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Patent Analysis of

Decoupling current control utilizing direct plant modification in electric power steering system

Updated Time 12 June 2019

Patent Registration Data

Publication Number

US10003285

Application Number

US14/503841

Application Date

01 October 2014

Publication Date

19 June 2018

Current Assignee

STEERING SOLUTIONS IP HOLDING CORPORATION

Original Assignee (Applicant)

STEERING SOLUTIONS IP HOLDING CORPORATION

International Classification

H02P6/21,H02P21/14,H02P21/00,H02P21/22,H02P3/14

Cooperative Classification

H02P6/08,H02P6/10,H02P21/0089,H02P21/10,H02P21/14

Inventor

PRAMOD, PRERIT,SHAH, SHRENIK P.,KLEINAU, JULIE A.,HALES, MICHAEL K.

Patent Images

This patent contains figures and images illustrating the invention and its embodiment.

US10003285 Decoupling current control utilizing direct 1 US10003285 Decoupling current control utilizing direct 2 US10003285 Decoupling current control utilizing direct 3
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Abstract

A method of controlling an electric motor that generates an output current from an input voltage command that includes a sum of a first voltage command and a second voltage command is provided. The method receives the output current from the motor as a feedback. The method determines a first set of gain factors to generate the first voltage command based on the feedback such that the input voltage command causes the motor to generate the output current with reduced influence of variations of a set of operating parameters of the motor. The method determines a difference between the feedback and a desired current. The method determines a second set of gain factors to generate the second voltage command based on the difference such that the input voltage command causes the motor to generate the output current as a first, second or higher order response.

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Claims

1. A system for controlling an electric motor that generates an output current from an input voltage command, the system comprising:a first module configured to: receive the output current from the electric motor as a feedback, the output current including a direct axis (d-axis) component and a quadrature axis (q-axis) component; generate a first voltage command based on an artificial resistance value (Rd, and Rq) and the feedback by using a transfer matrix

H=[-Rdω~eL~q-ω~eL~d-Rq],

 a q-axis component of the first voltage command being decoupled from effect of the d-axis component of the output current based on an estimated inductance value (Ĺd and Ĺq) and motor velocity ({acute over (ω)}e), and a d-axis component of the first voltage command being decoupled from effect of the q-axis component of the output current based on the estimated inductance value, and a current drawn by the electric motor being desensitized from variations of motor operation parameters based on negative values of the artificial resistance value (Rd, and Rq);a second module configured to: receive a difference between the feedback and a commanded current; and generate a second voltage command based on an estimated inductance value of the electric motor and a frequency response characteristic of the system, which is a closed-loop system; and an addition module configured to generate the input voltage command for the electric motor by adding the first voltage command and the second voltage command, the input voltage command being applied to the electric motor to generate corresponding amount of torque.

2. The system of claim 1, wherein the first module is further configured to compute the artificial resistance value based on operating parameters of the electric motor.

3. The system of claim 1, wherein the first module is further configured to reduce a time for the motor to respond to the input current command.

4. The system of claim 2, wherein the closed-loop system includes the electric motor, the first module, and the second module.

5. A method of controlling an electric motor of a system, wherein the electric motor generates an output current from an input voltage command, the method comprising: receiving the output current from the electric motor as a feedback; generating a first voltage command based on an artificial resistance value (Rd, and Rq) and the feedback by using a transfer matrix that includes the artificial resistance value (Rd, and Rq) in off-diagonal elements for desensitizing a current drawn by the electric motor from variations of motor operation parameters based on negative values of the artificial resistance value; determining a difference between the feedback and a desired current; generating a second voltage command based on an estimated inductance value of the electric motor and a frequency response characteristic of the system, which is a closed-loop system; generating the input voltage command for the electric motor by adding the first voltage command and the second voltage command; and applying the input voltage command to the electric motor to generate corresponding amount of torque.

6. The method of claim 5, wherein both, the output current and the first voltage command, include a direct axis (d-axis) component and a quadrature axis (q-axis) component, and wherein the method further comprises: configuring diagonal elements of the transfer matrix using an estimated inductance value (Ĺd and Ĺq) and motor velocity ({acute over (ω)}e) for: generating the q-axis component of the first voltage command such that a response of the d-axis component of the output current is decoupled from effect of the q-axis component of the output current; and generating the d-axis component of the first voltage command such that a response of the q-axis component of the output current is decoupled from effect of the d-axis component of the output current.

7. The method of claim 5, wherein the artificial resistance is computed based on a set of operating parameters of the motor.

8. The method of claim 5, wherein the method further comprises reducing a time for the motor to respond to the input current command.

9. The method of claim 7, wherein the closed-loop system includes the electric motor, a first module that generates the first voltage command, and a second module that generates the second voltage command.

10. The system of claim 1, wherein the artificial resistance value comprises a direct axis component (Rd) and a quadrature axis component (Rq).

11. The system of claim 1, wherein, in response to the system being a first order closed-loop system, the second module is configured to: generate a first voltage sub-command based on the estimated inductance value; generate a second voltage sub-command based on said artificial resistance value; and generate the second voltage command by adding the first voltage sub-command and the second voltage sub-command.

12. The system of claim 11, wherein the second module is further configured to generate the second voltage sub-command based on a desired frequency response.

13. The system of claim 1, wherein the second voltage command comprises a direct axis component and a quadrature axis component, and wherein, based on the decoupling by the first module, the second module is configured to generate the q-axis component of the second voltage command that is decoupled from effect of the d-axis component of the output current, and to generate the d-axis component of the second voltage command that is decoupled from effect of the q-axis component of the output current.

14. The method of claim 6, wherein the artificial resistance value comprises a direct axis component (Rd) and a quadrature axis component (Rq).

15. The method of claim 5, wherein, in response to the system being a first order closed-loop system, the method further comprises: generating a first voltage sub-command based on the estimated inductance value; generating a second voltage sub-command based on said artificial resistance value; and generating the second voltage command by adding the first voltage sub-command and the second voltage sub-command.

16. The method of claim 15, wherein generating the second voltage sub-command is further based on a cutoff frequency of the first order closed-loop system.

17. The method of claim 6, wherein the second voltage command comprises a direct axis component and a quadrature axis component, and wherein, based on the decoupling of the direct axis component of the output current and the quadrature axis component of the output current, the method further comprises: generating the q-axis component of the second voltage command that is decoupled from effect of the d-axis component of the output current; and generating the d-axis component of the second voltage command that is decoupled from effect of the q-axis component of the output current.

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Claim Tree

  • 1
    1. A system for controlling an electric motor that generates an output current from an input voltage command, the system comprising:
    • a first module configured to: receive the output current from the electric motor as a feedback, the output current including a direct axis (d-axis) component and a quadrature axis (q-axis) component
    • generate a first voltage command based on an artificial resistance value (Rd, and Rq) and the feedback by using a transfer matrix H=[-Rdω~eL~q-ω~eL~d-Rq],  a q-axis component of the first voltage command being decoupled from effect of the d-axis component of the output current based on an estimated inductance value (Ĺd and Ĺq) and motor velocity ({acute over (ω)}e), and a d-axis component of the first voltage command being decoupled from effect of the q-axis component of the output current based on the estimated inductance value, and a current drawn by the electric motor being desensitized from variations of motor operation parameters based on negative values of the artificial resistance value (Rd, and Rq)
    • a second module configured to: receive a difference between the feedback and a commanded current
    • and generate a second voltage command based on an estimated inductance value of the electric motor and a frequency response characteristic of the system, which is a closed-loop system
    • and an addition module configured to generate the input voltage command for the electric motor by adding the first voltage command and the second voltage command, the input voltage command being applied to the electric motor to generate corresponding amount of torque.
    • 2. The system of claim 1, wherein
      • the first module is further configured to compute the artificial resistance value based on operating parameters of the electric motor.
    • 3. The system of claim 1, wherein
      • the first module is further configured to reduce a time for the motor to respond to the input current command.
    • 10. The system of claim 1, wherein
      • the artificial resistance value comprises
    • 11. The system of claim 1, wherein
      • , in response to the system being a first order closed-loop system, the second module is configured to: generate a first voltage sub-command based on the estimated inductance value; generate a second voltage sub-command based on said artificial resistance value; and generate the second voltage command by adding the first voltage sub-command and the second voltage sub-command.
    • 13. The system of claim 1, wherein
      • the second voltage command comprises
  • 5
    5. A method of controlling an electric motor of a system, wherein
    • the electric motor generates an output current from an input voltage command, the method comprising:
    • 6. The method of claim 5, wherein
      • both, the output current and the first voltage command, include a direct axis (d-axis) component and a quadrature axis (q-axis) component, and wherein
    • 7. The method of claim 5, wherein
      • the artificial resistance is computed based on a set of operating parameters of the motor.
    • 8. The method of claim 5, wherein
      • the method further comprises
    • 15. The method of claim 5, wherein
      • , in response to the system being a first order closed-loop system, the method further comprises:
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Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The output torque of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) (either a surface permanent magnet (SPM) or an interior permanent magnet (IPM) motor) may be determined by a voltage command and a phase advance angle. A specific output torque of the PMSM is determined by first selecting a specific quadrature axis (also referred to as the q-axis) reference current and a direct axis (also referred to as the d-axis) reference current, and then determining the voltage command and the phase advance angle based on the selected quadrature axis reference current and the direct axis reference current.

Electric Power Steering (EPS) systems use an electric motor (e.g., PMSM) to provide steering assist. When using a PMSM, Field Oriented Control (FOC) is utilized, which allows an alternating current (AC) poly-phase (e.g., three-phase) motor voltage and current signals to be transformed into a synchronously rotating reference frame, commonly referred to as the d-axis/q-axis reference frame, where the motor voltages and currents become direct current (DC) quantities. The FOC torque control technique is implemented either using feedforward methods of control or a closed-loop current feedback control, or some combination of them.

Application of closed-loop current control of PMSM to EPS systems has unique and demanding requirements outside of the control system's capability to track the desired assist torque command (i.e., motor torque command). Many of these requirements are associated with a balance of the torque response behavior, motor input disturbance characteristics, current measurement noise transmission characteristics, and robustness to the accuracy of the estimated electric motor parameter estimates. Consistency of performance throughout the operating range of the control system is desired, including operation throughout the motor velocity range and operation near the supply voltage limit. Unlike high voltage power applications utilizing PMSMs, the supply voltage available for the control system from a vehicle is not unlimited, and the motor used in these applications is typically sized as efficiently as possible to deliver steady state power requirements. This requires the current control to operate in a stable and predictable manner as the transient voltage available to the control system becomes smaller near the peak power point of PMSM operation. Therefore, the control system should be configured to operate as desired while requiring relatively small motor voltage command transients.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In one embodiment of the invention, a system for controlling an electric motor that generates an output current from an input voltage command that includes a sum of a first voltage command and a second voltage command is provided. The system comprises a first module configured to receive the output current from the motor as a feedback, determine a first set of gain factors to generate the first voltage command based on the feedback such that the input voltage command causes the motor to generate the output current with reduced influence of variations of a set of operating parameters of the motor. The system further comprises a second module configured to receive a difference between the feedback and a commanded current and determine a second set of gain factors to generate the second voltage command based on the difference such that the input voltage command causes the motor to generate the output current as a first, second or higher order response.

In another embodiment of the invention, a method of controlling an electric motor that generates an output current from an input voltage command that includes a sum of a first voltage command and a second voltage command is provided. The method receives the output current from the motor as a feedback. The method determines a first set of gain factors to generate the first voltage command based on the feedback such that the input voltage command causes the motor to generate the output current with reduced influence of variations of a set of operating parameters of the motor. The method determines a difference between the feedback and a desired current. The method determines a second set of gain factors to generate the second voltage command based on the difference such that the input voltage command causes the motor to generate the output current as a first, second or higher order response.

These and other advantages and features will become more apparent from the following description taken in conjunction with the drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The subject matter which is regarded as the invention is particularly pointed out and distinctly claimed in the claims at the conclusion of the specification. The foregoing and other features, and advantages of the invention are apparent from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is an exemplary schematic illustration of a motor control system in accordance with exemplary embodiments;

FIG. 2 is a phasor diagram of a motor in accordance with exemplary embodiments;

FIG. 3 is an exemplary block diagram of the control module in accordance with exemplary embodiments;

FIG. 4 is an exemplary block diagram of the control module in accordance with exemplary embodiments;

FIG. 5 is an exemplary block diagram of the control module in accordance with exemplary embodiments;

FIG. 6 is an exemplary block diagram of the control module in accordance with exemplary embodiments;

FIG. 7 is an exemplary block diagram of the control module in accordance with exemplary embodiments;

FIG. 8 is an exemplary block diagram of the control module in accordance with exemplary embodiments;

FIG. 9 is an exemplary block diagram of the control module in accordance with exemplary embodiments;

FIG. 10 is an exemplary block diagram of the control module in accordance with exemplary embodiments; and

FIG. 11 is an exemplary block diagram of the control module in accordance with exemplary embodiments; and

FIG. 12 is flow diagram illustrating a control method for controlling an electric motor in accordance with exemplary embodiments.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Referring now to the Figures, where the invention will be described with reference to specific embodiments, without limiting same, FIG. 1 illustrates a motor control system 10 in accordance with one aspect of the invention. In the exemplary embodiments as shown, the motor control system 10 includes a motor 20, an inverter 22, a supply voltage 24, and a control module 30 (also referred to as a controller). The voltage supply 24 supplies a supply voltage VB to the motor 20. In some embodiments, the voltage supply 24 is a 12 volt battery. However, it is to be understood that other types of voltage supplies may be used as well. The inverter 22 is connected to the motor 20 by a plurality of connections 32 (e.g., three connectors) that are labeled as ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’. In some embodiments, the motor 20 is a poly-phase, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). In this example, the motor 20 is a three-phase PMSM. The control module 30 is connected to the motor 20 through the inverter 22. The control module 30 receives a motor torque command TCMD from a system 34 such as, for example, a steering control system. The control module 30 includes control logic for sending a motor voltage command V to the motor 20 through the inverter 22.

Referring now to FIGS. 1 and 2, the motor 20 is operated such that a phase of the motor voltage command V shifts with respect to a phase of a developed back electromotive force (BEMF) voltage E of the motor 20. A phasor diagram of the motor 20 is shown in FIG. 2 and illustrates a motor voltage command vector V having a magnitude that is Vm. A BEMF voltage vector E has a magnitude that is the BEMF voltage Eg. An angle between voltage vector V and the BEMF voltage vector E is defined and is referred to as a phase advance angle δ. A stator phase current is referred to as I, a stator phase current in the quadrature axis (q-axis) is referred to as Iq a stator phase current in the direct axis (d-axis) is referred to as Id, a stator phase reactance in the respective d-axis is referred to as Xd, the stator phase reactance in the q-axis is referred to as Xq, and a stator phase resistance in phase A is referred to as Ra.

In some embodiments, an encoder 36 (shown in FIG. 1) is used to measure an angular position θ of a rotor (i.e., mechanical position of the rotor) of the motor 20. The angular position θ of the motor 20 is converted to the electrical position θe and is then used to determine the input phase voltages Va, Vb and Vc, where input phase voltage Va corresponds with connection A, input phase voltage Vb corresponds with connection B, and input phase voltage Vc corresponds with connection C. The control module 30 includes control logic for calculating input phase voltages Va, Vb, and Vc by the following equations:

Va=Vm sin(θe+δ)  (Equation 1)

Vb=Vm sin(θe+δ+120°)  (Equation 2)

Vc=Vm sin(θe+δ+240°)  (Equation 3)

where θe in the equations 1-3 is the electrical position of the rotor that is converted from the mechanical angle or position θ of the rotor. The motor 20 rotates in a clockwise as well as a counterclockwise direction, and may also produce torque in both the clockwise and counterclockwise direction during operation.

FIG. 3 is an exemplary block diagram of the control module 30 in accordance with some embodiments of the invention. As shown, the control module 30 includes several sub-modules—a BEMF compensation module 302, an integration module 308, compensation modules 306 and 310, a modification module 320, a subtraction module 304, and addition modules 312-316. FIG. 3 also illustrates the motor 20. The inverter 22 between the control module 30 and the motor 20 is not depicted in FIG. 3 for the simplicity of illustration and description.

The motor 20 is a plant that is being controlled by the control module 30. That is, the motor 20 receives a voltage command VR and generates torque (i.e., draws or outputs the current IP, which is the actual motor current as described above by reference to FIGS. 1 and 2). The motor 20 together with the control module 30 makes up a closed-loop system that has a certain frequency response characteristic. As can be appreciated, the frequency response of the closed-loop system is governed by a set of model equations that defines a transfer function that transforms the input current command IR to the output current IP. In other words, the control module 30 regulates the output current IP by sending the voltage commend VM generated based on the input current command IR.

In some embodiments, the control module 30 is a feedback controller having closed-loops. That is, the output current of the motor 20 is fed back to the control module 30 and the control module 30 uses the feedback to regulate the output of the motor 20. As the output current IP is fed back to the control module 30, a disturbance current Idist and a noise current Inoise are added to IP and what comes back to the control module 30 is a feedback current IM, which is the output of a current sensor (not shown). That is, IM is the current measured and fed back to the control module 30, and is equal to the sum of IP, Idist and Inoise.

The modification module 320 takes as input from the motor 20 the measured feedback current IM. Based on the measured feedback current IM, the modification module 320 decouples the d-axis component Id of the output current IP from the variations of the q-axis current component Iq. That is, the modification module 320 eliminates the influence of the variations of the q-axis current Iq on the d-axis component of the output current. The modification module 320 also decouples the q-axis component Iq of the output current IP from the variations of d-axis current Id similarly. The modification module 320 achieves such decoupling by generating a modification voltage VH using a matrix H as will be described further below. The voltage command VM, which includes the modification voltage VH, causes the motor 30 to draw each component of the current IP without being affected by the variations of the other current component.

In addition, the modification module 320 of some embodiments makes the closed-loop system more robust to the stator resistance variations of the motor 20 as well as the measurement inaccuracies of the resistances. The modification voltage VH is combined by the adder 314 with a voltage command VC coming from the compensation modules 306 and 310 to produce a voltage command VR that causes the motor 30 to draw current in a stable manner that is not affected by the resistance of the motor 20 or any inaccurate estimation of the resistance. The addition module 316 combines the voltage command VR and a disturbance voltage Vdist to produce the voltage command VM supplied to the motor 20.

The compensation modules 306 and 310 make up a matrix-valued (or, multi-dimensional) proportional-integral (PI) controller that compensates for a difference IE between a commanded current IR and the measured current IM to control the motor 20. The compensation module 306 produces a proportional voltage command VP from a difference current IE (determined by the subtraction module 304). The compensation module 306 along with the integration module 308 produces an integral voltage command VI. The addition module 312 combines the voltage commands VP and VI to produce a voltage command VC. The proportional voltage command VP and the integral voltage command VI are determined in such a way that the combined voltage command VC, when applied to the motor 20, causes the overall current to current transfer function to be of a specific, desired order. It is to be noted that each of IR, IM, IE, VP, VI, and VC has a d-axis component and a q-axis component. Also, IR, IM, IE, VP, VI, and VC represent vectors and not scalar values.

The compensation module 306 is a proportional controller and the compensation module 310 is an integral controller. The proportional compensation module CP aids in configuring the frequency response of the closed-loop system when the first order type response is desired, in addition to providing beneficial tradeoffs between the motor input disturbance transfer function behavior and the current measurement noise transfer function behavior. When a higher order transfer function (e.g., a third order) is desired, a different configuration than the PI controller is utilized. More details about configuring the closed-loop system to have a frequency response of a specific, desired order will be described further below by reference to FIGS. 4-9.

The BEMF compensation module 302 is configured to compensate for dynamics (e.g., variations) of BEMF voltage that are slower than the dynamics of the currents of the motor 20. Specifically, the BEMF compensation module 302 takes as input the rotor mechanical velocity ωm and outputs voltage VF that compensates for the dynamics of the BEMF voltage.

As used herein, the term “module” or “sub-module” refers to an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), an electronic circuit, a processor (shared, dedicated, or group) and memory that executes one or more software or firmware programs, a combinational logic circuit, and/or other suitable components that provide the described functionality. When implemented in software, a module or a sub-module can be embodied in memory as a non-transitory machine-readable storage medium readable by a processing circuit and storing instructions for execution by the processing circuit for performing a method. Moreover, the modules and sub-modules shown in FIG. 3 may be combined and/or further partitioned.

FIG. 4 illustrates a block diagram of the control module 30 in accordance with some embodiments of the invention. In particular, the modules are illustrated to include transfer matrices. It is to be noted that the modules are illustrated to include these matrices in order to facilitate ease of understanding what the modules are configured to do.

In some embodiments, the control module 30 is configured to generate a voltage command VR using a motor control model for line-to-neutral voltage equations:

Vd=LddIddt+RId+Np2ωmLqIq(Equation4)Vq=LqdIqdt+RIq-Np2ωmLdId+Keωm(Equation5)Te=32KeIq+34Np(Lq-Ld)IdIq(Equation6)

where Vd and Vq are the d-axis and q-axis motor voltages (in Volts), respectively; Id and Iq are the d-axis and q-axis motor currents (in Amperes), respectively; Ld and Lq are the d-axis and q-axis motor inductances (in Henries), respectively; R is the motor circuit (i.e., the motor and controller) resistance (in Ohms), Ke is the motor BEMF coefficient (in Volts/rad/s); ωm is the mechanical motor velocity in (in rad/s); Np is the number of poles of the motor 20; and Te is the electromagnetic motor torque (in Nm).

It is to be noted that equation 6 for computing the electromagnetic motor torque Te is nonlinear and that equation 6 represents a sum of the torque developed by leveraging the magnetic field from the permanent magnets and the reluctance torque generated by the rotor saliency (i.e., a difference between Lq and Ld) and desired values for Id and Iq. A reference model design for optimizing selection of the reference currents Id and Iq to use for PMSM control is described in U.S. Patent Application, entitled “Generation of a Current Reference to Control a Brushless Motor,” filed Nov. 26, 2013, with an 14/090,484,” which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

The parameters in equations 4-6 vary significantly during normal operation of the motor 20—potentially over 100% variation in R, and 5-20% variation in inductances Ld and Lq and 15-20% in Ke. R varies with the build and the temperature of the motor 20. Ld and Lq vary due to saturation (i.e., as a function of Id and Iq) and Ke varies due to saturation (as a function of Iq) and with the temperature.

In the equations 4 and 5,

Np2ωm

is me electrical motor velocity ωe of the motor 20. The electrical motor velocity is assumed to be a slowly varying parameter. In addition, due to relatively slow flux dynamics, the quasi-static back-EMF (BEMF) term Keωm (i.e., the disturbance from the motor) may be considered a constant. This disturbance from 402 is compensated by a compensation module 302 in the feedforward path. That is, the addition module 404 combines the voltage command VM, which includes this compensation from the compensation module 302, with the disturbance from 402. These two assumptions allow linearization of equations 4 and 5 for a fixed velocity of the motor 20. From FIG. 5 and on, the disturbances Vdist, Idist and Inoise are not illustrated for the simplicity of illustration and description. Accordingly, the equations 4 and 5 may be re-written as the following linear equations 7 and 8, respectively:

Vd=Ldİd+RIdeLqIq  (Equation 7)

Vql=Vq−Keωm=Lqİq+RIq−ωeLdId  (Equation 8)

Further, equations 7 and 8 can be compactly written using s-domain representation as follows:

U=Pi(s)X(Equation9)[VdVq]=[Lds+RωeLq-ωeLdLqs+R][IdIq](Equation10)

where U is the matrix

[VdVq];

Pi(s) is the matrix

[Lds+RωeLq-ωeLdLqs+R];

and X is the matrix

[IdIq].

For the simplicity of illustration and description, Vql is illustrated and described as Vq hereinafter. In equation 10, the output current matrix X of the motor 20 is translated into the input voltage matrix U via the complex frequency transfer matrix Pi(s). This complex frequency transfer matrix Pi(s) is the inverse of the true transfer matrix P(s). This Pi(s) is shown to be included in the motor 20 in FIG. 4. Pi(s) can also be denoted as P−1(s) to indicate that Pi(s) is the inverse of P(s). It is to be noted that P(s), which is an inverse of Pi(s), is shown to be included in the motor 20 to line up the elements the matrix included in the modification module 320 with the elements of Pi(s).

The actual plant transfer matrix P(s), which converts the input voltage to the output current may be written as:

X=P(s)U(Equation11)[IdIq]=1LdLqs2+R(Ld+Lq)s+R2+ωe2LdLq[Lqs+R-ωeLqωeLdLds+R][VdVq]whereP(s)is1LdLqs2+R(Ld+Lq)s+R2+ωe2LdLq[Lqs+R-ωeLqωeLdLds+R].(Equation12)

Using the transfer matrix H, shown as

[KHddKHdqKHqdKHqq]

in FIG. 4, the modification module 320 modifies Pi(s) or P(s) to get effective transfer matrix Peff(s). In some embodiments, the effective transfer matrix Peff(s) is defined as:

Peff=(Pi(s)−H)−1  (Equation 13)

That is, Peff(s) may be defined as the inverse of Pi(s)−H. Then, the effective inverse transfer matrix Pieff(s) is Pi(s)−H, which can be written in a matrix form:

Pieff(s)=[Lds+R-KHddωeLq-KHdq-ωeLd-KHqdLqs+R-KHqq](Equation14)

By implementing the matrix H, the modification module 320 may decouple the coupling terms in equations 7 and 8 (or the corresponding elements in the matrix Pi(s) or P(s)). By configuring H to have appropriate elements (i.e., gain factors), the modification module 320 allows for changes in Vg to control Iq without affecting Id, and allows for changes in Vd to control Id without affecting Iq. Specifically, the off-diagonal elements of H are selected to cancel the off-diagonal elements of Pi(s), which correspond to the coupling terms of the equations 7 and 8. The off-diagonal elements of H may be expressed as follows:

KHdq={tilde over (ω)}e{tilde over (L)}q  (Equation 15)

KHqd=−ωe{tilde over (L)}d  (Equation 16)

where {tilde over (ω)}e is an estimated electrical motor velocity of the motor 20; {tilde over (L)}q is an estimated q-axis inductance of the motor 20; and {tilde over (L)}d is an estimated d-axis inductance of the motor 20.

The modification module 320 may also desensitize the motor 20 from the variations of motor operation parameters (i.e., reduces influence of the variations), especially from the variations in the motor resistance, so that the current that the motor 20 draws is also desensitized from the variations. As can be appreciated, the diagonal elements R−KHdd and R−KHqq of the Pieff(s) should be greater than zero (i.e., a positive resistance value) in order to maintain the motor's stability in the presence of variations in resistance. In some embodiments, the diagonal elements of the matrix H, namely KHdd and KHqq, are configured to have negative values so as to ensure the diagonal elements R−KHdd and R−KHqq of the Pieff(s) are positive. The diagonal elements of H may be expressed as follows:

KHdd=−Rd  (Equation 17)

KHqq=−Rq  (Equation 18)

where Rd and Rq are resistance values (in Ohms). Rd and Rq values are selected and specifically configured to balance the control system sensitivity to motor parameter variations (specifically, the variations in resistance, which typically swings as large as 100% over temperature), voltage disturbance rejection transfer function properties, and current measurement noise sensitivity properties, and robustness to imperfect decoupling of the two current loops. Moreover, because of the Rd and Rq, the effective time-constant of the motor 20 gets shortened or reduced (i.e., a faster response time results). Accordingly, the matrix H may be written as:

H=[-Rdω~eL~q-ω~eL~d-Rq](Equation19)

It is to be noted that these elements of the matrix H are scheduled in terms of motor parameters, which are nonlinear and continuously changing with the motor's operating conditions (e.g., temperature, saturation, etc.)

With these elements in the matrix H and with the assumption that {tilde over (ω)}e, {tilde over (L)}d and {tilde over (L)}q are accurate estimations, the effective motor transfer matrix Peff may, in this embodiment, be defined as:

Peff=[1Lds+R+Rd001Lqs+R+Rq](Equation20)

As shown in the effective motor transfer matrix Peff, the motor 20 is decoupled in both the d-axis and q-axis and a configurable effective resistance element is available to further adjust the dynamic response of the motor 20.

With the modification module 320 decoupling the coupled elements of the transfer matrix P(s) of the motor 20 and desensitizing the motor 20 from the resistance variation, the proportional compensation module 306 and the integral compensation module 310 may be configured and optimized to cause the closed-loop system to produce specific transfer function behavior. In some embodiments, the compensation modules implement matrices CP and CI, respectively, in which coupling elements are omitted. That is, only diagonal elements of the matrices CP and CI are used and the off-diagonal elements (i.e., the coupling elements) of the matrices CP and CI are set to zero. When the target transfer function response of the closed-loop system is a first order response, the overall block diagram of the configuration of the control module 30 is shown in FIG. 5. As shown in FIG. 5, CP and CI are defined as:

CP=[KPdd00KPqq](Equation21)CI=[KIdd00KIqq](Equation22)

To achieve an overall current to current transfer function behavior, which mimics a first order transfer function in both the d-axis and q-axis control loops (i.e., the loop-forming feedback signal path of the compensation module 306 or 310 and the motor 20 includes d-axis control loop and q-axis control loop), the elements (i.e., gain factors) of the matrices CP and CI are selected as follows:

KPddd{tilde over (L)}d  (Equation 23)

KIddd({tilde over (R)}+Rd)  (Equation 24)

KPqqq{tilde over (L)}q  (Equation 25)

KIqqq({tilde over (R)}+Rq)  (Equation 26)

where that ωd and ωg in the equations 21-24 represent the desired closed-loop cutoff frequencies in the d-axis and q-axis control loops; {tilde over (R)}, {tilde over (L)}d and {tilde over (L)}q represent the estimated resistance, the estimated d-axis inductance, and the estimated q-axis inductance, respectively; and Rd and Rq represent the additional “effective” resistances in the d-axis and q-axis control loops, which are also the values of the diagonal elements of the matrix H. The overall block diagram for the configuration with these elements of the matrices CP and CI is shown in FIG. 6. It is to be noted that the closed-loop cutoff frequencies ωd and ωq may also be selected to be functions of the velocity of the motor 20. The open loop transfer matrix becomes:

L=[ωds00ωqs](Equation27)

In some embodiments, the compensation modules 306 and 310 are configured to cause the closed-loop system to produce a frequency response of a second order. Specifically, the compensation modules 306 and 310 may be configured to implement an active damping decoupling control (ADDC) configuration. In such configuration, the elements in the matrices CP and CI are selected to avoid pole-zero cancellation in the open loop transfer matrix, resulting in a second order closed-loop transfer matrix, with the capability of actively controlling the damping in the motor 20. To have a frequency response of a second order, all elements in the matrix CP for the proportional compensation module 306 are set to zero. In addition, the off-diagonal elements of the matrix CI for the integral compensation module 310 are set to zero. The resulting forward path compensation module (i.e., the compensation module 310) implements CI as:

CI=[KIdds00KIqqs](Equation28)

The overall block diagram for the ADDC configuration is shown in FIG. 7. In the ADDC configuration, with accurate parameter estimation, the open loop transfer matrix is shown in the following equation 29:

L=[KIdds(Lds+R+Rd)00KIqqs(Lqs+R+Rq)](Equation29)

Then, the closed-loop transfer matrix can be written as:

T=[KIddLds2+(R+Rd)s+KIdd00KIqqLqs2+(R+Rq)s+KIqq](Equation30)

From the transfer matrix T, it can be seen that in this configuration, both of the closed-loop transfer functions are of second order. As can be appreciated, the damping of a second order system can be controlled independently of its natural frequency (and thus, its bandwidth). In order to achieve natural frequencies of ωd, ωq and damping ratios of ζd, ζq in the d-axis and q-axis control loops respectively, the tunable parameters may be selected as:

KHdd=−Rd=−2ωdζd{tilde over (L)}d+{tilde over (R)}  (Equation 31)

KHqq=−Rq=−2ωqζq{tilde over (L)}q+{tilde over (R)}  (Equation 32)

KIddd2{tilde over (L)}d  (Equation 33)

KIqqq2{tilde over (L)}q  (Equation 34)

The overall block diagram for the ADDC configuration with the above forward path controller gains is shown in FIG. 8.

As one skilled in the art of second order transfer functions would recognize, as the damping ratio changes from zero to unity to greater than unity, the behavior of the system (e.g., the motor 20) changes from underdamped to critically damped and to overdamped, respectively. It should be noted that an overdamped second order system may be tuned to behave as a first order system within the desired system bandwidth without the need to perform pole-zero cancellations. In order to do so, the pole locations of the system should be considered. In order to mimic a first order behavior with a certain desired bandwidth, it is to be ensured that the faster pole is sufficiently far away from the slower pole, while the slower pole location corresponds to the desired closed-loop cutoff frequency for an effective first order system. Thus, a sufficiently high damping ratio is selected first, and the corresponding value of the natural frequency is obtained by placing the slower pole at the desired closed-loop bandwidth. Consequently, the faster pole moves far away enough from the slower pole, and the closed-loop transfer function behaves effectively as a first order system dominated by the slower pole. In such a way, the configuration shown in FIG. 8 causes the closed-loop system to behave like a first order system.

The ADDC configuration shown in FIG. 8 allows for tuning the motor control loop (i.e., the compensation module 310) to achieve different design goals in terms of transfer function behavior in both the d-axis and the q-axis control loops. Further, it is observed that when tuned as an overdamped system so as to mimic a first order system behavior with a certain bandwidth, the ADDC configuration is insensitive to both motor input disturbances as well as to imperfect decoupling.

In some embodiments, the compensation modules 306 and 310 can be configured to implement a third or higher order transfer function responses of the motor 20 as shown in FIG. 9. In order to obtain a closed-loop transfer function nth order (n being greater than or equal to three) in both of the d-axis and the q-axis control loops, the compensation modules 306 and 310 may be replaced by a single compensation module 902 containing a compensation matrix C(s), which may be selected as:

C(s)=[KIdds(s+αd3)(s+αdn)00KIqqs(s+αq3)(s+αqn)](Equation35)

It is to be noted that with this selection of the elements for the matrix C(s), each of the d-axis and q-axis loops have n (KIdd, Rd, αd3, . . . , αdn in the d-axis loop and KIqq, Rq, αq3, . . . , αqn in the q-axis loop) unknowns, where n is an integer greater than or equal to three. With the assumption of accurate parameter estimation, the open loop transfer function can be written as:

L=[KIdds(s+αd3)(s+αdn)(Lds+R+Rd)00KIqqs(s+αq3)(s+αqn)(Lqs+R+Rq)](Equation36)

Thus, the closed-loop transfer matrix becomes:

T=[KIdds(s+αd3)(s+αdn)(Lds+R+Rd)+KIdd00KIqqs(s+αq3)(s+αqn)(Lqs+R+Rq)+KIqq](Equation36)

In some embodiments, in order to cause the closed-loop system to mimic a third or higher order system of a specific type, a closed-loop transfer matrix of the form below may be obtained:

T=[ωdn(s+ωd)n00ωqn(s+ωq)n](Equation38)

where ωd and ωq are d-axis and q-axis closed-loop bandwidths, respectively. A third or higher order system can, in general, have n different pole locations. In some embodiments, the pole locations may be set to n different places. This closed-loop transfer matrix is obtained by comparing the characteristic polynomials (i.e., denominators of transfer functions) from equations 37 and 38 for T in both of the d-axis and the q-axis loops and solving for the 2n unknowns in terms of R, Ld, Lq, Rd, Rq, ωd, and ωq. For example, a third order closed-loop transfer function requirement in each of the d-axis loop and the q-axis loop is considered. The block diagram for this case is shown in FIG. 10. It is to be noted that equation 38 is just an example showing all poles are placed in the same location.

Comparing the characteristic polynomials in equations 36 and 37 for a third order transfer function for the d-axis loop results in the following:

KIddL=ωd3(Equation39)αd3+R+RdL=3ωd(Equation40)αd3(R+RdL)=3ωd2(Equation41)

Equations 39-41 can be solved for KIdd, αd3 and Rd in terms of R, L and ωd in order to obtain the desired closed-loop polynomial.

In some embodiments, the compensation modules 306 and 310 may be configured in such a way that the d-axis control loop and the q-axis control loop have different closed-loop transfer function orders. FIG. 11 illustrates an example of control loops that have different orders. Specifically, matrices shown in the modules 306 and 310 show that the d-axis loop has a first order and the q-axis has a second order. As can be recognized, many other combinations of different orders for the d-axis and q-axis control loops are possible.

FIG. 12 is a flow diagram for a control method that can be performed by the control module 30 in accordance with some embodiments of the invention. As can be appreciated in light of the disclosure, the order of operation within the method is not limited to the sequential execution as illustrated in FIG. 12, but may be performed in one or more varying orders as applicable and in accordance with the present disclosure.

At block 1210, the control module 30 decouples the d-axis component of the output current from the influence of the q-axis component of the output current and decouples the q-axis component of the output current from the influence of the d-axis component of the output current. In some embodiments, the control module 30 achieves such decoupling of current components by applying the voltage commands generated based on the matrices CP, CI and H as described above.

At block 1220, the control module 30 desensitizes the operation of the motor 20 from the variations of a set of operating parameters of the motor 20. More specifically, the control module 30 determines a first set of gain factors to generate a first voltage command based on the feedback current received from the motor 20, in order to cause the motor 20 to generate the output current with reduced influence of variations of a set of operating parameters of the motor. In some cases, the variations of the set of operating parameters are due to inaccurate estimation of the operating parameters. In some embodiments, the set of operating parameters includes the resistance of the motor 20. The control module 30 also causes a reduction in the response time for the motor 20 to respond to the input voltage command as the control module 30 desensitizes the motor operation. In some embodiments, the control module 30 determines the first set of gain factors in order to tune a damping ratio and natural frequency of the closed-loop system. In these embodiments, at least one of the first set of gain factors is a function of natural frequency of the closed-loop system.

At block 1230, the control module 30 determines a second set of gain factors to generate the second voltage command based on a difference between the feedback and a desired current, in order to cause the closed-loop system to generate the output current as a first, second or higher order response. The output current includes a d-axis component and a q-axis component. The control module 30 is configured to determine the second set of gain factors such that the input voltage command causes the motor to generate the d-axis component of the output current and the q-axis component of the output current as different order responses. At least one of the second set of gain factors is a function of resistance of the motor. At least one of the second set of gain factors is a function of inductance of the motor. At least one of the second set of gain factors is set to zero. The first and second voltage commands are combined into the input voltage command supplied to the motor 20.

While the invention has been described in detail in connection with only a limited number of embodiments, it should be readily understood that the invention is not limited to such disclosed embodiments. Rather, the invention can be modified to incorporate any number of variations, alterations, substitutions or equivalent arrangements not heretofore described, but which are commensurate with the spirit and scope of the invention. Additionally, while various embodiments of the invention have been described, it is to be understood that aspects of the invention may include only some of the described embodiments. Accordingly, the invention is not to be seen as limited by the foregoing description.

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Citation

Patents Cited in This Cited by
Title Current Assignee Application Date Publication Date
马达控制器和电动助力转向系统 株式会社捷太格特 30 March 2009 23 February 2011
有效抑制次同步谐振和振荡的次同步阻尼控制系统 清华大学 29 July 2009 30 December 2009
用于车辆的转向辅助设备 丰田自动车株式会社 03 July 2006 09 July 2008
用于控制电机驱动动力转向系统的方法 现代自动车株式会社,起亚自动车株式会社 12 December 2008 17 June 2009
内置永磁电机中磁场削弱的线性 通用汽车环球科技运作公司 28 July 2008 24 August 2011
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