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Patent Analysis of

Hybrid STATCOM with wide compensation range and low DC-link voltage

Updated Time 12 June 2019

Patent Registration Data

Publication Number

US10003195

Application Number

US15/425270

Application Date

06 February 2017

Publication Date

19 June 2018

Current Assignee

UNIVERSITY OF MACAU

Original Assignee (Applicant)

UNIVERSITY OF MACAU

International Classification

H02J3/18,H02J3/01,H02M7/537

Cooperative Classification

H02J3/1842,H02M7/537,H02J3/01,H02J3/1864,Y02E40/12

Inventor

WONG, MAN-CHUNG,LAM, CHI-SENG,WANG, LEI

Patent Images

This patent contains figures and images illustrating the invention and its embodiment.

US10003195 Hybrid STATCOM wide compensation 1 US10003195 Hybrid STATCOM wide compensation 2 US10003195 Hybrid STATCOM wide compensation 3
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Abstract

A hybrid-STATCOM for providing compensating reactive power required by a load, the hybrid-STATCOM comprising: a TCLC part for each electric power phase, each TCLC part comprising: a coupling inductor; a power filter capacitor; and a thyristor-controlled reactor connected in series with a power filter inductor; and an active inverter part comprising: a voltage source inverter for each electric power phase; and a DC-link capacitor connected in parallel with the voltage source inverters. The control strategy of the hybrid-STATCOM is separated into two parts: TCLC part control and Active inverter part control. The TCLC part control is based on the instantaneous pq theory and aims to compensate the loading reactive power with the controllable TCLC part impedance. The active inverter part control is based on the instantaneous active and reactive current id-iq method and aims to improve the overall performance of the hybrid-STATCOM under different voltage and current conditions.

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Claims

1. A hybrid static synchronous compensator (hybrid-STATCOM) system for providing compensating reactive power required by a load in an electricity distribution network, the hybrid-STATCOM system comprising:a thyristor-controlled LC (TCLC) part for each electric power phase in the electricity distribution network, each TCLC part comprising: a coupling inductor; a power filter capacitor; and a thyristor-controlled reactor connected in series with a power filter inductor; wherein the power filter capacitor is connected in parallel with the thyristor-controlled reactor connected in series with the power filter inductor; and wherein the coupling inductor is connected in series with the parallel-connected power filter capacitor and thyristor-controlled reactor connected in series with the power filter inductor; andan active inverter part comprising: a voltage source inverter for each electric power phase in the electricity distribution network; and a DC-link capacitor connected in parallel with the voltage source inverters.

2. The hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 1, wherein the thyristor-controlled reactor is a pair of bidirectional switches; wherein when the thyristor-controlled reactor is switched off, the TCLC part for each electric power phase in the electricity distribution network comprises a coupling inductor connected in series with a power filter capacitor; and wherein when the thyristor-controlled reactor is switched on, the TCLC part for each electric power phase in the electricity distribution network comprises a coupling inductor connected in series with a combination of a power filter capacitor and a power filter inductor.

3. The hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 1, wherein the compensating reactive power required by the load for the electric power phase x, Qcx,TCLC(ax), is provided by the TCLC part and is governed by:

Qcx,TCLC(αx)=Vx2XTCLCx(αx);

wherein Vx is a RMS value of the load voltage and XTCLCx(ax) is the TCLC part impedance as controllable by firing angle, ax.

4. The hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 3, wherein the TCLC part impedance, XTCLCx(ax), is governed by:

XTCLCx(αx)=πXLPFXCPFXCPF(2π-2αx+sin2αx)-πXLPF+XLc;

wherein XLc, XLPF, and XCPF are fundamental impedances of the coupling inductor, the power filter inductor, and the power filter capacitor, respectively.

5. The hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 3, wherein a minimum TCLC part inductive impedance and in turn a maximum inductive compensating reactive power are provided by setting ax to 90°; and wherein a minimum TCLC part capacitive impedance and in turn a maximum capacitive compensating reactive power are provided by setting ax to 180°.

6. The hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 1, wherein the active inverter part is configured to limit a compensating current to a reference compensating current value via pulse width modulation (PWM) triggering signals driving one or more switching devices in the active inverter part.

7. The hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 1, wherein the power filter capacitor is determined by:

CPF=QLx(MaxInd)ω2QLx(MaxInd)Lc+ωVx2;

wherein CPF is the power filter capacitor capacitance, ω is a fundamental angular frequency, Vx is a RMS voltage value of the load, Lc is the coupling inductor inductance, QLx(MaxInd) and QLx(MaxCap) are loading maximum inductive and capacitive reactive power respectively.

8. The hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 1, wherein the power filter inductor is determined by:

LPF=Vx2+ωLcQLx(MaxCap)-ωQLx(MaxCap)+ω3LcCPFQLx(MaxCap)+ω2Vx2CPF;

wherein LPF is the power filter inductor inductance, ω is a fundamental angular frequency, Vx is a RMS voltage value of the load, Lc is the coupling inductor inductance, QLx(MaxInd) and QLx(MaxCap) are loading maximum inductive and capacitive reactive power respectively.

9. The hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 1, wherein the coupling inductor is determined by:

LcVDC8·fs·ΔiLcmax;

wherein LC is the coupling inductor inductance, fs is a switching frequency of the active inverter part, ΔiLCmax is a maximum allowed output current ripple value, and VDC is a DC-link voltage across the DC-link capacitor.

10. The Hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 1, wherein VDC of the active inverter part is determined by VDCx=6Vx1+QLxQcx,TCLC(αx)VDC=max(VDCa,VDCb,VDCc) wherein x is a, b or c, VDCx is the required DC-link voltage of each phase, QLx is the reactive power of the loading, Qcx,TCLC(ax) is the reactive power provided by the TCLC part, Vx is the RMS phase load voltage and the final VDC is determined by choosing the largest DC voltage among phase a, b and c.

11. The hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 1, wherein the TCLC part is configured to compensate the load reactive power with the TCLC part impedance; wherein the TCLC part impedance required is determined by:

XTCLCx=VxILqx=v23q_Lx;

wherein XTCLCx is an instantaneous value of the TCLC part impedance in each phase, ∥v∥ is a norm of three phase instantaneous voltage of the load, and qLx is a DC component of the phase reactive power of the load, and x is a, b or c; wherein ∥v∥ is obtained by:

v=va2+vb2+vc2;

wherein va, vb, and vc are the three phases instantaneous voltage of the load; wherein qLx is obtained by: [qLaqLbqLc]=[vb·iLc-vc·iLbvc·iLa-va·iLcva·iLb-vb·iLa]; and wherein qLa, qLb, and qLc are the three phase reactive power of the load.

12. The hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 11, wherein the impedance of the TCLC part is controllable by selecting a firing angle; wherein the firing angle is determined by solving: XTCLCx(αx)=XTCR(αx)XCPFXCPF-XTCR(αx)+XLc=πXLPFXCPFXCPF(2π-2αx+sin2αx)-πXLPF+XLc; and wherein ax is the firing angle, XLc, XLPF, and XCPF are fundamental impedances of the coupling inductor, the power filter inductor, and the power filter capacitor respectively.

13. The hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 12, further comprising a look-up table (LUT) between XTCLCx and ax for determining the firing angle for the TCLC part impedance required; wherein the control of the TCLC part impedance is triggered by comparing the firing angle with the load voltage phase angle.

14. The hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 1, wherein the active inverter part is configured to limit a compensating current to a reference compensating current value to avoid mistuning problem, resonance problem, and harmonic injection problem in the TCLC part under different voltage and current conditions; wherein the reference compensating current value is determined by:

[ica*icb*icc*]=23·[10-1/23/2-1/2-3/2]·[cosθa-sinθasinθacosθa]·[i~diq];

wherein ica*, icb*, and icc*are the three phases reference compensating current values, id and iq are instantaneous active and reactive current respectively, which include DC components īd and īq, and AC components ĩd and ĩq; wherein ĩd is obtained by passing id through a high-pass filter; wherein id and iq are obtained by:

[idiq]=[cosθasinθa-sinθacosθa]·[iαiβ]

and

[iαiβ]=[1-1/2-1/203/2-3/2]·[iLaiLbiLc];

wherein iLa, iLb, and iLc are the three phases load current; and wherein the active inverter part is further configured to limit the compensating current to the reference compensating current value via pulse width modulation (PWM) triggering signals driving one or more switching devices in the active inverter part.

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Claim Tree

  • 1
    1. A hybrid static synchronous compensator (hybrid-STATCOM) system for providing compensating reactive power required by a load in an electricity distribution network, the hybrid-STATCOM system comprising:
    • a thyristor-controlled LC (TCLC) part for each electric power phase in the electricity distribution network, each TCLC part comprising: a coupling inductor
    • a power filter capacitor
    • and a thyristor-controlled reactor connected in series with a power filter inductor
    • wherein the power filter capacitor is connected in parallel with the thyristor-controlled reactor connected in series with the power filter inductor
    • and wherein the coupling inductor is connected in series with the parallel-connected power filter capacitor and thyristor-controlled reactor connected in series with the power filter inductor
    • andan active inverter part comprising: a voltage source inverter for each electric power phase in the electricity distribution network
    • and a DC-link capacitor connected in parallel with the voltage source inverters.
    • 2. The hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 1, wherein
      • the thyristor-controlled reactor is a pair of bidirectional switches; wherein
    • 3. The hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 1, wherein
      • the compensating reactive power required by the load for the electric power phase x, Qcx,TCLC(ax), is provided by the TCLC part and is governed by: Qcx,TCLC(αx)=Vx2XTCLCx(αx); wherein
    • 6. The hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 1, wherein
      • the active inverter part is configured to limit a compensating current to a reference compensating current value via pulse width modulation (PWM) triggering signals driving one or more switching devices in the active inverter part.
    • 7. The hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 1, wherein
      • the power filter capacitor is determined by: CPF=QLx(MaxInd)ω2QLx(MaxInd)Lc+ωVx2; wherein
    • 8. The hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 1, wherein
      • the power filter inductor is determined by: LPF=Vx2+ωLcQLx(MaxCap)-ωQLx(MaxCap)+ω3LcCPFQLx(MaxCap)+ω2Vx2CPF; wherein
    • 9. The hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 1, wherein
      • the coupling inductor is determined by: LcVDC8·fs·ΔiLcmax; wherein
      • 10. The Hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 1, wherein
        • VDC of the active inverter part is determined by VDCx=6Vx1+QLxQcx,TCLC(αx)VDC=max(VDCa,VDCb,VDCc) wherein
        • 11. The hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 1, wherein
          • the TCLC part is configured to compensate the load reactive power with the TCLC part impedance; wherein
        • 14. The hybrid-STATCOM system of claim 1, wherein
          • the active inverter part is configured to limit a compensating current to a reference compensating current value to avoid mistuning problem, resonance problem, and harmonic injection problem in the TCLC part under different voltage and current conditions; wherein
        • See all independent claims <>

          Description

          COPYRIGHT NOTICE

          A portion of the disclosure of this patent document contains material, which is subject to copyright protection. The copyright owner has no objection to the facsimile reproduction by anyone of the patent document or the patent disclosure, as it appears in the Patent and Trademark Office patent file or records, but otherwise reserves all copyright rights whatsoever.

          FIELD OF THE INVENTION

          The present invention generally relates to electricity generation and distribution.

          BACKGROUND

          List of References

          The following references are cited in the specification. Disclosures of these references are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

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          • [6] J. A. Munoz, J. R. Espinoza, C. R. Baier, L. A. Moran, J. I. Guzman, and V. M. Cardenas, “Decoupled and modular harmonic compensation for multilevel STATCOMs,”IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 2743-2753, June 2014.
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          The large reactive current in transmission systems is one of the most common power problems that increases transmission losses and lowers the stability of a power system [1]-[19]. Application of reactive power compensators is one of the solutions for this issue.

          Static VAR compensators (SVCs) are traditionally used to dynamically compensate reactive current as the loads vary from time to time. However, SVCs suffer from many problems, such as resonance problems, harmonic current injection, and slow response [2]-[3]. To overcome these disadvantages, static synchronous compensators (STATCOMs) and active power filters (APFs) were developed for reactive current compensation with faster response, less harmonic current injection, and better performance [4]-[9]. However, the STATCOMs or APFs usually require multilevel structures in a medium- or high-voltage level transmission system to reduce the high-voltage stress across each power switch and DC-link capacitor, which drives up the initial and operational costs of the system and also increases the control complexity. Later, series-type capacitive-coupled STATCOMs (C-STATCOMs) were proposed to reduce the system DC-link operating voltage requirement [10], and other series-type hybrid structures that consist of different passive power filters (PPFs) in series with STATCOMs or APF structures (PPF-STATCOMs) have been applied to power distribution systems [11]-[16] and traction power systems [17]-[19]. However, C-STATCOMs and other series-type PPF-STATCOMs contain relatively narrow reactive power compensation ranges. When the required compensating reactive power is outside their compensation ranges, their system performances can significantly deteriorate.

          To improve the operating performances of the traditional STATCOMs, C-STATCOMs, and other PPF-STATCOMs, many different control techniques have been proposed, such as the instantaneous p-q theory [4], [10], [11], [17]-[19], the instantaneous d-q theory [5], [6], [14], the instantaneous id-iq method [7], negative- and zero-sequence control [8], the back propagation (BP) control method [9], nonlinear control [12], Lyapunov-function-based control [13], instantaneous symmetrical component theory [15], and hybrid voltage and current control [16].

          To reduce the current rating of the STATCOMs or APFs, a hybrid combination structure of PPF in parallel with STATCOM (PPF//STATCOM) was proposed in [20] and [21]. However, this hybrid compensator is dedicated for inductive loading operation. When it is applied for capacitive loading compensation, it easily loses its small active inverter rating characteristics. To enlarge the compensation range and keep low current rating characteristic of the APF, Dixon et al. [22] proposed another hybrid combination structure of SVC in parallel with APF (SVC//APF) in three-phase distribution systems. In this hybrid structure, the APF is controlled to eliminate the harmonics and compensate for the small amounts of load reactive and unbalanced power left by the SVC. However, if this structure is applied in a medium- or high-voltage level transmission system, the APF still requires a costly voltage step-down transformer and/or multilevel structure. In addition, these two parallel connected-hybrid STATCOM structures [15]-[17] may suffer from a resonance problem.

          To overcome the shortcomings of different reactive power compensators [1]-[22] for transmission systems, this invention provides a hybrid-STATCOM that consists of a thyristor-controlled LC part (TCLC) and an active inverter part, as shown in FIG. 1. The TCLC part provides a wide reactive power compensation range and a large voltage drop between the system voltage and the inverter voltage so that the active inverter part can continue to operate at a low DC-link voltage level. The small rating of the active inverter part is used to improve the performances of the TCLC part by absorbing the harmonic current generated by the TCLC part, avoiding mistuning of the firing angles, and preventing the resonance problem.

          SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

          It is an objective of the present invention to provide a hybrid-STATCOM with the distinctive characteristics of a much wider compensation range than C-STATCOM [10] and other series-type PPF-STATCOMs [11]-[19] and a much lower DC-link voltage than traditional STATCOM [4]-[9] and other parallel-connected hybrid STATCOMs [20]-[22]. The V-I characteristic of the hybrid-STATCOM is analyzed to provide a clear view of its advantages in comparison with traditional STATCOM and C-STATCOM. The parameter design method of the hybrid-STATCOM is based on consideration of the reactive power compensation range, the filtering out of the current ripple caused by the power switches, and avoidance of mistuning of firing angle.

          It is a further objective of the present invention to provide a method of controlling the hybrid-STATCOM to coordinate the TCLC part and the active inverter part for reactive power compensation under different voltage and current conditions, such as unbalanced current, voltage fault, and voltage dip.

          The characteristics of different reactive power compensators and the hybrid-STATCOM are compared and summarized in Table I below.


          TABLE I
          Comparisons of the Characteristics Among Different Compensators
          Compen-
          Response
          Resonance
          DC-link
          sation
          time
          problem
          voltage
          range
          Cost
          SVCs [2]-[3]
          Slow**
          Yes**
          Wide
          Low
          STATCOMs
          Very
          No
          High**
          Wide
          High**
          [4]-[9]
          Fast
          C-STATCOMs
          Fast
          No
          Low
          Narrow**
          Low
          [10]
          Series-type PPF-
          Fast
          No
          Low
          Narrow**
          Low
          STATCOMs
          [11]-[19]
          PPF//STATCOM
          Fast
          Yes**
          High**
          Narrow**
          Medium
          [20], [21]
          SVC//APF [22]
          Fast
          Yes**
          High**
          Wide
          High**
          Hybrid-
          Fast
          No
          Low
          Wide
          Medium
          STATCOM
          **Unfavorable characteristic.

          BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

          Embodiments of the invention are described in more details hereinafter with reference to the drawings, in which:

          FIG. 1 shows a circuit configuration of a hybrid-STATCOM in accordance to an embodiment of the present invention;

          FIG. 2a depicts the V-I characteristics of a traditional STATCOM;

          FIG. 2b depicts the V-I characteristics of a C-STATCOM;

          FIG. 2c depicts the V-I characteristics of the hybrid-STATCOM;

          FIG. 3 shows the control block diagram of the hybrid-STATCOM;

          FIG. 4 depicts the dynamic performance of the hybrid-STATCOM for different loadings compensation;

          FIG. 5a, FIG. 5b, and FIG. 5c depict the dynamic compensation waveforms of vx and isx by applying the hybrid-STATCOM under (a) inductive load, (b) capacitive load and (c) changing from capacitive load to inductive load respectively;

          FIG. 6 depicts the dynamic reactive power compensation of phase a by applying the hybrid-STATCOM;

          FIG. 7a, FIG. 7b, FIG. 7c, and FIG. 7d depict the source current harmonic spectrums of phase a: (a) before compensation of inductive load, (b) after compensation of inductive load, (c) before compensation of capacitive load, and (d) after compensation of capacitive load respectively;

          FIG. 8 depicts the dynamic compensation waveforms of vx and isx by applying hybrid-STATCOM under unbalanced loads;

          FIG. 9a, FIG. 9b, FIG. 9c, FIG. 9d, FIG. 9e, and FIG. 9f depict the source current harmonic spectrums under unbalanced loads before compensation: (a) phase a, (b) phase b, (c) phase c, and after hybrid-STATCOM compensation: (d) phase a, (e) phase b, (f) phase c respectively;

          FIG. 10 depicts the dynamic compensation waveforms of vx and isx by applying hybrid-STATCOM under voltage fault condition;

          FIG. 11a, FIG. 11b, FIG. 11c, FIG. 11d, FIG. 11e, and FIG. 11f depicts the source current harmonic spectrum under voltage fault before compensation: (a) phase a, (b) phase b, (c) phase c, and after hybrid-STATCOM compensation: (d) phase a, (e) phase b, (f) phase c respectively; and

          FIG. 12 depicts the dynamic compensation waveforms of vx and isx by applying hybrid-STATCOM during voltage dip.

          DETAILED DESCRIPTION

          In the following description, STATCOMs and methods of controlling thereof and the likes are set forth as preferred examples. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that modifications, including additions and/or substitutions may be made without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention. Specific details may be omitted so as not to obscure the invention; however, the disclosure is written to enable one skilled in the art to practice the teachings herein without undue experimentation.

          Circuit Configuration of Hybrid-STATCOM

          FIG. 1 shows a circuit configuration of a hybrid-STATCOM in accordance to an embodiment of the present invention, in which the subscript “x” stands for phase a, b, and c in the following analysis. vsx and vx are the source and load voltage; isx, iLx, and icx are the source, load, and compensating current, respectively. Ls is the transmission line impedance. The hybrid-STATCOM consists of a TCLC and an active inverter part.

          The TCLC part is composed of a coupling inductor Lc, a parallel capacitor CPF, and a thyristor-controlled reactor with LPF. The TCLC part provides a wide and continuous inductive and capacitive reactive power compensation range that is controlled by controlling the firing angles ax of the thyristors. The active inverter part is composed of a voltage source inverter with a DC-link capacitor CDC, and the small rating active inverter part is used to improve the performance of the TCLC part. In addition, the coupling components of the traditional STATCOM and C-STATCOM are also presented in FIG. 1.

          V-I Characteristics of Traditional STATCOM, C-STATCOM and Hybrid-STATCOM

          The purpose of the hybrid-STATCOM is to provide the same amount of reactive power as the loadings (QLx) consumed, but with the opposite polarity (Qcx=−QLx). The hybrid-STATCOM compensating reactive power Qcx is the sum of the reactive power Qcx,TCLC that is provided by the TCLC part and the reactive power Qinvx that is provided by the active inverter part. Therefore, the relationship among QLx, Qcx,TCLC, and Qinvx can be expressed as:

          QLx=−Qcx=−(Qcx,TCLC+Qinvx)  (1)

          The reactive power can also be expressed in terms of voltage and current as:

          QLx=VxILqx=−(XTCLCx(ax)Icqx2+VinvxIcqx)  (2)

          where XTCLCx(ax) is the coupling impedance of the TCLC part; ax is the corresponding firing angle; Vx and Vinvx are the root mean square (RMS) values of the coupling point and the inverter voltage; and ILqx and Icqx are the RMS value of the load and compensating reactive current, where ILqx=−Icqx. Therefore, (2) can be further simplified as:

          Vinvx=Vx+XTCLCx(ax)ILqx  (3)

          where the TCLC part impedance XTCLCx(ax) can be expressed as:

          XTCLCx(αx)=XTCR(αx)XCPFXCPF-XTCR(αx)+XLc=πXLPFXCPFXCPF(2π-2αx+sin2αx)-πXLPF+XLc(4)

          where XLc, XLPF, and xCPF are the fundamental impedances of Lc, LPF, and CPF, respectively. In (4), it is shown that the TCLC part impedance is controlled by firing angle ax. And the minimum inductive and capacitive impedances (absolute value) of the TCLC part can be obtained by substituting the firing angles ax=90° and ax=180°, respectively. In the following discussion, the minimum value for impedances stands for its absolute value. The minimum inductive (Xind(min)>0) and capacitive (XCap(min)<0) TCLC part impedances can be expressed as:

          XInd(min)(αx=90°)=XLPFXCPFXCPF-XLPF+XLc(5)XCap(min)(αx=180°)=-XCPF+XLc(6)

          Ideally, XTCLCx(ax) is controlled to be Vx≈XTCLCx(ax)ILqx, so that the minimum inverter voltage (Vinvx≈0) can be obtained as shown in (3). In this case, the switching loss and switching noise can be significantly reduced. A small inverter voltage Vinvx(min) is necessary to absorb the harmonic current generated by the TCLC part, to prevent a resonance problem, and to avoid mistuning the firing angles. If the loading capacitive current or inductive current is outside the TCLC part compensating range, the inverter voltage Vinvx will be slightly increased to further enlarge the compensation range.

          The coupling impedances for traditional STATCOM and C-STATCOM, as shown in FIG. 1, are fixed as XL and XL-XC. The relationships among the load voltage Vx, the inverter voltage Vinvx, the load reactive current ILqx, and the coupling impedance of traditional STATCOM and C-STATCOM can be expressed as:

          Vinvx=Vx+XLILqx  (7)

          Vinvx=Vx−(XC-XLILqx  (8)

          where Xc>>XL. Based on (3)-(8), the V-I characteristics of the traditional STATCOM, C-STATCOM, and hybrid-STATCOM can be plotted as shown in FIG. 2a, FIG. 2b, and FIG. 2c respectively.

          For the V-I characteristics of traditional STATCOM as shown in FIG. 2a, the required Vinvx is larger than Vx when the loading is inductive. In contrast, the required Vinvx is smaller than Vx when the loading is capacitive. Actually, the required inverter voltage Vinvx is close to the coupling voltage Vx, due to the small value of coupling inductor L [5]-[8].

          For the V-I characteristics of C-STATCOM as shown in FIG. 2b, it is shown that the required Vinvx is lower than Vx under a small inductive loading range. The required Vinvx can be as low as zero when the coupling capacitor can fully compensate for the loading reactive current. In contrast, Vinvx is larger than Vx when the loading is capacitive or outside its small inductive loading range. Therefore, when the loading reactive current is outside its designed inductive range, the required Vinvx can be very large.

          For the V-I characteristics of the hybrid-STATCOM as shown in FIG. 2c, the required Vinvx can be maintained at a low (minimum) level (Vinvx(min)) for a large inductive and capacitive reactive current range. Moreover, when the loading reactive current is outside the compensation range of the TCLC part, the Vinvx will be slightly increased to further enlarge the compensating range. Compared with traditional STATCOM and C-STATCOM, the hybrid-STATCOM has a superior V-I characteristic of a large compensation range with a low inverter voltage.

          In addition, three cases represented by points A, B, and C in FIG. 2 are simulated below. Based on FIG. 1, the parameter design of hybrid-STATCOM is discussed in the following part.

          Parameter Design of Hybrid-STATCOM

          The TCLC in accordance to an embodiment of the present invention is a SVC structure, which is designed based on the basis of the consideration of the reactive power compensation range (for LPF and CPF) and the filtering out of the current ripple caused by the power switches (for Lc). The active inverter part (DC-link voltage VDC) is designed to avoid mistuning of the firing angle of TCLC part.

          Design of CPF and LPF

          The purpose of the TCLC part is to provide the same amount of compensating reactive power Qcx,TCLC(ax) as the reactive power required by the loads QLx but with the opposite direction. Therefore, CPF and LPF are designed on the basis of the maximum capacitive and inductive reactive power. The compensating reactive power Qcx range in term of TCLC impedance XTCLCx(ax) can be expressed as:

          Qcx,TCLC(αx)=Vx2XTCLCx(αx)(9)

          where Vx is the RMS value of the load voltage and XTCLCx(ax) is the impedance of the TCLC part, which can be obtained from (4). In (9), when the XTCLCx(ax)=XCap(min)(ax=180°) and XTCLCx(ax)=XInd(min)(ax=90°), the TCLC part provides the maximum capacitive and inductive compensating reactive power Qcx(MaxCap) and Qcx(MaxInd), respectively.

          Qcx(MaxCap)=Vx2XCap(min)(αx=180°)=-Vx2XCPF-XLc(10)Qcx(MaxInd)=Vx2XInd(min)(αx=90°)=-Vx2XLPFXCPFXCPF-XLPF+XLc(11)

          where the minimum inductive impedance XInd(min) and the capacitive impedance XCap(min) are obtained from (5) and (6), respectively.

          To compensate for the load reactive power (Qcx=−QLx), CPF and LPF can be deduced on the basis of the loading maximum inductive reactive power QLx(MaxInd) (=−Qcx(MaxCap)) and capacitive reactive power QLx(MaxCap) (=−Qcx(MaxInd)). Therefore, based on (10) and (11), the parallel capacitor CPF and inductor LPF can be designed as:

          CPF=QLx(MaxInd)ω2QLx(MaxInd)Lc+ωVx2(12)LPF=Vx2+ωLcQLx(MaxCap)-ωQLx(MaxCap)+ω3LcCPFQLx(MaxCap)+ω2Vx2CPF(13)

          where ω is the fundamental angular frequency and Vx is the RMS load voltage.

          Design of Lc

          The purposes of Lc in TCLC is to filter out the current ripple caused by the power switches of active inverter part, and the value of the Lc can be designed as:

          LcVDC8·fs·ΔiLcmax(14)

          where fs is the switching frequency of active inverter, ΔiLcmax is the maximum allowed output current ripple value, and VDC is the DC-link voltage.

          Design of VDC

          Different with the traditional VDC design method of the STATCOM to compensate maximum load reactive power, the VDC of Hybrid-STATCOM is designed to solve the firing angle mistuning problem of TCLC (i.e., affect the reactive power compensation) so that the source reactive power can be fully compensated. Reforming (3), the inverter voltage Vinvx can also be expressed as:

          Vinvx=Vx[1+VxILqxVx2XTCLC(αx)]=Vx[1+QLxQcx,TCLC(αx)](15)

          where QLx is the load reactive power, Qcx,TCLC(ax) is the TCLC part compensating reactive power, and Vx is the RMS value of the phase load voltage. Then the required DC-link voltage VDCx of each phase and VDC for hybrid-STATCOM can be expressed as:

          VDCx=6Vx1+QLxQcx,TCLC(αx)(16)

          and

          VDC=max(VDCa, VDCb, VDCc).

          Ideally, Qcx,TCLC(ax) is controlled to be equal to −QLx so that the required VDC can be zero. However, in the practical case, the Qcx,TCLC(ax) may not be exactly equal to −QLx due to the firing angle mistuning problem. The worst case of mistuning QLx/Qcx,TCLC(ax) ratio can be pre-measured to estimate the required minimum VDC value. Finally, a slightly greater VDC value can be chosen. Based on (12), (13), (14), and (16), the system parameters CPF, LPF, Lc, and VDC of hybrid-STATCOM can be designed accordingly.

          Method of Controlling the Hybrid-STATCOM

          A method of controlling the hybrid-STATCOM is provided by coordinating the control of the TCLC part and the active inverter part so that the two parts can complement each other's disadvantages and the overall performance of hybrid-STATCOM can be improved. Specifically, with the controller in accordance to various embodiments of the present invention, the response time of the hybrid-STATCOM can be faster than SVCs, and the active inverter part can operate at lower DC-link operating voltage than the traditional STATCOMs. The control block diagram of hybrid-STATCOM is shown in FIG. 3.

          TCLC Part Control

          Different from the traditional SVC control based on the traditional definition of reactive power [2]-[3], to improve its response time, the TCLC part control is based on the instantaneous pq theory [4]. The TCLC part is mainly used to compensate the reactive current with the controllable TCLC part impedance XTCLCx. Referring to (3), to obtain the minimum inverter voltage Vinvx≈0, XTCLCx can be calculated with Ohm's law in terms of the RMS values of the load voltage (Vx) and the load reactive current (ILqx). However, to calculate the XTCLCx in real time, the expression of XTCLCx can be rewritten in terms of instantaneous values as:

          XTCLCx=VxILqx=v23q_Lx(17)

          where ∥v∥ is the norm of the three-phase instantaneous load voltage and qLx is the DC component of the phase reactive power of the load, and x can be a, b or c. The real-time expression of ∥v∥ and qLx can be obtained by (18) and (19) with low-pass filters.

          v=va2+vb2+vc2(18)[qLaqLbqLc]=[vb·iLc-vc·iLbvc·iLa-va·iLcva·iLb-vb·iLa](19)

          In (18) and (19), vx and qLx are the instantaneous load voltage and the load reactive power, respectively. As shown in FIG. 3, a limiter is applied to limit the calculated XTCLCx in (9) within the range of XTCLCx>Xind(min) and XTCLCx<XCap(min) (XCap(min)<0). With the calculated XTCLCx, the firing angle ax can be determined by solving (4). Because (4) is complicated, a look-up table (LUT) is installed inside the controller. The trigger signals to control the TCLC part can then be generated by comparing the firing angle ax with θx, which is the phase angle of the load voltage vx. θx can be obtained by using a phase lock loop (PLL). Note that the firing angle of each phase can differ if the unbalanced loads are connected (see (4) and (17)). With the control algorithm, the reactive power of each phase can be compensated and the active power can be basically balanced, so that DC-link voltage can be maintained at a low level even under unbalanced load compensation.

          Active Inverter Part Control

          In the control method, the instantaneous active and reactive current id-iq method [7] is implemented for the active inverter part to improve the overall performance of hybrid-STATCOM under different voltage and current conditions, such as balanced/unbalanced, voltage dip, and voltage fault. Specifically, the active inverter part is used to improve the TCLC part characteristic by limiting the compensating current icx to its reference value icx*so that the mistuning problem, the resonance problem, and the harmonic injection problem can be avoided. The icx*is calculated by applying the id-iq method [7] because it is valid for different voltage and current conditions.

          The calculated icx*contains reactive power, unbalanced power, and current harmonic components. By controlling the compensating current icx to track its reference icx*, the active inverter part can compensate for the load harmonic current and improve the reactive power compensation ability and dynamic performance of the TCLC part under different voltage conditions. The icx*can be calculated as:

          [ica*icb*icc*]=23·[10-1/23/2-1/2-3/2]·[cosθa-sinθasinθacosθa]·[i~diq](20)

          where id and iq are the instantaneous active and reactive current, which include DC components īd and īq, and AC components ĩd and ĩq. ĩd is obtained by passing id through a high-pass filter. id and iq are obtained by:

          [idiq]=[cosθasinθa-sinθacosθa]·[iαiβ](21)

          In (21), the current (iα and iβ) in α-β plane are transformed from a-b-c frames by:

          [iαiβ]=[1-1/2-1/203/2-3/2]·[iLaiLbiLc](22)

          where iLx is the load current signal.

          The TCLC part has two back-to-back connected thyristors in each phase that are triggered alternately in every half cycle, so that the control period of the TCLC part is one cycle (0.02 s). However, the hybrid-STATCOM structure connects the TCLC part in series with an instantaneous operated active inverter part, which can significantly improve its overall response time. With the controller, the active inverter part can limit the compensating current icx to its reference value icx*via pulse width modulation (PWM) control, and the PWM control frequency is set to be 12.5 kHz. During the transient state, the response time of hybrid-STATCOM can be separately discussed in the following two cases: a.) if the load reactive power is dynamically changing within the inductive range (or within the capacitive range), the response time of hybrid-STATCOM can be as fast as traditional STATCOM; and b.) in contrast, when the load reactive power suddenly changes from capacitive to inductive or vice versa, the hybrid-STATCOM may take approximately one cycle to settle down. However, in practical application, case b.) described above seldom happens. Therefore, based on the above, the hybrid-STATCOM can be considered as a fast-response reactive power compensator in which the dynamic performances of hybrid-STATCOM are proved by the simulation result shown in FIG. 4 and the experimental results shown in FIGS. 5, 6, and 10.

          Simulation Results

          In the following, the simulation results among traditional STATCOM, C-STATCOM, and the hybrid-STATCOM are discussed and compared. The previous discussions of the required inverter voltage (or DC-link voltage VDC=√{square root over (2)} ·√{square root over (3)} ·Vinvx) for these three STATCOMs are also verified by simulations. The STATCOMs are simulated with the same voltage level as in the experimental results. The simulation studies are carried out with PSCAD/EMTDC. Table III shows the simulation system parameters for traditional STATCOM, C-STATCOM, and hybrid-STATCOM. In addition, three different cases of loading are built for testing: a.) inductive and light loading, b.) inductive and heavy loading, and c.) capacitive loading. These three testing cases are also represented by points A, B, and C in FIG. 2. The detailed simulation results are summarized Table II.

          With the consideration of IEEE standard 519-2014 [23], total demand distortion (TDD)=15% and ISC/IL in 100<1000 scale at a typical case, the nominal rate current is assumed to be equal to the fundamental load current in the worst-case analysis, which results in THD=TDD=15%. Therefore, this paper evaluates the compensation performance by setting THD<15%.

          a.) Inductive and Light Loading

          When the loading is inductive and light, traditional STATCOM requires a high DC-link voltage (VDC>√{square root over (2)}·VL-L=269V, VDC=300V) for compensation. After compensation, the source current isx is reduced to 5.55 A from 6.50 A and the source-side displacement power factor (DPF) becomes unity from 0.83. In addition, the source current total harmonics distortion (THDisx) is 7.22% after compensation, which satisfies the international standard [23] (THDisx<15%).

          For C-STATCOM, the coupling impedance contributes a large voltage drop between the load voltage and the inverter voltage so that the required DC-link voltage can be small (VDC=80V). The isx, DPF and THDisx are compensated to 5.48 A, unity, and 2.01%, respectively.

          For the hybrid-STATCOM, the isx, DPF, and THDisx are compensated to 5.48 A, unity, and 1.98%, respectively. As discussed in the previous part, a low DC-link voltage (VDC=50V) of hybrid-STATCOM is used to avoid mistuning of firing angles, prevent resonance problems, and reduce the injected harmonic current.

          b.) Inductive and Heavy Loading

          To compensate for the inductive and heavy loading, traditional STATCOM still requires a high DC-link voltage of VDC=300V for compensation. Traditional STATCOM can obtain acceptable results (DPF=1.00 and THDisx=6.55%). The isx is reduced to 5.95 A from 8.40 A after compensation.

          With a low DC-link voltage (VDC=50V), C-STATCOM cannot provide satisfactory compensation results (DPF=0.85 and THDisx=17.5%). However, when the DC-link voltage is increased to VDC=300V, the compensation results (DPF=1.00 and THDisx=7.02%) are acceptable and satisfy the international standard [23] (THDisx<15%). The isx is reduced to 5.90 A from 8.40 A after compensation.

          On the other hand, the hybrid-STATCOM can still obtain acceptable compensation results (DPF=1.00 and THDisx=3.01%) with a low DC-link voltage of VDC=50V. The isx is reduced to 5.89 A from 8.40 A after compensation.

          c.) Capacitive Loading

          When the loading is capacitive, with VDC=250V (VDC<√{square root over (2)}·VL-L=269V), the compensation results of traditional STATCOM are acceptable, in which the DPF and THDisx are compensated to unity and 7.61%. The isx is also reduced to 3.67 A from 4.34 A after compensation.

          For C-STATCOM with VDC=50V, the isx increases to 7.10 A from the original 4.34 A. The compensation performances (DPF=0.57 and THDisx=23.5%) are not satisfactory, which cannot satisfy the international standard [23] (THDisx<15%). When VDC is increased to 500V, the DPF is improved to 0.99 and the THDisx is reduced to 10.6%, which can be explained by its V-I characteristic. However, the compensated isx=5.02 A is still larger than isx=3.73 A before compensation.

          With the lowest DC-link voltage (VDC=50V) of the three STATCOMs, hybrid-STATCOM can still obtain the best compensation results with DPF=1.00 and THDisx=3.01%. In addition, the isx is reduced to 3.41 A from 4.34 A after compensation.

          Dynamic Response of Hybrid-STATCOM

          FIG. 4 shows the dynamic performance of hybrid-STATCOM for different loadings compensation. When the load reactive power changes from capacitive to inductive, hybrid-STATCOM takes about one cycle to settle down. However, when the load reactive power is changing within the inductive range, the transient time is significantly reduced and the waveforms are smooth. Meanwhile, the fundamental reactive power is compensated to around zero even during the transient time. In practical situations, the load reactive power seldom suddenly changes from capacitive to inductive or vice versa, and thus hybrid-STATCOM can obtain good dynamic performance.


          TABLE II
          Simulation Results for Inductive and Capacitive Reactive
          Power Compensation of Traditional STATCOM,
          C-STATCOM and Hybrid-STATCOM
          Loading
          Without and With
          THDisx
          VDC
          Type
          STATCOM Comp.
          isx(A)
          DPF
          (%)
          (V)
          Case A:
          Before Comp.
          6.50
          0.83
          0.01
          inductive
          Trad. STATCOM
          5.55
          1.00
          7.22
          300 
          and light
          C-STATCOM
          5.48
          1.00
          2.01
          80
          loading
          Hybrid STATCOM
          5.48
          1.00
          1.98
          50
          Case B:
          Before Comp.
          8.40
          0.69
          0.01
          inductive
          Trad. STATCOM
          5.95
          1.00
          6.55
          300 
          and heavy
          C-STATCOM
          6.30
          0.85
          17.5
          50
          loading
          C-STATCOM
          5.90
          0.98
          7.02
          300 
          Hybrid STATCOM
          5.89
          1.00
          2.10
          50
          Case C:
          Before Comp.
          4.34
          0.78
          0.01
          capacitive
          Trad. STATCOM
          3.67
          1.00
          7.61
          250 
          loading
          C-STATCOM
          7.10
          0.57
          23.5
          50
          C-STATCOM
          5.02
          0.99
          10.6
          500 
          Hybrid STATCOM
          3.41
          1.00
          3.01
          50

          According to the above simulation results, Table II verifies the V-I characteristics of the traditional STATCOM, C-STATCOM, and hybrid-STATCOM, as shown in FIG. 2. With similar compensation performance, the capacity of the active inverter part (or DC-link voltage) of the hybrid-STATCOM is only about 16% of that of traditional STATCOM under wide range compensation (both inductive and capacitive). According to the cost study in [14] and [17], the average cost of traditional STATCOM is around USD $60/kVA, whereas that of SVC is only approximately $23/kVA. Therefore, by rough calculation, the average cost of the hybrid-STATCOM is just about $33/kVA (=$60/kVA*16%+$23/kVA), which is 55% of the average cost of traditional STATCOM. Moreover, because the hybrid-STATCOM can avoid the use of multilevel structures in medium-voltage level transmission system in comparison to traditional STATCOM, the system reliability can be highly increased and the system control complexity and operational costs can be greatly reduced.

          Based on the simulation results, a summary can be drawn as follows:

            • The traditional STATCOM can compensate for both inductive and capacitive reactive current with a high DC-link operating voltage due to a small coupling inductor.
            • Due to its high DC-link voltage, the traditional STATCOM obtains the poor source current THDisx (caused by switching noise) compared with hybrid-STATCOM.
            • C-STATCOM has a low DC-link voltage characteristic only under a narrow inductive loading range. However, when the loading current is outside its designed range, the C-STATCOM requires a very high DC-link operating voltage due to a large coupling capacitor.
            • The hybrid-STATCOM obtains the best performances among the three STATCOMs under both inductive and capacitive loadings.
            • The hybrid-STATCOM has a wide compensation range with low DC-link voltage characteristic and good dynamic performance.

          Experimental Results

          The objective of the experiment is to verify that the hybrid-STATCOM has the characteristics of a wide compensation range and low DC-link voltage under different voltage and current conditions, such as unbalanced current, voltage dip, and voltage fault. In the experiment, a 110-V, 5-kVA experimental prototype of the three-phase hybrid-STATCOM is constructed in the laboratory. The control system has a sampling frequency of 25 kHz. The switching devices for the active inverter are Mitsubishi IGBTs PM300DSA060. The switching devices for the TCLC are thyristors SanRex PK110FG160. Moreover, the experimental parameters of the hybrid-STATCOM are the same as those for the simulation listed in Table III. The experimental prototype's DC-link voltage is maintained at VDC=50V for all experiments.


          TABLE III
          Simulation and Experimental Parameters for Traditional
          STATCOM, C-STATCOM and Hybrid-STATCOM
          Parameters
          Physical values
          System parameters
          vx, f, Ls
          110 V, 50 Hz, 0.1 mH
          Traditional STATCOM
          L
          5 mH
          C-STATCOM
          L, C
          5 mH, 80 uF
          Hybrid-STATCOM
          Lc, LPF, CPF
          5 mH, 30 mH,160 uF
          Case A. Inductive and
          LL1, RL1
          30 mH, 14 Ω
          light loading
          Case B. Inductive and
          LL2, RL2
          30 mH, 9 Ω
          heavy loading
          Case C. Capacitive loading
          CL3, RL3
          200 uF, 20 Ω

          FIGS. 5 and 6 show the dynamic compensation waveforms of load voltage vx, source current isx, and reactive power Qsa of phase a by applying hybrid-STATCOM for inductive load and capacitive load compensation. FIG. 7 provides the corresponding source current harmonic spectrums for inductive and capacitive reactive power compensations.

          FIG. 5 clearly shows that after hybrid-STATCOM compensation, the source current isx and the load voltage vx are in phase with each other. The source displacement power factors (DPFs) are compensated to 1.00 from the original 0.69 (for inductive loading) and 0.64 (for capacitive loading). The worst phase source current THDisx are 3.5% and 5.4% after compensation, which satisfy the international standard [23] (THDisx<15%). The source current isx are also significantly reduced after compensation. In FIGS. 5a and 5b, the hybrid-STATCOM obtains a good dynamic compensation performance. In FIG. 5c, the response time is longer than expected by one cycle because the inductive loads and capacitive loads are manually switching on and off.

          FIGS. 8 and 10 illustrate dynamic compensation waveforms of load voltage vx and source current isx by applying hybrid-STATCOM under unbalanced loads and voltage fault situations, which clearly verify its good dynamic performance. FIGS. 9 and 11 provide their corresponding source current harmonic spectrums.

          FIGS. 8 and 9 show that the hybrid-STATCOM can compensate for and balance the source current even under unbalanced loads with low VDC=50V. The unbalanced isx are compensated from 4.80 A, 3.83 A, and 5.74 A to 2.94 A, 2.79 A, and 2.86 A, respectively. The DPF and THDisx are compensated to unity and lower than 9.0%, which satisfy the international standard [23]. From FIGS. 10 and 11, it can be seen that the hybrid-STATCOM can still obtain satisfactory performances even under asymmetric grid fault. During the voltage fault, the isx can be compensated to be approximately balanced with DPF≈1 and THDisx<10.0%.

          FIG. 12 also provides the dynamic compensation waveforms of load voltage vx and source current isx by applying hybrid-STATCOM during a sudden voltage dip. It is found that hybrid-STATCOM can obtain good dynamic and reactive power compensation performances.

          Table IV summarizes the hybrid-STATCOM experimental results. The experimental results confirm that the hybrid-STATCOM has a wide reactive power compensation range and low DC-link voltage characteristics with good dynamic performance even under different voltage and current conditions.


          TABLE IV
          Experimental Compensation Results by Hybrid-STATCOM (VDC = 50 V)
          under Different System and Loading Situations
          Different
          isx (A)
          DPF
          THDisx (%)
          Situations
          Comp.
          A
          B
          C
          A
          B
          C
          A
          B
          C
          Inductive
          Before
          7.13
          7.14
          7.34
          0.69
          0.70
          0.70
          1.1
          1.2
          1.2
          load
          After
          4.79
          4.97
          4.95
          1.00
          1.00
          1.00
          3.5
          3.3
          3.3
          Capacitive
          Before
          3.60
          3.63
          3.65
          0.65
          0.64
          0.64
          3.1
          2.9
          2.8
          load
          After
          2.92
          2.80
          2.85
          1.00
          1.00
          1.00
          5.4
          5.4
          5.2
          Unbalanced
          Before
          4.80
          3.83
          5.74
          0.36
          0.69
          0.64
          2.0
          1.4
          1.2
          loads
          After
          2.94
          2.79
          2.86
          1.00
          1.00
          1.00
          5.9
          8.7
          8.1
          Voltage
          Before
          5.57
          4.18
          7.06
          0.67
          0.38
          0.87
          2.3
          2.5
          1.6
          fault
          After
          4.30
          3.98
          4.00
          0.99
          1.00
          0.99
          4.7
          9.3
          6.2

          The embodiments disclosed herein may be implemented using general purpose or specialized computing devices, computer processors, or electronic circuitries including but not limited to digital signal processors (DSP), application specific integrated circuits (ASIC), field programmable gate arrays (FPGA), and other programmable logic devices configured or programmed according to the teachings of the present disclosure. Computer instructions or software codes running in the general purpose or specialized computing devices, computer processors, or programmable logic devices can readily be prepared by practitioners skilled in the software or electronic art based on the teachings of the present disclosure.

          In some embodiments, the present invention includes computer storage media having computer instructions or software codes stored therein which can be used to program computers or microprocessors to perform any of the processes of the present invention. The storage media can include, but are not limited to, floppy disks, optical discs, Blu-ray Disc, DVD, CD-ROMs, and magneto-optical disks, ROMs, RAMs, flash memory devices, or any type of media or devices suitable for storing instructions, codes, and/or data.

          The foregoing description of the present invention has been provided for the purposes of illustration and description. It is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise forms disclosed. Many modifications and variations will be apparent to the practitioner skilled in the art.

          The embodiments were chosen and described in order to best explain the principles of the invention and its practical application, thereby enabling others skilled in the art to understand the invention for various embodiments and with various modifications that are suited to the particular use contemplated. It is intended that the scope of the invention be defined by the following claims and their equivalence.

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          Citation

          Title Current Assignee Application Date Publication Date
          Static var compensator apparatus ABB SCHWEIZ AG 27 June 2011 19 March 2013
          Enhanced utilization of real power generating capacity of distributed generator (DG) inverters as statcom VARMA, RAJIV KUMAR,SHARMA, VINAY 01 May 2013 07 November 2013
          Vernier enhanced control for shunt connected thyristor-controlled capacitors GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY 02 June 1993 18 July 1995
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