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Patent Analysis of

Well logging with autonomous robotic diver

Updated Time 12 June 2019

Patent Registration Data

Publication Number

US10001007

Application Number

US14/899066

Application Date

13 November 2014

Publication Date

19 June 2018

Current Assignee

HALLIBURTON ENERGY SERVICES, INC.

Original Assignee (Applicant)

HALLIBURTON ENERGY SERVICES, INC.

International Classification

E21B47/12,E21B17/22,G01V1/40,E21B47/10,E21B47/00

Cooperative Classification

E21B47/12,E21B17/22,E21B23/14,E21B33/16,E21B41/00

Inventor

PELLETIER, MICHAEL T.,PERKINS, DAVID L.

Patent Images

This patent contains figures and images illustrating the invention and its embodiment.

US10001007 Well logging autonomous robotic 1 US10001007 Well logging autonomous robotic 2 US10001007 Well logging autonomous robotic 3
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Abstract

A logging apparatus for use in a well can include at least one sensor that senses a well parameter, at least one buoyancy control device, and the logging apparatus extending helically between opposite ends of the logging apparatus. A method of logging in a subterranean well can include installing at least one logging apparatus in the well, and the logging apparatus helically displacing in the well as a sensor of the logging apparatus senses a well parameter. A well system can include at least one logging apparatus disposed in a wellbore, the logging apparatus including multiple segments, the segments including at least one buoyancy control device and at least one sensor that senses a well parameter, and the segments being helically arranged in the wellbore.

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Claims

1. A logging apparatus for use in a well, the logging apparatus comprising: multiple segments, wherein the multiple segments are directly coupled to each other, wherein an articulation device controls a relative orientation between adjacent segments, wherein the articulation device is operative to change the relative orientation between the multiple segments to dispose the logging apparatus in a helical shape; at least one sensor that senses a well parameter; and at least one buoyancy control device, wherein the logging apparatus displaces in the well in response to a change in a buoyancy of the logging apparatus.

2. The logging apparatus of claim 1, wherein the sensor and the buoyancy control device are included in at least one of the segments.

3. The logging apparatus of claim 1, further comprising at least one engagement device that engages a well surface.

4. The logging apparatus of claim 3, wherein the engagement device comprises a magnetic device.

5. The logging apparatus of claim 3, wherein the engagement device comprises a motorized wheel.

6. The logging apparatus of claim 1, wherein the sensor comprises an ultrasonic sensor.

7. A method of logging in a subterranean well, the method comprising:disposing at least one logging apparatus in the well, wherein the at least one logging apparatus comprises: multiple segments, wherein the multiple segments are directly coupled to each other, wherein an articulation device controls a relative orientation between adjacent segments at least one sensor; and at least one buoyancy device; displacing the logging apparatus through the well in response to a change in the buoyancy of the logging apparatus; changing the relative orientation between the multiple segments to arrange the multiple segments in a helical shape against an inner surface of the well; and taking measurements with the at least one sensor while the logging apparatus maintains the helical shape against the inner surface at a selected position in the well.

8. The method of claim 7, wherein the changing the relative orientation further comprises the logging apparatus changing from a linear configuration to a helical configuration in the well.

9. The method of claim 7, further comprising changing relative orientations between adjacent ones of the segments in the well.

10. The method of claim 7, further comprising changing a torque applied to the logging apparatus, thereby changing a helical configuration of the logging apparatus.

11. The method of claim 7, wherein the installing further comprises attaching the logging apparatus to a cementing plug.

12. A well system, comprising:at least one logging apparatus disposed in a wellbore, the logging apparatus comprising: multiple segments, wherein the multiple segments are directly coupled to each other, wherein an articulation device controls a relative orientation between adjacent segments, wherein the articulation device is operative to change the relative orientation between the multiple segments to dispose the logging apparatus in a helical shape; at least one sensor that senses a well parameter; and at least one buoyancy control device, wherein the logging apparatus displaces in the wellbore in response to a change in a buoyancy of the logging apparatus, and wherein the at least one logging apparatus maintains the helical shape at a selected position against an inner surface of the wellbore.

13. The well system of claim 12, wherein the segments further include at least one engagement device that engages a surface in the wellbore.

14. The well system of claim 12, wherein the well parameter is selected from the group consisting of temperature and ultrasonic waves.

15. The well system of claim 12, wherein the segments further include a communication device.

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Claim Tree

  • 1
    1. A logging apparatus for use in a well, the logging apparatus comprising:
    • multiple segments, wherein the multiple segments are directly coupled to each other, wherein an articulation device controls a relative orientation between adjacent segments, wherein the articulation device is operative to change the relative orientation between the multiple segments to dispose the logging apparatus in a helical shape
    • at least one sensor that senses a well parameter
    • and at least one buoyancy control device, wherein the logging apparatus displaces in the well in response to a change in a buoyancy of the logging apparatus.
    • 2. The logging apparatus of claim 1, wherein
      • the sensor and the buoyancy control device are included in at least one of the segments.
    • 3. The logging apparatus of claim 1, further comprising
      • at least one engagement device that engages a well surface.
    • 6. The logging apparatus of claim 1, wherein
      • the sensor comprises
  • 7
    7. A method of logging in a subterranean well, the method comprising:
    • disposing at least one logging apparatus in the well, wherein the at least one logging apparatus comprises: multiple segments, wherein the multiple segments are directly coupled to each other, wherein an articulation device controls a relative orientation between adjacent segments at least one sensor
    • and at least one buoyancy device
    • displacing the logging apparatus through the well in response to a change in the buoyancy of the logging apparatus
    • changing the relative orientation between the multiple segments to arrange the multiple segments in a helical shape against an inner surface of the well
    • and taking measurements with the at least one sensor while the logging apparatus maintains the helical shape against the inner surface at a selected position in the well.
    • 8. The method of claim 7, wherein
      • the changing the relative orientation further comprises
    • 9. The method of claim 7, further comprising
      • changing relative orientations between adjacent ones of the segments in the well.
    • 10. The method of claim 7, further comprising
      • changing a torque applied to the logging apparatus, thereby changing a helical configuration of the logging apparatus.
    • 11. The method of claim 7, wherein
      • the installing further comprises
  • 12
    12. A well system, comprising:
    • at least one logging apparatus disposed in a wellbore, the logging apparatus comprising: multiple segments, wherein the multiple segments are directly coupled to each other, wherein an articulation device controls a relative orientation between adjacent segments, wherein the articulation device is operative to change the relative orientation between the multiple segments to dispose the logging apparatus in a helical shape
    • at least one sensor that senses a well parameter
    • and at least one buoyancy control device, wherein the logging apparatus displaces in the wellbore in response to a change in a buoyancy of the logging apparatus, and wherein the at least one logging apparatus maintains the helical shape at a selected position against an inner surface of the wellbore.
    • 13. The well system of claim 12, wherein
      • the segments further include at least one engagement device that engages a surface in the wellbore.
    • 14. The well system of claim 12, wherein
      • the well parameter is selected from the group consisting of
    • 15. The well system of claim 12, wherein
      • the segments further include a communication device.
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Description

TECHNICAL FIELD

This disclosure relates generally to equipment utilized and operations performed in conjunction with a subterranean well and, in one example described below, more particularly provides for logging in a well using an autonomous robotic diver apparatus.

BACKGROUND

It is beneficial to be able to measure various parameters in wells, and to communicate accumulated parameter data to surface or another remote location. For example, in cementing operations, it would be useful to be able to determine a cure stage of cement, a location of a top of the cement, locations of any defects in the cement, a cement-to-casing bond quality, etc. Therefore, it will be appreciated that improvements are continually needed in the art of well logging.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a representative partially cross-sectional view of an example of a well logging system and associated method which can embody principles of this disclosure.

FIG. 2 is a representative partially cross-sectional view of another example of the system and method.

FIG. 3 is a representative side view of an example of a logging apparatus that may be used in the system and method, the logging apparatus being depicted in a linear configuration thereof.

FIG. 4 is a representative partially cross-sectional view of the logging apparatus in a helical arrangement in a casing.

FIG. 5 is a representative cross-sectional view, taken along line 5-5 of FIG. 4.

FIG. 6 is an enlarged scale representative partially cross-sectional view of an example of a segment of the logging apparatus.

FIGS. 7 & 8 are representative schematic views of examples of a buoyancy control device that may be used in the logging apparatus.

FIG. 9 is a representative partially cross-sectional view of another example of a segment of the logging apparatus.

FIG. 10 is a representative partially cross-sectional view of an example of a communication device that may be used in the logging apparatus.

FIGS. 11A& B are representative partially cross-sectional views of another example of the system and method, wherein a cementing operation is performed.

FIG. 12 is a representative partially cross-sectional view of another example of a segment of the logging apparatus.

FIGS. 13A& B are representative side views of another example of the logging apparatus, depicted in retracted and expanded configurations.

FIG. 14 is a representative elevational view of a section of the logging apparatus example of FIGS. 13A& B.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Representatively illustrated in FIG. 1 is an example of a logging system 10 for use with a well, and an associated method, which system and method can embody principles of this disclosure. However, it should be clearly understood that the system 10 and method are merely one example of an application of the principles of this disclosure in practice, and a wide variety of other examples are possible. Therefore, the scope of this disclosure is not limited at all to the details of the system 10 and method described herein and/or depicted in the drawings.

In the FIG. 1 example, multiple logging apparatuses 12 are installed in a wellbore 14. It is not necessary, however, for there to be multiple logging apparatuses 12 in the wellbore 14, since the principles of this disclosure could be practiced with only a single apparatus in the wellbore.

The wellbore 14 as depicted in FIG. 1 has an upper section lined with casing 16 and cement 18, and a lower section that is uncased or open hole. In other examples, the entire wellbore 14 could be cased. The apparatuses 12 could be positioned in any cased and/or uncased sections of the wellbore 14, in keeping with the principles of this disclosure.

As used herein, the term “casing” indicates a generally tubular protective wellbore lining. Casing may be made up of tubulars of the type known to those skilled in the art as casing, liner or tubing. Casing may be segmented or continuous. Casing may be pre-formed or formed in situ. Thus, the scope of this disclosure is not limited to use of any particular type of casing.

As used herein, the term “cement” indicates an initially flowable substance that hardens to form a seal in a well. Cement is not necessarily cementitious, since other types of cement can include epoxies or other hardenable polymers, composites, etc. Cement may harden due to hydration of the cement, passage of time, application of heat, contact with a hardening agent, or any other stimulus. Cement may be used to secure a casing in a wellbore and seal off an annulus formed between the casing and the wellbore. Cement may be used to seal off an annulus formed between two tubular strings. Cement may be used to seal off a passage extending through a tubular string. Thus, the scope of this disclosure is not limited to use of any particular type of cement, or to any particular use for cement.

In the FIG. 1 example, the logging apparatuses 12 are depicted in different configurations. An upper one of the apparatuses 12 is helically arranged in a radially enlarged recess 20 formed in the casing 16. This can be considered a “parked” apparatus 12, in that the apparatus can remain motionless in the recess indefinitely.

Positioned in the recess 20, the apparatus 12 does not obstruct operations (such as, drilling, stimulation, completion, production or workover operations, etc.) that may be performed in the wellbore 14. Although the recess 20 is depicted in FIG. 1 as being formed in the casing 16, in other examples recesses may be formed by, for example, underreaming a cased or uncased section of the wellbore 14. The recess 20 or a shoulder could be in or above a liner or tubing hanger (see, for example, FIG. 2). Thus, the scope of this disclosure is not limited to use of the recess 20 as depicted in FIG. 1.

The apparatus 12 can leave and return to the recess 20 at any time. Examples of ways the apparatus 12 can displace through the wellbore 14 are indicated by the middle and lower apparatuses 12 depicted in FIG. 1. However, it is not necessary for the apparatus 12 to be positioned in, or to displace to or away from, a recess in keeping with the scope of this disclosure.

The middle apparatus 12 depicted in FIG. 1 can displace by means of motor-driven wheels 22 extending laterally outward from segments 24 of the apparatus. The wheels 22 engage an inner surface 26 of the casing 16. If the casing 16 is made of a ferrous material, the wheels 22 could be biased into contact with the surface 26 using magnetic attraction.

If the middle apparatus 12 of FIG. 1 were instead positioned in an uncased section of the wellbore 14, the apparatus could assume a helical configuration, in order to bias the wheels 22 into contact with an inner surface 28 of the wellbore. Of course, if the wellbore 14 is inclined or horizontal, gravity can bias the wheels 22 into contact with the surfaces 26, 28.

The lower apparatus 12 depicted in FIG. 1 displaces through the wellbore 14 due to a difference in density between the apparatus and fluid 30 in the wellbore. A buoyancy of the apparatus 12 is increased to cause the apparatus to rise through the fluid in the wellbore 14, and the buoyancy of the apparatus is decreased to cause the apparatus to descend through the fluid in the wellbore.

As described more fully below, “parking” of one or more apparatuses 12 in the wellbore 14 (whether or not in the recess 20) and/or displacement of one or more apparatuses through the wellbore can provide for effective telemetry of sensor measurements, other data, commands, or other types of communication of information. In addition, the apparatuses 12 can displace or remain at any location in the wellbore 14, either autonomously, automatically and/or in response to commands transmitted from a remote location (such as, a surface control station, a subsea communication station, a bottom hole assembly, a water or land based rig, etc.).

In the FIG. 1 example, each of the apparatuses 12 comprises multiple segments 24. The segments 24 are articulable relative to one another, so that the apparatus 12 can take on various configurations (such as, the linear and helical arrangements depicted in FIG. 1). However, the scope of this disclosure is not limited to use of the articulated segments 24 in the apparatus 12.

Referring additionally now to FIG. 2, another example of the system 10 and method is representatively illustrated. In this example, multiple logging apparatuses 12 are installed in the wellbore 14, in order to provide for communication between a bottom hole assembly 32 and a surface location.

The bottom hole assembly 32 in the FIG. 2 example is a drilling assembly comprising a drill bit 34, one or more sensors 36 (such as, pressure, temperature, torque, weight on bit, flow, resistivity, density, fluid type and/or other types of sensors) and a communication device 38. In other examples, the bottom hole assembly 32 could be another type of assembly (such as, a stimulation, completion or production assembly, etc.), and the assembly could include other or different elements (such as, a drilling motor, a reamer, a stabilizer, a steering device, etc.). Thus, the scope of this disclosure is not limited to use of any particular bottom hole assembly configuration.

The communication device 38 of the bottom hole assembly 32 may be any type of communication device capable of communicating with one of the apparatuses 12. For example, pressure pulse, acoustic, electromagnetic or any other type of telemetry may be used. The communication device 38 may only transmit information, or may both transmit and receive information. The scope of this disclosure is not limited to use of any particular type of communication device 38 in the bottom hole assembly 32.

A well environment can be noisy, and interference with communications can be caused by flowing fluids and particles, presence of ferrous materials, pipes rotating or otherwise displacing in casing, etc. Thus, communicating over large distances can be difficult, impractical or impossible.

In the FIG. 2 example, by positioning one of the apparatuses 12 in relatively close proximity to the bottom hole assembly 32, the apparatus can more effectively communicate with the communication device 38. In addition, multiple apparatuses 12 can be distributed along the wellbore 14, so that each apparatus can effectively communicate with a communication device above and below that apparatus.

However, in some circumstances (such as, drilling operations), a position of the bottom hole assembly 32 can change over time, and so positions of the apparatuses 12 can also change over time. In some examples, the apparatuses 12 can be provided with “intelligence” allowing them to select appropriate spacings between them, so that effective communication is maintained as well conditions change.

For example, a first apparatus 12 introduced into the wellbore 14 may descend until it can effectively communicate with the communication device 38 of the bottom hole assembly 32. The apparatus 12 can then maintain a position that is at a distance no greater than that at which effective communication is maintained.

A second apparatus 12 introduced into the wellbore 14 can then descend until it can effectively communicate with the first apparatus 12. The second apparatus 12 can then maintain a position that is at a distance no greater that that at which effective communication with the first apparatus can be maintained.

This process can be repeated until a sufficient number of apparatuses 12 have been introduced into the wellbore 14, so that the last apparatus can effectively communicate with one or more communication devices 40, 42 at a remote location (such as, the earth's surface, a subsea location, a water or land based rig, etc.). Additional apparatuses 12 can be introduced into the wellbore 14 as needed to maintain effective communication between the communication device 38 of the bottom hole assembly 32 and the communication device(s) 40, 42 at the remote location.

Thus, the apparatuses 12 function to relay information between the communication device 38 and the communication device(s) 40, 42. In addition, the intelligence of the apparatuses 12 can be used to vary spacings between the apparatuses as needed to maintain effective communication.

For example, the spacings are not necessarily equal if more interference or noise exists in one section of the wellbore 14 as compared to other sections of the wellbore. As another example, the spacings can change if levels of interference or noise change over time, or if the location of the bottom hole assembly 32 changes over time.

In the FIG. 2 example, the apparatuses 12 displace through the wellbore 14 in response to buoyancy changes. The apparatuses 12 do not necessarily include the articulated segments 24 depicted in the FIG. 1 example. However, the FIG. 2 apparatuses 12 could include the articulated segments 24, and could displace through the wellbore 14 by other means (such as, the motorized wheels 22 depicted in FIG. 1), in keeping with the principles of this disclosure.

The intelligence of the apparatuses 12 can be used to control their buoyancies, and to adapt to different densities of fluid 30 in the wellbore 14. Thus, the buoyancy of each apparatus 12 can be adjusted autonomously and automatically as needed to either maintain a selected position in the wellbore 14, or to rise or descend in the wellbore.

Referring additionally now to FIG. 3, an example of the logging apparatus 12 is representatively illustrated, apart from the system 10 and method of FIGS. 1 & 2. The apparatus 12 of FIG. 3 may be used in the system 10 and method of FIGS. 1 & 2, or it may be used in other systems and methods, in keeping with the principles of this disclosure.

In the FIG. 3 example, the apparatus 12 comprises the multiple articulated segments 24. The segments 24 are arranged in a linear configuration. In this linear configuration, the apparatus 12 can most rapidly displace along the wellbore 14 (see FIGS. 1 & 2), and can traverse obstructions, narrow passages, etc.

Note that it is not necessary for all of the segments 24 of the apparatus 12 to be identical to each other. In the FIG. 3 example, an upper segment 24a and a lower segment 24b are different from segments 24 between the upper and lower segments.

For example, the upper and lower segments 24a,b could include communication devices (not shown, see FIG. 6), whereas the middle segments 24 may not include communication devices. As another example, the upper segment 24a could include a buoyancy device (not shown, see FIG. 6) for changing a buoyancy of the apparatus 12, whereas the other segments 24, 24b may not include buoyancy control devices. Thus, the scope of this disclosure is not limited to use of any particular configuration or combination of configurations of apparatus segments 24, 24a,b.

Referring additionally now to FIGS. 4 & 5, the apparatus 12 is representatively illustrated in a helical configuration. The apparatus 12 is positioned in the casing 16, and the helical configuration enables the apparatus to effectively adapt to the casing's inner diameter and contact the inner surface 26 of the casing.

In the helical configuration, the apparatus 12 can maintain a selected position in the casing 16, for example, to enable long term “parking,” to monitor well parameters at the position over time, to recharge batteries (not shown, see FIG. 6), or for other purposes. The scope of this disclosure is not limited to any particular purpose for maintaining the apparatus 12 at a certain position for an extended period of time in the helical configuration.

In the helical configuration, the apparatus 12 can also displace helically along the inner surface 26 of the casing 16 (or along the surface 28 of the wellbore 14, see FIG. 1), for example, using the motorized wheels 22 (see FIG. 1) and/or buoyancy changes. By displacing deliberately along the inner surface 26 of the casing 16, or along the surface 28 of the wellbore 14, sensors of the apparatus 12 (not shown, see FIG. 6) can sense certain well parameters along the wellbore (such as, casing integrity, cement to casing bond, flow behind casing, resistivity, density, pressure, temperature, fluid density, viscosity, etc.).

With helical displacement of the apparatus 12, it will be appreciated that a higher resolution of sensor measurements can be obtained, and measurements can be obtained more completely about the casing 16 and wellbore 14, as compared to linear displacement of the apparatus along the wellbore. However, sensor measurements can be obtained with the apparatus 12 in the linear configuration (see FIG. 3), in keeping with the principles of this disclosure.

In one example of the method, the apparatus 12 can initially descend in a linear configuration and then, upon striking an obstruction (such as, a bridge plug or a bottom of the wellbore 14) the apparatus can change to the helical configuration. A buoyancy of the apparatus 12 can then increase, so that the apparatus (with or without assistance of the motorized wheels 22) will ascend helically along the wellbore 14 while recording/transmitting sensor measurements.

In another example, the apparatus 12 can have a built-in casing collar locating capability to enable counting casing collars as the apparatus descends in a linear configuration. When the apparatus 12 counts a pre-programmed number of casing collars (and the apparatus is, thus, at a desired depth), the apparatus can change to the helical configuration.

In another example of the method, the apparatus 12 (or multiple apparatuses) can be initially wrapped about a tubular string (such as, a drill string or a production string) when it is deployed in the well. Then, the apparatus 12 can “unwind” from the tubular string and displace to an appropriate position in the well.

Referring additionally now to FIG. 6, an enlarged scale partially cross-sectional view of one example of a segment 24 of the apparatus 12 is representatively illustrated. The segment 24 depicted in FIG. 6 may be used for the upper segment 24a, the lower segment 24b or any other segment 24 of the apparatus 12. However, it should be clearly understood that the segment 24 depicted in FIG. 6 is merely one example of a particular segment configuration, and a wide variety of other examples may be used, in keeping with the principles of this disclosure.

In the FIG. 6 example, the segment 24 includes the wheel 22, which is rotated by a motor 44. The motor 44 may also include an actuator (not shown) for inwardly retracting the wheel 22. For example, if the apparatus 12 is displacing through the wellbore 14 (see FIGS. 1 & 2) in the linear configuration due to a buoyancy change, or if the apparatus is parked or otherwise maintaining its position in the wellbore, then the wheel 22 may not be needed and can be retracted.

The wheel 22 and motor 44 can be considered an engagement device 46 for engaging a well surface (such as, the inner surface 26 of the casing 16, the surface 28 of the wellbore 14, etc.). In some examples, the wheel 22 could be magnetized or made of a magnetic material, so that the wheel is biased into contact with the casing surface 26 or another well surface due to magnetic attraction.

Alternatively, or in addition, one or more magnetic engagement devices 48 (such as, permanent magnets and/or electromagnets, etc.) may be included in the segment 24 to bias the segment toward a well surface due to magnetic attraction. If the wheel 22 is extended, the magnetic attraction can be used to bias the wheel into contact with the well surface. If the wheel 22 is retracted, the magnetic attraction can be used to secure the apparatus 12 in position (that is, to prevent displacement of the apparatus along the wellbore 14).

If the wheel 22 is in contact with a well surface 26, 28 and the apparatus 12 displaces by means of fluid drag due to flowing fluid (e.g., in a production, drilling or stimulation operation), or by means of a buoyancy change, etc., such displacement can cause rotation of the wheel. Rotation of the wheel 22 can be used to generate electricity, for example, if the motor 44 is also a generator.

Although only one wheel 22 and motor 44 are depicted in FIG. 6, it will be appreciated that any number of wheels and/or motors may be provided. In some examples, a sufficient number of wheels 22 and motors 44 may be provided in the segment 24, so that at least one of the wheels contacts a well surface 26, 28, at any rotational orientation of the segment relative to the surface.

The FIG. 6 segment 24 example also includes an articulation device 50 at each opposite end of the segment. The articulation devices 50 are used to control relative orientation between the segment 24 and adjacent segments connected at the opposite ends of the segment. Of course, if the segment 24 is at either opposite end of the apparatus 12, then there is only one adjacent segment, and so only one articulation device 50 may be used.

The articulation device 50 in the FIG. 6 segment 24 example includes an actuator 52 and a connecting arm 54. The actuator 52 is used to displace the arm 54 and thereby control the orientation of the segment 24 relative to an adjacent segment connected to the arm.

The actuator 52 can displace the arm 54 in three dimensions, in two dimensions, in one dimension, rotationally, longitudinally, laterally or in any other manner, in keeping with the principles of this disclosure. In some examples, the actuator 52 may comprise piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, electrostrictive, or other types of electromagnetically active materials, although conventional servos, solenoids or other types of motion-producing mechanisms may be used, if desired.

The FIG. 6 segment 24 example also includes a buoyancy control device 56, a power source 58, a computing device 60, one or more sensors 62 and a communication device 64. The buoyancy control device 56 is used to maintain or change a buoyancy of the segment 24 and thereby maintain or change a buoyancy of the overall apparatus 12 as needed to maintain or change a position of the apparatus in the wellbore 14 (see FIGS. 1 & 2). Examples of the buoyancy control device 56 are depicted in FIGS. 7 & 8, and are described more fully below.

The buoyancy control can be coordinated with well operations. For example, in a drilling operation, the apparatus 12 may be parked during actual drilling. When drilling fluid flow is stopped (such as, during a drill pipe connection make-up), the apparatus 12 can descend to a position closer to the bottom hole assembly 32 (see FIG. 2), if needed for effective communication, or multiple apparatuses can adjust their spacing for optimal data transmission. The apparatuses 12 would again park upon resumption of drilling fluid flow.

The power source 58 is used to provide electrical power to the various other electrical devices of the segment 24. The power source 58 may include batteries and/or an electrical generator. If an electrical generator is included, the generator may generate electrical power in response to fluid flow, heat, or other stimulus in the wellbore 14.

The computing device 60 is used to control operation of the other devices of the segment 24, to store and process sensor measurements, and to otherwise embody the “intelligence” of the segment. In the FIG. 6 example, the computing device 60 controls operation of the engagement devices 46, 48, the articulation devices 50, the buoyancy control device 56 and the communication device 64, stores and processes measurements made by the sensors 62, and stores and executes instructions (e.g., in the form of software, firmware, etc.) for the various functions performed by the computing device.

The computing device 60 can include at least one processor and at least one memory (e.g., volatile, non-volatile, erasable, programmable, etc., memory) for executing and storing instructions, data, etc. The computing device 60 can also include, or serve as, a modem, for example, to modulate data for transmission.

The sensors 62 are used to measure well parameters of interest. The sensors 62 can include pressure, temperature, resistivity, density, fluid type and composition, fluid density, viscosity, acoustic, electromagnetic, optical or any other type of sensors. Pressure measurements may be used to inform and/or modify buoyancy control. Accelerometers, gyroscopes, etc. may be used to determine position and navigate in the well. The scope of this disclosure is not limited to use of any particular type or combination of sensors.

The communication device 64 is used to transmit and receive signals comprising sensor measurements, other data, handshake protocols, commands, other information, etc. The signals may comprise pressure pulse, acoustic, electromagnetic, optical or any other type or combination of telemetry signal. The communication device 64 may be capable of switching from one type of telemetry signal reception or transmission to another type of telemetry signal reception or transmission. The scope of this disclosure is not limited to use of any particular type of communication device.

Referring additionally now to FIG. 7, an example of the buoyancy control device 56 is representatively and schematically illustrated, apart from the remainder of the segment 24 of FIG. 6. However, the buoyancy control device 56 of FIG. 7 may be used with other segments, in keeping with the principles of this disclosure.

In the FIG. 7 example, the buoyancy control device 56 includes a positive displacement pump 66 that transfers well fluid 30 between an exterior of the segment 24 and a chamber 68 (for example, via a port 74 in the segment, see FIG. 6). A floating piston 70 sealingly separates the chamber 68 from a gas-filled chamber 72.

As the pump 66 fills the chamber 68 with the fluid 30, the chamber 72 decreases in volume, and the buoyancy of the segment 24 decreases. Conversely, as the pump 66 discharges fluid 30 from the chamber 68 to the exterior of the segment 24, the chamber 72 increases in volume, and the buoyancy of the segment 24 increases.

It will be appreciated that the FIG. 7 depiction of the buoyancy control device 56 is simplified and a wide variety of variations are possible. For example, the piston 70 could be replaced with a membrane, bladder or other type of displaceable fluid barrier. Instead of using the pump 66, the piston 70 could be displaced by a motor (not shown) to control the relative volumes of the chambers 68, 72. Thus, the scope of this disclosure is not limited at all to any of the details of the buoyancy control device 56 depicted in FIG. 7.

Referring additionally now to FIG. 8, another example of the buoyancy control device 56 is representatively illustrated. In this example, the volume of the chamber 72 is controlled by controlling a volume of a substance 76 in the chamber 68. The volume of the substance 76 may change in response to any stimulus (such as, heat, electrical or magnetic input, etc.). A latching device 78 engaged with a rod 80 attached to the piston 70 may be used to maintain a desired position of the piston.

Referring additionally now to FIG. 9, another example of the segment 24 is representatively illustrated. In this example, the segment 24 is configured for use at an end of the apparatus 12 (e.g., as the segment 24a or, inverted, as the segment 24b depicted in FIG. 3). Thus, only one articulation device 50 is provided in the segment 24 of FIG. 9, for articulable connection to an adjacent segment.

Another difference in the FIG. 9 example of the segment 24 is that the communication device 64 is positioned at an end of the segment (opposite from the articulation device 50). Thus, it will be appreciated that any configuration, combination or arrangement of the segment 24 components may be used, in keeping with the scope of this disclosure.

In the FIG. 9 example, the segment 24 includes a combination of sensors 62a-g for well monitoring. These sensors include an accelerometer 62a, a gyroscope 62b, an optical sensor 62c, an inductive sensor 62d, a pressure and temperature sensor 62e, a magnetic field sensor 62f, and a resistivity sensor 62g. Of course, other types or combinations of sensors may be used, in keeping with the scope of this disclosure.

The optical sensor 62c could be any one or combination of an infrared sensor, a molecular factor computing sensor (e.g., as described in International application no. PCT/US14/46994, filed 17 Jul. 2014), or an opto-analytical device (e.g., including an integrated computational element (ICE) as described in International application no. PCT/US14/43997, filed 25 Jun. 2014). The optical sensor 62c could be an optical sensor configured to operate in one or more wavelength ranges, such as, ultraviolet, visible or microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Thus, the scope of this disclosure is not limited to any particular type, number or combination of optical sensor(s).

The inductive sensor 62d may be used to measure casing thickness, detect casing collars, detect areas of corrosion, etc. The optical and inductive sensors 62c,d may be used for communication purposes. The optical sensor 62c may be used to determine fluid types and compositions. The scope of this disclosure is not limited to any particular purpose or function for any of the sensors 62a-g.

Referring additionally now to FIG. 10, an enlarged scale view of the communication device 64 is representatively illustrated. The communication device 64 may be used in the segment 24 example of FIG. 9, or it may be used in other segments.

In the FIG. 10 example, the communication device 64 includes an electrical and/or optical wet connector 84, an inductive coupler 86, an acoustic transceiver 88, a vibratory transceiver 90, and an optical transceiver 92. This example is intended to demonstrate that a wide variety of different types of communication and telemetry components may be used in the communication device 64. However, in practice, only one or a small number of communication and/or telemetry components may be used in the device 64. In any event, the scope of this disclosure is not limited to any particular number, type, combination or arrangement of components in the communication device 64.

The wet connector 84 is configured to make a direct electrical and/or optical connection with another wet connector in the well. In addition, the connector 84 could be used to download data from the apparatus 12 or upload instructions to the apparatus, recharge batteries of the apparatus, etc., at the surface.

The acoustic transceiver 88 is configured to transmit and receive acoustic signals. In some examples, a separate acoustic emitter may be used for transmitting acoustic signals, and a separate acoustic receiver (e.g., a microphone) may be used for receiving acoustic signals.

The vibratory transceiver 90 is configured to transmit and receive vibratory signals (whether or not in an acoustic range). For example, a piezoelectric element could be used to both emit and detect vibratory signals. In some examples, separate vibratory receivers and transmitters could be used.

The optical transceiver 92 in the FIG. 10 example includes an optical source 94 (such as, a broadband light source, a laser or a light emitting diode) and an optical detector 96 (such as, a photo-detector or a photodiode). The optical transceiver 92 may operate in conjunction with the wet connector 84 to establish optical communication with another device.

Although the transceivers 88, 90, 92 are described above as both receiving and transmitting communication signals, it is not necessary for signals to be both received and transmitted. For example, in some embodiments, information may be communicated only from the apparatus 12 to a communication device/receiver. In those examples, electrical power could still be received by the apparatus 24 (such as, via the wet connect 84 or inductive coupler 86).

Referring additionally now to FIGS. 11A& B, another example of the well logging system 10 and method is representatively illustrated. In this example, a logging apparatus 12 is used to measure various parameters in the well. The logging apparatus 12 is used in conjunction with a cementing operation, but the scope of this disclosure is not limited to use of the apparatus with cementing operations.

The apparatus 12 depicted in FIGS. 11A& B utilizes a segment similar to that depicted in FIG. 9 for its upper and lower segments 24a,b, and utilizes a segment similar to that depicted in FIG. 6 for its intermediate segments 24. However, note that use of the FIGS. 6 & 9 segments 24 would result in duplication of various components (such as, sensors 62, 62a-g, computing devices 60, power sources 58, etc.), so duplicative components may be deleted, as desired.

As depicted in FIG. 11A, the cementing operation is in progress, with cement 18 being pumped downwardly through the casing 16 and upwardly into an annulus 134 formed radially between the casing and the wellbore 14. The fluid 30 (such as, a spacer fluid, drilling fluid, etc.) is being displaced from the annulus 134 by the cement 18.

A cementing plug 136 of the type well known to those skilled in the art follows the cement 18 through the casing 16 as the cementing operation concludes. The cementing plug 136 will eventually engage a cementing shoe (not shown), at which point the cement 18 will no longer flow into the annulus 134, and the cement will be allowed to harden and set in the annulus.

It would be useful to be able to determine where an interface 138 between the cement 18 and the fluid 30 is located in the annulus 134 (for example, to thereby determine whether the cement has completely or only partially filled the annulus), and to be able to determine in what curing stage the cement is (for example, to thereby determine whether the cement has fully hardened, so that further well operations can be performed). In the FIGS. 11A& B example, the apparatus 12 is installed in the well for at least these purposes.

As depicted in FIG. 11A, the logging apparatus 12 is installed in the well by releasably attaching the apparatus to the cementing plug 136. In this manner, the apparatus 12 will be desirably located at a bottom of the well when the cementing operation is concluded. In other examples, the logging apparatus 12 could be installed using other techniques (such as, by separately introducing the apparatus into the well at the surface).

In the FIGS. 11A& B example, the logging apparatus 12 is released from the cementing plug 136 when the plug engages the cementing shoe (not shown). The sensors 62, 62a-g may be used to determine when the cementing plug 136 has engaged the cementing shoe, so that an electric or hydraulic latch 140 may be actuated to release the apparatus 12 from the plug.

Alternatively, the latch 140 could be a mechanical latch that is actuated in response to engagement between the cementing plug 136 and the cementing shoe (not shown). Thus, the scope of this disclosure is not limited to any particular means for releasing the apparatus 12 from the plug 136.

When the apparatus 12 is released from the plug 136, it changes from the linear configuration depicted in FIGS. 3 & 11A to the helical configuration depicted in FIGS. 4, 5 & 11B. By changing to the helical configuration, the apparatus 12 can more positively contact the inner surface 26 of the casing 16, so that the sensors 62, 62a-g can more directly measure certain well parameters of interest.

Note that it is not necessary for the apparatus 12 to be in the linear configuration before it is released from the plug 136. The apparatus 12 could instead be in a helical, spiral or other configuration while it is attached to the plug 136 (for example, to reduce a length of the apparatus along the wellbore), and then change to the helical configuration (or change to a larger radius helical configuration) upon release from the plug 136. Thus, the scope of this disclosure is not limited to any particular configuration of the apparatus 12 at any particular stage of a well operation.

In some examples, the apparatus 12 could remain in, or change to, the linear configuration when (or after) the cementing plug 136 engages the cementing shoe. If the apparatus 12 includes the magnetized wheels 22 as depicted in FIGS. 1 & 6, or another device for biasing the apparatus into contact with the casing 16, the measurements of well parameters of interest could be effectively made, without the apparatus changing to the helical configuration.

Another use for the helical configuration can be to regulate a resolution of the measurements made by the sensors 62, 62a-g. This is due to the fact that, as a pitch angle of the helical configuration decreases, the apparatus 12 will traverse a shorter longitudinal distance along the casing 16 for each revolution of the apparatus in the casing.

A further use for the helical configuration can be to ensure that sensor measurements are made completely around the casing 16. For example, a void or other defect (e.g., a crack, a poor cement-to-casing bond, etc.) may exist on one side of the casing 16, but not on an opposite side. Displacing the apparatus 12 helically along the inner surface 26 of the casing 16 ensures that cementing defects can be detected, no matter where the defect is located.

Yet another use for the helical configuration can be to regulate a speed of displacement of the logging apparatus 12 in the casing 16. As the pitch of the helical configuration decreases, the speed of the apparatus 12 will also decrease (unless the speed is regulated by other means, such as, a speed of rotation of the wheels 22 by the motors 44).

In the FIGS. 11A& B example, the logging apparatus 12 has a positive buoyancy as it ascends through the casing 16. The apparatus 12 may have a positive buoyancy when it is initially installed in the well, or the buoyancy may be changed from neutral or negative to positive when (or after) the apparatus is released from the cementing plug 136.

The positive buoyancy causes the logging apparatus 12 to ascend through the casing 16. Alternatively, or in addition, the wheels 22 and motors 44 may be used to displace the apparatus 12 through the casing 16. In cases where the wellbore 14 is highly deviated or horizontal, it may be desirable for the apparatus 12 to have neutral buoyancy as it displaces through the casing 16. Thus, the scope of this disclosure is not limited to any particular means of displacing the apparatus 12 in the well.

As the logging apparatus 12 displaces through the casing 16, the sensors 62, 62a-g make measurements of certain well parameters. These measurements can be used to determine where a “top” of the cement 18 is located (e.g., at the interface 138), whether the cement has fully hardened, whether there is an acceptable casing-to-cement bond, whether there are any voids, cracks or other defects in the cement, etc. The scope of this disclosure is not limited to any particular purpose(s) for the measurements made by the sensors 62, 62a-g of the apparatus 12.

The apparatus 12 can repeatedly displace through a section of the well (for example, by changing the buoyancy of the apparatus, by turning the wheels 22 in opposite directions, etc.), so that measurements are taken at different times. Comparisons between these measurements can then be used to obtain information about the cement 18 and the cementing operation.

For example, an initial temperature survey can be performed by displacing the logging apparatus 12 through the cemented section of the casing 16. Temperature increases along the casing 16 measured in a subsequent survey can indicate a curing stage of the cement 18. Changes in acoustic, ultrasonic and other types of sensor measurements can also indicate curing stage.

Referring additionally now to FIG. 12, another example of the segment 24 is representatively illustrated. The segment 24 can be particularly useful in the system 10 and method of FIGS. 11A& B, but the FIG. 12 segment may be used in other systems and methods, in keeping with the principles of this disclosure.

The FIG. 12 segment 24 example is similar in many respects to the segment example depicted in FIG. 6. However, the FIG. 12 segment 24 includes certain sensors 62h,i that can have particular use in conjunction with cementing operations.

Specifically, the sensor 62h is an ultrasonic and/or acoustic sensor, and the sensor 62i is a temperature sensor. As mentioned above, changes in temperature and ultrasonic and/or acoustic measurements can be used to determine cure stage, location of a “top” of the cement 18 (see FIGS. 11A& B), defects in cement, cement bond quality, etc. Other types of sensors (e.g., any of the sensors 62, 62a-g described above) and other combinations of sensors may be used in other examples.

The wheel 22 of the FIG. 12 segment 24 is also different from that depicted in the FIG. 6 example. In the FIG. 12 example, the wheel 22 includes irregularities 22a,b for producing acoustic or vibratory signals as the wheel rolls along the inner surface 26 of the casing 16 (see FIGS. 11A& B). The sensor 62h can sense the signals and their reflections (e.g., off of the casing 16 and cement 18, and any impedance discontinuity), in order to detect a cure stage of the cement, a location of the interface 138 (see FIGS. 11A& B), etc.

In the FIG. 12 example, the irregularity 22a is a bump or protrusion on an outer circumference of the wheel 22, and the irregularity 22b is a recess in the outer circumference of the wheel. Each of the irregularities 22a,b will produce a signal when it strikes the inner surface 26 of the casing 16. However, other types (such as, a flat spot, etc.), numbers and combinations of irregularities may be used, and it is not necessary for any irregularities to be used, in keeping with the principles of this disclosure.

Referring additionally now to FIGS. 13A& B, another example of the logging apparatus 12 is representatively illustrated. In this example, the apparatus 12 can be radially expanded and retracted by changing a torque 142 applied to the apparatus.

In FIG. 13A, the torque 142 is increased, causing the apparatus 12 to radially retract. This retracted configuration may be used for deployment of the apparatus 12 in the well, rapid displacement of the apparatus through the well, etc., similar to the linear configuration of the FIGS. 1-3 & 11A example of the apparatus.

In FIG. 13B, the torque is decreased, causing the apparatus 12 to radially expand. This expanded configuration may be used for logging operations, for biasing the apparatus 12 into contact with the inner surface 26 of the casing 16, for reduced displacement speed, for parking the apparatus, etc., similar to the helical configuration of the FIGS. 1, 4, 5 & 11B example of the apparatus.

In the FIGS. 13A& B example, a helically formed body 144 of the apparatus 12 is in a “relaxed” (or at least more relaxed) state when the torque 142 is removed or decreased. Thus, the body 144 may be formed in the radially enlarged configuration, and then the torque 142 is applied to retract the body to its FIG. 13A configuration.

In other examples, the body 144 could be formed in its radially retracted FIG. 13A configuration, and then the torque 142 could be applied (in a direction opposite to that depicted in FIG. 13A), in order to radially enlarge the body to its FIG. 13B configuration.

The body 144 can have sufficient internal volume to incorporate the various devices 46, 48, 50, 56, 60, 64, power source 58, sensors 62, 62a-i, etc., therein (see FIGS. 6, 9 & 12). However, any of the components could alternatively (or additionally) be contained in housings 146 at opposite ends of the apparatus 12. The housings 146 may also be used to contain one or more actuators (not shown) for applying and/or releasing the torque 142 in the body 144 of the apparatus 12.

Referring additionally now to FIG. 14, an example of a section of the body 144 of the FIGS. 13A& B apparatus 12 is representatively illustrated. In this view, a manner in which the wheels 22 can be mounted to the body 144 can be seen.

In the FIG. 14 example, sensors 62d, 62f-i are depicted in the body 144 of the apparatus 12. However, other types, numbers and combinations of sensors can be disposed in the body 144 in keeping with the principles of this disclosure.

It may now be fully appreciated that the above disclosure provides significant advancements to the art of well logging. In some examples described above, the apparatus 12 can be used to displace along a wellbore 14 and perform logging operations therein.

It may now be fully appreciated that the above disclosure provides significant advancements to the art of communicating in a well. The logging apparatus 12 in certain examples described above is capable of relaying information between downhole and surface communication devices 38, 40, 42, or between itself and surface communication device(s) 40, 42, does not require any tether (such as, a wireline, slickline, control line, optical line, etc.), and can operate autonomously to achieve effective communication in a well.

A logging apparatus 12 for use in a well is provided to the art by the above disclosure. In one example, the logging apparatus 12 can comprise multiple segments 24, the segments including at least one buoyancy control device 56, at least one communication device 64, and at least one articulation device 50 that controls a relative orientation between adjacent ones of the segments 24. The segments 24 are not necessarily identical to each other.

The segments 24 can include at least one engagement device 46, 48 that engages a well surface 26, 28. The engagement device 48 may comprise a magnetic device. The engagement device 46 may comprise a motorized wheel 22.

The segments 24 can include a sensor 62, 62a-i that measures a well parameter. The segments 24 may be helically arranged, linearly arranged, or otherwise arranged.

The “at least one” articulation device 50 may comprise multiple articulation devices. Each of the segments 24 can comprise one or more of the articulation devices 50.

Also provided to the art by the above disclosure is a method of communicating in a subterranean well. In one example, the method comprises: installing at least one logging apparatus 12 in the well, the logging apparatus comprising a first communication device 64 and a buoyancy control device 56; and the first communication device 64 communicating with a second communication device 38, 40, 42 at a remote location (such as, a remote location in the well, a surface location, a subsea location, a water or land based rig, etc.).

The method can include the logging apparatus 12 displacing in the well in response to the buoyancy control device 56 changing a buoyancy of the logging apparatus 12.

The “at least one” logging apparatus 12 can comprise multiple logging apparatuses, and the method can include the logging apparatuses 12 distributing themselves in the well, with spacings between the logging apparatuses being at most maximum spacings having effective communication between the communication devices 64 of successive ones of the logging apparatuses 12.

The second communication device 38 may be disposed in a bottom hole assembly 32, and the method can include the second communication device 38 receiving measurements from a sensor 36 of the bottom hole assembly 32 and transmitting the sensor measurements to the first communication device 64.

The second communication device 40, 42 may be disposed at a surface location, and the method can include the second communication device 40, 42 receiving sensor measurements from the first communication device 64.

The logging apparatus 12 may comprise multiple segments 24, and the method can include changing relative orientations between adjacent ones of the segments 24 in the well. The changing step can comprise helically arranging the segments 24.

A well system 10 is also described above. In one example, the system 10 can comprise: at least one logging apparatus 12 disposed in a wellbore 14, the logging apparatus comprising multiple segments 24, the segments including at least one buoyancy control device 56 and at least one communication device 64.

The segments 24 may include at least one articulation device 50 that controls a relative orientation between adjacent ones of the segments. The segments 24 may include at least one engagement device 46, 48 that engages a surface 26, 28 in the wellbore 14.

The “at least one” logging apparatus 12 may comprise multiple logging apparatuses. The logging apparatuses 12 may be distributed in the wellbore 14, with spacings between the logging apparatuses being at most maximum spacings having effective communication between the communication devices 64 of successive ones of the logging apparatuses.

The logging apparatus 12 may displace in the wellbore 14 in response to a change in buoyancy of the logging apparatus.

A logging apparatus 12 for use in a well can, in one example, comprise at least one sensor 62, 62a-i that senses a well parameter, and at least one buoyancy control device 56. The logging apparatus 12 can extend helically between opposite ends of the logging apparatus.

The logging apparatus 12 may include multiple segments 24, 24a,b. The sensor 62, 62a-i and the buoyancy control device 56 can be included in at least one of the segments 24, 24a,b. The logging apparatus 12 may include at least one articulation device 50 that controls a relative orientation between adjacent ones of the segments 24, 24a,b.

The sensor 62h may comprise an ultrasonic and/or acoustic sensor.

A method of logging in a subterranean well can include installing at least one logging apparatus 12 in the well; and the logging apparatus 12 helically displacing in the well as a sensor 62, 62a-i of the logging apparatus senses a well parameter.

The logging apparatus 12 may displace helically in response to a change in buoyancy of the apparatus.

The method can include the logging apparatus 12 changing to a helical configuration in the well. The changing step can include the logging apparatus 12 changing from a linear configuration to the helical configuration in the well.

The logging apparatus 12 may comprise multiple segments 24, 24a,b, and the method can include changing relative orientations between adjacent ones of the segments 24, 24a,b in the well.

The method may include changing a torque 142 applied to the logging apparatus 12, thereby changing a helical configuration of the logging apparatus 12.

The installing step can include attaching the logging apparatus 12 to a cementing plug 136.

A well system 10 described above can, in one example, include at least one logging apparatus 12 disposed in a wellbore 14, the logging apparatus 12 comprising multiple segments 24, 24a,b, the segments including at least one buoyancy control device 56 and at least one sensor 62, 62a-i that senses a well parameter. The segments 24, 24a,b can be helically arranged in the wellbore 14.

The well parameter may be selected from the group consisting of temperature and ultrasonic waves.

The segments 24, 24a,b can include a communication device 64.

Although various examples have been described above, with each example having certain features, it should be understood that it is not necessary for a particular feature of one example to be used exclusively with that example. Instead, any of the features described above and/or depicted in the drawings can be combined with any of the examples, in addition to or in substitution for any of the other features of those examples. One example's features are not mutually exclusive to another example's features. Instead, the scope of this disclosure encompasses any combination of any of the features.

Although each example described above includes a certain combination of features, it should be understood that it is not necessary for all features of an example to be used. Instead, any of the features described above can be used, without any other particular feature or features also being used.

It should be understood that the various embodiments described herein may be utilized in various orientations, such as inclined, inverted, horizontal, vertical, etc., and in various configurations, without departing from the principles of this disclosure. The embodiments are described merely as examples of useful applications of the principles of the disclosure, which is not limited to any specific details of these embodiments.

In the above description of the representative examples, directional terms (such as “above,”“below,”“upper,”“lower,” etc.) are used for convenience in referring to the accompanying drawings. However, it should be clearly understood that the scope of this disclosure is not limited to any particular directions described herein.

The terms “including,”“includes,”“comprising,”“comprises,” and similar terms are used in a non-limiting sense in this specification. For example, if a system, method, apparatus, device, etc., is described as “including” a certain feature or element, the system, method, apparatus, device, etc., can include that feature or element, and can also include other features or elements. Similarly, the term “comprises” is considered to mean “comprises, but is not limited to.”

Of course, a person skilled in the art would, upon a careful consideration of the above description of representative embodiments of the disclosure, readily appreciate that many modifications, additions, substitutions, deletions, and other changes may be made to the specific embodiments, and such changes are contemplated by the principles of this disclosure. For example, structures disclosed as being separately formed can, in other examples, be integrally formed and vice versa. Accordingly, the foregoing detailed description is to be clearly understood as being given by way of illustration and example only, the spirit and scope of the invention being limited solely by the appended claims and their equivalents.

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Citation

Patents Cited in This Cited by
Title Current Assignee Application Date Publication Date
Method of Placing Ball Sealers For Fluid Diversion SCHLUMBERGER TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 18 November 2008 20 May 2010
Borehole survey apparatus utilizing accelerometers and probe joint measurements SUNDSTRAND DATA CONTROL, INC. 13 January 1981 23 August 1983
Communication through an enclosure of a line HALLIBURTON ENERGY SERVICES, INC. 19 July 2010 19 January 2012
Total field imaging probe CLOT; ANDRE 27 July 1990 19 October 1993
Wellbore condition monitoring sensors BAKER HUGHES INCORPORATED 15 November 2011 16 May 2013
Title Current Assignee Application Date Publication Date
用于持续疗法的纳米颗粒组合物 优迪有限合伙公司 06 May 2016 27 March 2018
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US10001007 Well logging autonomous robotic 1 US10001007 Well logging autonomous robotic 2 US10001007 Well logging autonomous robotic 3