIVa (%)
0.515
<0.001  
F. prausnitzii (%)
0.268
0.079
VF index
0.395
0008

A significant, negative correlation (**, 0.008) was observed between the amount of visceral fat (VFA) and the VF index in this material. Between the clostridium XIVa group there was a moderate positive correlation (**, <0.001).

Example 3. Intervention

Five healthy, slightly overweight or overweight Finnish women participated in an intervention where the composition of their gut microbiota was analysed before and after a probiotic (Cell Biotech) and/or prebiotic (glucomannan) intervention.

The probiotic powder used in the study contained >1.0*10^9 live bacteria/g. The probiotic powder consists of strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium breve ja Bifidobacterium infantis.

During the test, the test persons had one bag (1 g) of probiotic powder a day, mixed in, for example, yoghurt, sour whole milk (viili), quark or cold liquid. The dose of glucomannan was 3 g a day (3×1 g) as capsules. Table 7 shows the results of the intervention.


TABLE 7
Bifidos (%)
XIVa (%)
F. prausnitzii
VF index
Person
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
I
6.5
1.8
6.8
15.9
7.0
4.4
2.0
0.4
II
8.3
4.5
18.8
10.3
7.7
14.4
0.85
1.8
III
4.8
5.8
6.2
5.8
11.7
11.4
2.7
3.0
IV
12.7
9.1
33.3
22.6
12.4
5.6
0.75
0.65
V
1.7
13.4
22.0
13.4
10.2
5.0
0.54
1.4

The VF indices of two test persons (II and V) increased a lot during the test period. Both participated in the probiotic intervention. By contrast, the VF index of person I decreased during the probiotic intervention. Person I reported having had a low-carbohydrate diet for a few days before giving the Post sample. Such a heavy form of diet presumably affected the results. Test person III shows a slight increase in the index. On the other hand, the index was on a good level (2.7) already in the initial situation. The VF index of test person IV remained practically the same for the whole of the study period. The person suffered from inexplicable stomach upsets during the study period. Test persons I, II and V had only probiotic while III and IV had probiotic+glucomannan.

It was observed in the study that there was a connection between the composition of the gut microbiota and the amount of visceral fat. Further, it can be noted that the probiotic intervention described in the study allows the composition of the gut microbiota and through that also the visceral fat in the body to be affected.

It will be apparent to a person skilled in the art that as technology advances, the basic idea of the invention may be implemented in many different ways. The invention and its embodiments are thus not restricted to the examples described above but may vary within the scope of the claims.

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41.0/100 Score

Assignee Score

It takes the R&D behavior of the company itself into account that results in IP. During the invention phase, larger companies are considered to assign a higher R&D budget on a certain technology field, these companies have a better influence on their market, on what is marketable and what might lead to a standard.

24.53/100 Score

Legal Score

It shows the legal strength of IP in terms of its degree of protecting effect. Here we look into claim scope, claim breadth, claim quality, stability and priority.

Citation

Patents Cited in This Cited by
Title Current Assignee Application Date Publication Date
Nutritional composition with probiotics N.V. NUTRICIA 28 February 2006 03 August 2011
Method and device for identifying micro organisms CYFLO OY,KORKEAMÄKI, MIKA,VAAHTOVUO, JUSSI 07 August 2003 19 February 2004
Probiotics for reduction of risk of obesity NESTEC S.A. 28 March 2007 01 October 2008
Gut microbiome as a biomarker and therapeutic target for treating obesity or an obesity related disorder WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY 10 December 2007 08 July 2010
Food containing glycogen and use thereof EZAKI GLICO CO., LTD. 26 December 2007 11 March 2010
See full citation <>

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