- a first communicating meter configured to be coupled to a low voltage side of a service distribution transformer, the first communicating meter configured to communicate with a second communicating meter on the low voltage side of the service distribution transformer to form a Transformer Area Network
- the first communicating meter comprising: a Measurement Agent configured to periodically measure and record a current, a voltage, and a time at the first communicating meter
- anda Monitoring agent configured to: receive transmissions from the second communicating meter that include a measured current, a measured voltage, a timestamp, and a unique identifier (ID) that identifies the second communicating meter
- determine a first adjusted voltage drop based at least in part on a measured current flow at the first communicating meter
- determine a second adjusted voltage drop based at least in part on a measured current flow at the second communicating meter
- determine that the second adjusted voltage drop exceeds the first adjusted voltage drop by a predetermined threshold
- and communicate a message that identifies the second communicating meter and indicates a potential theft of power to a computing device that comprises a software application hosted in a data center with access to a grid map database.
System and method for detecting and localizing non-technical losses in an electrical power distribution grid
Updated Time 12 June 2019Patent Registration Data
13 June 2014
19 June 2018
ASTROLINK INTERNATIONAL LLC,DOMINION ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
Original Assignee (Applicant)
ASTROLINK INTERNATIONAL LLC C/O LOCKHEED MARTIN CORPORATION,DOMINION ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, INC. C/O DOMINION RESOURCES SERVICES, INC.
BERNHEIM, HENRIK F.,HANSELL, JERRITT H.,MARTIN, MARCIA REID
This patent contains figures and images illustrating the invention and its embodiment.
A system and method for detecting theft of power in an electrical distribution grid. The system may include at least two communicating meters which form a transformer area network, a mechanism for measuring current and voltage at the meters, a mechanism for transmitting the measured current and voltage data to a data center with access to an electric grid database, and a mechanism that analyzes the transmitted data to inter unauthorized taking of electrical power.
1. A system for detecting a theft of power in an electrical distribution grid, the system comprising: a first communicating meter configured to be coupled to a low voltage side of a service distribution transformer, the first communicating meter configured to communicate with a second communicating meter on the low voltage side of the service distribution transformer to form a Transformer Area Network;the first communicating meter comprising: a Measurement Agent configured to periodically measure and record a current, a voltage, and a time at the first communicating meter; anda Monitoring agent configured to: receive transmissions from the second communicating meter that include a measured current, a measured voltage, a timestamp, and a unique identifier (ID) that identifies the second communicating meter; determine a first adjusted voltage drop based at least in part on a measured current flow at the first communicating meter; determine a second adjusted voltage drop based at least in part on a measured current flow at the second communicating meter; determine that the second adjusted voltage drop exceeds the first adjusted voltage drop by a predetermined threshold; and communicate a message that identifies the second communicating meter and indicates a potential theft of power to a computing device that comprises a software application hosted in a data center with access to a grid map database.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein said communicating meters are Remotes.
3. The system of claim 1, wherein at least one communicating meter configured to transmit messages over a wide-area network is a Remote Hub.
4. The system of claim 1 wherein the Transformer Area Network has a radial topology.
5. The system of claim 1 wherein the Transformer Area network has a bus topology.
6. The system of claim 1, wherein a grid mapping agent is hosted on at least one communicating meter of the Transformer Area Network.
7. A method for detecting unauthorized, unmetered taps on the low-voltage side of an electrical distribution service transformer, the method comprising: recording, by a first communicating meter comprising a processor device and coupled to an electrical distribution grid on a low-voltage side of the electrical distribution service transformer, a current, a voltage, and a timestamp at the first communicating meter; receiving, by the first communicating meter via a Transformer Area Network, a transmission from a second communicating meter coupled to the electrical distribution grid on the low-voltage side of the electrical distribution service transformer, that includes a current, a voltage, and a timestamp at the second communicating meter; determining, by the first communicating meter, a first adjusted voltage drop based at least in part on a measured current flow at the first communicating meter; determining, by the first communicating meter, a second adjusted voltage drop based at least in part on a measured current flow at the second communicating meter; determining, by the first communicating meter, that the second adjusted voltage drop exceeds the first adjusted voltage drop by a predetermined threshold; and transmitting, by the first communicating meter, a wide-area message that identifies the second communicating meter and indicates a potential theft to a computing device in a data center.
11. A system for detecting a theft of power in an electrical distribution grid, the system comprising:
2. The system of claim 1, wherein
- said communicating meters are Remotes.
3. The system of claim 1, wherein
- at least one communicating meter configured to transmit messages over a wide-area network is a Remote Hub.
4. The system of claim 1 wherein
- the Transformer Area Network has a radial topology.
5. The system of claim 1 wherein
- the Transformer Area network has a bus topology.
6. The system of claim 1, wherein
- a grid mapping agent is hosted on at least one communicating meter of the Transformer Area Network.
77. A method for detecting unauthorized, unmetered taps on the low-voltage side of an electrical distribution service transformer, the method comprising:
- recording, by a first communicating meter comprising a processor device and coupled to an electrical distribution grid on a low-voltage side of the electrical distribution service transformer, a current, a voltage, and a timestamp at the first communicating meter
- receiving, by the first communicating meter via a Transformer Area Network, a transmission from a second communicating meter coupled to the electrical distribution grid on the low-voltage side of the electrical distribution service transformer, that includes a current, a voltage, and a timestamp at the second communicating meter
- determining, by the first communicating meter, a first adjusted voltage drop based at least in part on a measured current flow at the first communicating meter
- determining, by the first communicating meter, a second adjusted voltage drop based at least in part on a measured current flow at the second communicating meter
- determining, by the first communicating meter, that the second adjusted voltage drop exceeds the first adjusted voltage drop by a predetermined threshold
- and transmitting, by the first communicating meter, a wide-area message that identifies the second communicating meter and indicates a potential theft to a computing device in a data center.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention is directed toward applications of on-grid communications for optimizing electrical distribution, and specifically for real-time identification and location of non-technical losses occurring in a service transformer area network.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Electrical Distribution Substations contain one or more Substation Transformers, which step down the voltage from high transmission line levels (typically 130 kV to 700 kV) to the medium voltage levels (typically from 4 kV to about 35 kV) at which power is distributed to consumers within a distribution service area. At the edge of the Distribution Grid are a number of Service Transformers, which transform the medium voltage of the distribution grid to the low voltages (in the US, typically 120, 208, 240, 277, or 480) required for commercial, industrial, and residential consumers. Other voltages in addition to some of these can be used elsewhere in the world. Each Service Transformer powers one or more metered loads. A load can be a dwelling, a commercial or industrial building, an element of municipal infrastructure such as a series of street lamps, or agricultural apparatus such as irrigation systems.
Other than the wires connecting a consumer load and the associated meter to a service transformer, the service transformer is the outermost element of the distribution grid before the power is actually delivered to a consumer. A meter is typically attached at the point where the power from the service transformer is delivered to the consumer. Service transformers can be three-phase, dual-phase, or single phase, as can meters. Herein the collection of electrical apparatus inclusive from a service transformer to the collection of at least two communicating electrical meters is referred to as a Transformer Area. Network (TAN). A TAN can have a radial topology, such as is common in the US, or it can have a linear or “bus” topology, as is more common in Europe and elsewhere in the world.
Traditionally, reading meters was one of the largest operational costs incurred by electrical utilities. Original electric meters were analog devices with an optical read-out that had to be manually examined monthly to drive the utility billing process. Beginning in the 1970s, mechanisms for digitizing meter data and automating its collection began to be deployed. These mechanisms evolved from walk-by or drive-by systems where the meter would broadcast its current reading using a short-range radio signal, which was received by a device carried by the meter reader. These early systems were known as Automated Meter Reading systems or AMRs. Later, a variety of purpose-built data collection networks, commonly employing a combination of short-range RF repeaters in a mesh configuration with collection points equipped with broadband backhaul means for transporting aggregated readings began to be deployed.
These networks were capable of two-way communication between the “metering head-end” at a utility service center and the meters at the edge of this data collection network, which is generally called an Advanced Metering infrastructure or AMI. AMIs can collect and store readings frequently, typically as often as every 15 minutes, and can report them nearly that often. They can read any meter on demand provided that this feature is used sparingly, and can connect or disconnect any meter on demand as well. AMI meters can pass signals to consumer devices for the purpose of energy conservation, demand management, and variable-rate billing. Because the AMI network is separate from the power distribution grid except for the intersection at the meters, AMI meters are neither aware of nor sensitive to changes in the grid topology or certain conditions on the grid. Nonetheless, the introduction of AMI is generally considered to be the beginning of the distribution Smart Grid. Additionally, because of the mesh architecture typically used in the AMIs in the United States, the available bandwidth for an individual electrical meter to send its own data is quite limited.
The total billable kilowatt-hours produced by a typical electrical distribution grid anywhere in the world is substantially less than the actual power distributed, as measured at a distribution substation, over the billing period. The loss of power can be classified into two groups. Technical losses result from the overall impedance of the distribution infrastructure, from power-factor mismatch between what the population of loads requires and what the grid produces at each load point, and from the fact that utilities oversupply voltage to ensure that power sags will not occur during unpredictable peak loads. Utilities can work to minimize these technical losses, but some technical losses are unavoidable.
Non-technical losses of actual power-hours (as opposed to revenue) result from power theft by consumers who avoid or subvert the metering process by tampering with meters or by tapping power lines above the metered load points. Non-technical revenue losses also include non-payment of bills by customers, and accounting errors by utilities. However, these types of revenue losses are addressed by Meter Data Management systems integrated with the Advanced Metering Infrastructure. These automated systems have the capability to prevent clerical errors, to immediately cut off service to non-paying customers, and to require customers with poor payment histories to be on a pay-in-advance billing plan. Because AMIs provide little or no information about the grid-schematic relationship of one electrical meter to another and the relationship between the electrical meter and the service transformer supplying it with power, AMIs are of little value in pinpointing the source of power theft. Some Smart Meters can detect and report tampering. On the other hand, the absence of meter readers from neighborhoods reduces the chance that illegal taps will be seen and reported.
The social and financial costs of power theft are highly variable, in the developing world, these costs are quite high: sometimes exceeding 50% of power delivered from substations. In India, for example, the major private utilities (Reliance and Tata) report non-technical losses around 10%, but the state-owned utilities have losses exceeding 30% in most cases, according to the India's Maharashtra Electricity Regulation Commission (MERC).
In the developed world, losses from theft represent a relatively small percentage of the total generation cost. In the United States, losses from theft have traditionally been estimated at one to three percent of revenue, though this figure increases during difficult economic times.
Power theft represents a safety and quality-of-service issue as well as an economic issue. Jury-rigging power taps is dangerous and often results in injury and even death. Additionally, the jury-rigged taps represent a fire hazard. Most significantly, the resultant unpredictable loading of the distribution grid can cause transformer fires and explosions that can result not only in dangerous situations but in major power outages.
Prior art methods for detecting power theft can be divided into three categories. One category involves comparing voltage and current at a meter with voltage and current at a point of origin for delivery, such as the service distribution transformer for a neighborhood. The technical losses due to the resistance of the low voltage line between the point of origin and each meter are presumed to be less than a predetermined amount, so that any difference in power loss above the predetermined amount can be presumed to be due either to theft or to line defects. United States Patent Application Publication No. 2012/0265355, titled System and Method for Single and Multizonal Optimization of Utility Services Delivery and Utilization (incorporated herein by reference) describes a system of this sort, wherein intelligent software agents at the service transformer collect measurements both at the transformer and from other instruments located at or incorporated in the electric meters. Theft detection is cited as one of the applications of this system. However, systems involving placing agents and instruments at the transformer are less desirable than would be a system that did not require any devices at the transformer, because transformers are far less physically accessible than meter sockets, and modifying them by adding instrumentation inside the transformer housing or on the high-voltage side of the transformer can be costly and even dangerous.
A second category involves measuring current and voltage outside the meter of a metered load, and inside the premises of the metered load. If more power is being used on the premises than is being delivered via the meter, then either power is being locally generated on the premises, or the meter is being bypassed. Methods of this sort are problematic for utilities because a service utility typically does not have access to data from inside the metered load. The consumer would have to agree to the placement of devices inside the premises.
A third category involves detecting the instantaneous changes in power usage or minor outages caused by tampering with the distribution lines in order to install an unmetered tap. This category of mechanism falls short because tampering can be masked by larger events such as a legitimate outage or interruption in service, and because it would create many false positives.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention is an apparatus and methods for real-time or near-real-time detecting and reporting of power theft in such a way that the tamper point may be determined to have occurred on the low-voltage side of a specific service transformer. In cases of meter tampering the specific meter or meters involved may be identified. The present invention does not require instrumentation of the transformer at the service delivery point (service transformer). All instruments and the intelligent agents which perform and collect the measurements and process the collected data to find evidence of power theft are located where instruments and intelligence would reside anyway: at the electrical meter. This is beneficial in that the meter socket is typically easily accessible, and because a smart meter already contains memory and processors for hosting software agents, already has the capability of making many of the measurements used by the methods of the present invention, and because most smart meters are designed to accommodate an additional circuit board where the native instruments, communication capabilities, and/or memory and processing capabilities are insufficient to support the methods described herein.
U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/871,944, titled A System and Method for inferring Schematic and Topological Properties of an Electrical Distribution Grid, incorporated herein by reference, describes augmenting Smart Meters with long-range (Edge-to-Substation) on-grid transmitters, and also short-range (low voltage, local to the service transformer) on grid transceivers. A Smart Meter having both short-range and long-range on-grid transmission capability is called a Remote Hub. A Smart Meter having only short-range on-grid capability is called a Subordinate Remote. The term Remotes is used to refer collectively to both Subordinate Remotes and Remote Hubs. A service transformer having a Remote Hub and zero or more Subordinate Remotes is defined as a Transformer Area Network, or TAN. Further, that application discloses a method for determining the feeder and phase supplying a Remote Hub with power based on characteristics of a long-range message transmitted from the Remote Hub.
U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/888,102, titled Methods for Discovering, Partitioning, Organizing, and Administering Communication Devices in a Transformer Area Network, also incorporated herein by reference, teaches a method of ensuring that all Remote Hubs and Subordinate Remotes in a TAN are, in fact, supplied with power by the same service transformer, and, in the case of a multi-phase transformer, determining which Remotes are on the same phase as a Remote Hub and which Remotes are on a different phase. Additionally, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/911,849, titled A System and Method for Inferring Schematic Relationships between Load Points and Service Transformers and incorporated herein by reference, describes a method for identifying the specific service transformer and its geospatial coordinates which supply a given meter socket, and incorporating the association and coordinates into a map of the distribution grid. The utility already knows at least the street address, if not the precise geospatial coordinates, of every meter. Using the information obtained from the systems and methods in the above-referenced applications, the physical and schematic origin of a report from a Remote Hub, and the physical and schematic extent of the Transformer Area Network the Remote Hub represents, may be very precisely defined. These inventions teach a Transformer Area Network Architecture which is master-slave in nature, wherein one Remote, typically the Remote Hub, contains most of the intelligence, and polls simpler agents on the Subordinate Remotes both to organize the TAN, and to implement applications on the TAN. The system and methods of the present invention are primarily described in terms of such a TAN organization. However, a master-slave network organization is only one of the possible network organizations suitable for hosting the present invention. For example, a peer-to-peer transformer area network is also suitable. A wider peer-to-peer network, such as an AMI mesh network, might also be suitable given that a) the nodes in the network have sufficient information to partition themselves logically by transformer area and b) that there is sufficient bandwidth for sharing the measurements taken by the measurement agents of the present invention, as described herein below.
The present invention provides a method for a Remote Hub in communication with at least one Subordinate Remote, each Remote operable to measure and store voltage at the meter and current passing from the meter to the metered load, to identify indications that power theft is occurring in the TAN, without placing apparatus either at the service transformer of the TAN or inside the premises of the loads powered by the TAN. For this purpose, the TAN comprises at least two nodes, such as one Remote Hub and one or more Subordinate Remotes, on each phase of the TAN. Further, every load (metered service point) on the TAN has a Remote (or another type of communicating meter) if complete theft protection is to be achieved. The method can be employed with some meters not having a Remote, but some thefts may go undetected in that case, depending on the topology of the TAN and the location of the unauthorized tap with respect to the communicating meters. Methods for inferring the existence and location of illegal taps that do not require taking measurements at the service transformer of the TAN are taught. Avoiding the need to take measurements at the service transformer is desirable because the cost of only adding instrumentation at the meters is significantly lower than the cost of adding instrumentation at both the meter and the transformer, as is the cost of maintaining the network when all instruments and intelligence reside at the meter only. Avoiding the need to place apparatus inside the premises of the metered service point is desirable because the consent of the consumer is required to place apparatus inside the premises, and because maintenance of equipment inside the premises is typically outside the charter of the utility.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and form a part of the specification, illustrate the embodiments of the present invention and, together with the description, serve to explain the principles of the invention. In the drawings:
FIG. 1 illustrates a radial-topology transformer area, with an above-ground transformer and power lines and three metered premises.
FIG. 2 illustrates a bus-topology transformer area with a pad-mounted transformer, underground power lines, and three metered premises along a single tap.
FIG. 3 illustrates a radial-topology transformer area with a pad-mounted transformer, underground power lines, and three metered premises each with its own tap.
FIG. 4 illustrates the area of FIG. 1 enhanced to form a Transformer Area Network by the addition of a Remote Hub and to Subordinate Remotes.
FIG. 5 shows the Transformer Area Network of FIG. 4 with the addition of an illegal unmetered tap used to power a greenhouse.
FIG. 6 shows the electrical detail of a radial Transformer Area Network like that of FIGS. 4 and 5, with an arbitrary number of metered premises (Nodes) N.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Refer to FIG. 1, which illustrates a typical single-phase pole-mounted transformer 101 connected via aerial power lines 102 to residences 103. In the United States and many other locales, this is a typical configuration, especially in older areas. Power lines to residences are typically attached to the eaves of the roof, with, the power lines traveling downward to the meters 104 in conduit on the exterior of the residences 103. FIG. 2, by contrast, illustrates a bus topology for the transformer area, which is more typical in other parts of the world than in the United States. In FIG. 2, a pad-mounted transformer 201 connects via a linear buried line 202 connected to residences 203, 204, and 205 at meters 206, 207, and 208 respectively. This topology is common in Europe and elsewhere in the world. A typical installation might serve many more meters than shown: the average number of meters per single-phase transformer in the US is approximately six (6), but the European average is dozens. FIG. 3 shows a typical US buried-cable installation, wherein pad-mounted transformer 301 is connected radially via buried cable 302 to residences 303 at meters 304. These three basic configurations, with minor local variations and multi-phase variations for industrial and commercial applications, represent most electrical distribution networks worldwide. The present invention works with minor variations on all three of these common topologies, as is taught herein below. For the purpose of this teaching, each phase of a three-phase transformer can be considered as a separate TAN, even though, as described in Ser. No. 13/888,102, a three-phase transformer area may actually be organized as a single TAN, but wherein the phase of each node (e.g. Remote) in the TAN is known, and Edge-to-Substation transmissions from the TAN are sent on the phase to which they pertain.
Refer now to FIG. 4, where the transformer area of FIG. 1 has been converted to a Transformer Area Network by substituting for the ordinary meters in FIG. 1 two Subordinate Remotes 402 and 404, and one Remote Hub 403. The clocks of the communicating meters of the Transformer Area Network have been synchronized to within a known tolerance, as described in Ser. No. 13/871,944. Service Transformer 401 does not contain any added communication equipment or instruments, and is identical with the Service Transformer of FIG. 1. Note that service point/residence 405 has nearby an unpowered outbuilding 406 such as a barn.
In one embodiment of the invention, a measurement agent resides on each of Remotes 402, 404, and 403. Each agent periodically measures the delivered voltage V and flowing current I at its service point. A monitoring agent which may reside on Remote Hub 403 periodically collects the time-stamped current and voltage measurements from Subordinate Remotes 402 and 404 and from its own measurement agent. The period of the monitoring agent is not required to be the same as the period of the measurement agents, but the time at which the measurements are taken is synchronized to the closest tolerance possible given the capabilities of the TAN. Both periods are very small with respect to the time scale of events in a typical AMI network, wherein, for example, meter readings may be transmitted only every fifteen minutes or even less frequently. The monitoring agent executes a software algorithm that compares current and voltage measurements taken at the different meters at the same time and uses them to infer when an unmetered flow of current is occurring between the transformer and one or more of the metered service points.
In FIG. 5, an unmetered tap 507 has been added at premise 505, electrically between transformer 501 and meter 504. The tap has been used to electrify outbuilding 506. Not only do such taps cause monetary losses for the utility, at peak load times they may create a danger of transformer fires and explosions because the TAN as a whole may be drawing more power than the rated maximum of the transformer.
FIG. 6 provides electrical detail of a radial Transformer Area Network such as that of FIGS. 4 and 5. The TAN of FIG. 6 contains at least two metered service points, or Nodes, herein labeled 1 . . . N. Power source 601 supplies transformer 607 with power at a medium voltage, which is stepped down by transformer 607 to the low voltage range accepted by the meters in the transformer area, here represented by meter 627 in Node 1(605) and meter 629 in Node N(610). Current 604 represents current flowing from the power source due to all the loads on the grid served by power source 601. Impedance 603 represents the impedance of the medium-voltage grid. The voltage 606 on the low side of transformer 607 fluctuates with changes in voltage 602, impedance 603, and current 604. None of these quantities are constant, measureable, or known to the software agents at the meters (such as 627 and 629), but voltage 602 may be expected to vary around a nominal value within a known range of acceptable values. For example, a typical nominal value for voltage 602 might be 13.4 KV in the United States (though others are possible), and a typical nominal value for voltage 606 might be 240V, though again others are possible. These nominal values may be known to the software agents.
Consider now the components in the rectangle 605 representing Node 1. Node 1 comprises the apparatus delivering power from service transformer 607 to meter 627. Interesting measurable quantities are marked on the diagram. Impedance 616 represents the legitimate metered load of the premise of Node 1, which may vary over time according to what appliances and devices are in use on the premise. Point 626 is not an actual piece of equipment, but represents an arbitrary place on the power line from transformer 607 to meter 627 where an illegal tap might be installed. Impedance 612, which is normally extremely large when no theft is occurring, represents a potential unauthorized, unmetered load. Impedances 609 and 613 represent the normal impedance of the power line from transformer 607 to meter 627. Voltage 611 represents the voltage at hypothetical tap point 626. None of these quantities are known to or measureable by the software agents residing at meter 627. Current 614 and voltage 615 are measured periodically by the measurement agent residing at meter 627 and shared on the TAN by the communication equipment at meter 627. Regardless of the network architecture of the TAN, the sharing is always conducted in such a way that the identity of the meter from which the measurements originate and the time the measurements were taken is known to any receiver of the messages in which the measurements are transmitted. Note that element 622 of FIG. 6 is not a feature of the TAN, but is an ellipsis indicating that an arbitrary number of additional Nodes could exist between Node 1605 and Node N 610.
Similarly, consider the components in the rectangle 610 representing Node N. This is the apparatus delivering power from service transformer 607 to meter 629. Impedance 625 represents the legitimate metered load of the premise of Node N, which may vary over time according to what appliances and devices are in use on the premise. Point 628 is not an actual feature of the TAN, but represents an arbitrary place on the power line from transformer 607 to meter 629 where an illegal tap might be installed. Impedance 623, which is normally extremely large when no theft is occurring, represents a possible unauthorized, unmetered load. Impedances 618 and 620 represent the normal impedance of the power line from transformer 607 to meter 629. Voltage 619 represents the voltage at hypothetical tap point 628. None of these quantities are known to or measureable by the software agents residing at meter 629. Current 621 and voltage 624 are measured periodically by the measurement agent residing at meter 629 and shared on the TAN by the communication equipment at meter 629.
For the purposes of the algorithm of the monitoring agent, it does not matter whether meter 629, meter 627, or the meter of another Node between 1 and N has the Remote Hub and which meters have Subordinate Remotes. Indeed, as is noted herein above, another type of TAN communication entirely may be employed, as long as it provides sufficient bandwidth for all the meters of the TAN to share their measurements within a sufficiently small period. The TAN may host at least one monitoring agent somewhere on the TAN and a measuring agent at each communicating meter. With some network architectures, it may be more effective to host a monitoring agent in every node. Alternatively, the work of the monitoring agent may be distributed among multiple communicating meters. If the monitoring agent does not reside on a meter having the capability to send a wide-area message such as an Edge-to-Substation message, then the monitoring agent must transmit a command to a wide-area enabled device to transmit the anomaly report.
Suppose that an unauthorized load represented by impedance 612 is now attached at point 626. Voltage 611 will drop because more current (the current drawn by the unauthorized load at 612) is flowing through impedance 609. This will also cause a drop in voltage 615. However, the current 614 flowing through impedance 613 does not drop correspondingly. A measurement agent at meter 627, able to measure only current 614 and voltage 615, will not be able to infer whether the drop in voltage 615 is due simply to a drop in voltage 606, or whether it is caused by a theft represented by a drop in voltage 611 and a decrease in impedance 612 (which ought to always be very large). However, consider the observations made by a measurement agent at meter 629. For simplicity, assume that impedance 623 in Node N (610) is properly large—no power is being stolen in Node N. A measurement agent at meter 629 will observe a drop in voltage 624 due to the drop in voltage 606. A monitoring agent can use the measured currents 614 and 621 at the meters 627 and 629 respectively (and others, if there are more communicating nodes in the TAN) to estimate the proper voltage drop due to each metered load. Once the effects of the metered loads (616, 624) have been removed, the adjusted magnitudes of the voltages measured at each meter can be compared. Even though there will be small differences in the line impedance between the transformer 607 and each meter, these are expected to be negligible. (In this example, compare impedances 609+613 to meter 627 with impedances 618+620 to meter 629.) If one meter, in this example 627, sees a greater adjusted voltage drop than the other meters, within a tolerance representing normal differences in the line impedance, then it is to be expected that an unmetered load exists between that meter and transformer 607.
Further, this method of comparing current and voltage from each available “viewpoint” detects theft in the TAN even if there are multiple theft points. Even if there were an unmetered load attached between every meter and the transformer, unless the impedances 612, 623, etc. due to unauthorized loads were identical at all times, then the theft points could still be inferred by a monitoring agent with access to the current and voltage measurements of each measurement agent, because the voltage drops at some measurement points would not be proportional to the current at the same point.
When the monitoring agent residing at the Remote Hub of the TAN detects a probable theft, then the Remote Hub may send an Edge-to-Substation message to alert the utility about the anomaly. Edge-to-Substation messages, as described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/871,944 referenced above, travel from a Remote Hub to an electrical distribution substation supplying power to the substation transformer, here, transformer 607. From the substation, the message is transferred by a conventional network to a data center provided by the utility or an energy management services provider. A theft alert may also be propagated via another available network connected to the Remote Hub or other communicating meter, such as an AMI network. Such a message may include at least a unique identifier of the service transformer or a meter at which the anomalous current-voltage relationship was detected which may be used to match the origin of the message with the data in a grid map database.
The method described herein above with minor computational adjustments can be equally applied to a transformer area which has a bus topology such as is shown in FIG. 2 rather than a radial topology like FIGS. 1 and 3. In a bus topology, the voltage drop from transformer to meter is additive as each node is further from the transformer, as the metered loads are connected in series rather than in parallel. Nevertheless, each metered load's contribution to the voltage drop ought to be proportional to the current being drawn at each meter. If the voltage drop at a given meter is greater than proportional to the measured currents between the transformer and that meter, based on the time stamped current and voltage measurements shared on the TAN by the other meters—in this case, specifically the meters earlier in the series with respect to the transformer than the given measurement point.
In order to apply this method in a TAN with a bus topology, it is necessary for the order of the nodes in the TAN with respect to the transformer to be known to the monitoring agent (at least). This can be inferred by the monitoring agent. The ordering of the series will correspond to the measured voltage at each metered point, with the lowest voltage being schematically furthest from the transformer. Referring again to FIG. 2, the schematically nearest meter to transformer 201 is 206, and the furthest in series is 208. This would remain true even if premise 205 were geospatially closer to transformer 201 than premise 203, which is certainly possible. This condition is also illustrated in FIG. 2. Additionally, this schematic inference remains correct even if power theft is occurring, because the resulting voltage drops are still cumulative.
U.S. patent application Ser. Nos. 13/871,944, 13/888,102, and 13/911,849, all referenced above, teach methods for recording an accurate grid map of an electrical distribution network. The grid mapping method taught by these inventions includes the feeder and phase of each substation operable to power each metered load supplied by the network and a correct and current partitioning of the meters of the network into Transformer Area Networks. In order to perform theft detection, the grid map of a TAN with a bus topology may be augmented with the series order of the meters of the TAN, and this order can be kept up-to-date as meters and loads are added and removed from the TAN. For theft detection, this information may only need to be maintained by a monitoring agent in each TAN, and indeed it may be recomputed periodically by each monitoring agent. However, it may be beneficial to record this additional information in a centralized grid map database, said centralized grid map database being taught by Ser. No. 13/871,944. To do this, the Edge-to-Substation message sent when a new node is discovered in the TAN may include the schematic order of the meter on the power line bus from the transformer. Similarly, if the order of nodes were observed to change, for example after a power outage or extension of the TAN due to construction, then the new ordering might be reported in an Edge-to-Substation message to be recorded in a grid map database.
Another method of power theft is sometimes used that does not involve creating an illegal tap. This method involves creating misdirection by switching meters with a neighbor prior to making an increase in consumption. A communicating meter of any kind can already be enabled to report being disconnected from the meter socket if it is plugged into a meter socket again (whether the same socket or a different one) while power is available. However, an enterprising power thief can wait for a natural power outage in which to swap meters with another premise, or can vandalize the network to create an outage in which to effect the swap. An intelligent meter, however, that participates in a Transformer Area Network with real-time grid mapping as is described herein and in the referenced related inventions, can detect an illegal move in a variety of ways:
- If two meters are swapped between two distinct TANs, then both TANs may report discovering a new meter and losing communications with a meter that was formerly part of the TAN.
- If two meters are swapped in such a way that the phase of the meters is reversed, then this change may be reported by the grid mapping agents.
- If two meters are switched within the same TAN and the same phase, then if the TAN has a bus architecture, both meters will be detected as having changed positions with respect to their service transformer, and this may be reported by the monitoring agent.
- If a meter has access to a geospatial location signal, then a grid mapping agent on the meter may report the change in location.
This leaves only one case—swapping two meters not enabled to receive a geospatial location signal, between two premises on the same phase of the same radial TAN—which is not easily detected. This case may be undesirable from the viewpoint of the thief because of the proximity of the premises: better to tamper with a meter socket several blocks away than with that of the next-door neighbor.
To manage the detection process, an agent such as the monitoring agent on at least one communicating meter (such as a Remote Hub) on each TAN may report each of the detected anomalous conditions using an Edge-to-Substation message or another available wide-area network capable of forwarding the message to a software program residing in a data center with access to the consolidated grid map. The software program also receives reports of planned grid changes from other applications used to manage the grid. An example of such reports could be the work orders used to dispatch field engineers to make required changes and repairs to the distribution grid. The software program avoids reporting false theft indications by matching the anomaly reports from the communicating meters against the work orders or similar reports. Anomalies which are explained by the work orders are not reported as potential indicators of theft. The anomalies which cannot be matched with a work order create alerts that a potential theft may be occurring, regardless of whether the anomaly is a change in the grid map or a voltage anomaly reported by a monitoring agent. The theft alert may contain the account numbers and addresses of the affected premises, the identity and geospatial coordinates of the affected transformers and meters, and any other relevant information that may be used to locate the theft, whether the theft is perpetrated by means of moving meters or by means of creating an unauthorized, unmetered tap
The foregoing description of the invention has been presented for purposes of illustration and description and is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise forms disclosed. Many modifications and variations are possible in light, the above teaching. The embodiments were chosen and described in order to best explain the principles of the invention and its practical application to thereby enable others skilled in the art to best utilize the invention in various embodiments and with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated. It is intended that the scope of the invention be defined by the claims appended hereto.
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