Great research starts with great data.

Learn More
More >
Patent Analysis of

Herbal composition PHY906 and its use in chemotherapy

Updated Time 12 June 2019

Patent Registration Data

Publication Number

US10058580

Application Number

US14/581610

Application Date

23 December 2014

Publication Date

28 August 2018

Current Assignee

YALE UNIVERSITY

Original Assignee (Applicant)

YALE UNIVERSITY

International Classification

A61K36/00,A61K36/539,A61K31/7068,A61K31/4412,A61K36/65

Cooperative Classification

A61K36/725,A61K31/4412,A61K31/7068,A61K36/484,A61K36/539

Inventor

LIU, SHWU-HUEY,JIANG, ZAOLI,CHENG, YUNG-CHI

Patent Images

This patent contains figures and images illustrating the invention and its embodiment.

US10058580 Herbal composition PHY906 its 1 US10058580 Herbal composition PHY906 its 2 US10058580 Herbal composition PHY906 its 3
See all images <>

Abstract

This invention provides herbal compositions useful for increasing the therapeutic index of chemotherapeutic compounds. This invention also provides methods useful for improving the quality of life of an individual undergoing chemotherapy. Furthermore, this invention improves the treatment of disease by increasing the therapeutic index of chemotherapy drugs by administering the herbal composition PHY906 to a mammal undergoing such chemotherapy.

Read more

Claims

1. A method of increasing the therapeutic index of sorafenib by administering to a mammal to which sorafenib has been administered a therapeutically effective amount of an herbal preparation comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus, and Paeonia.

2. A method of treating cancer in a mammal in need thereof comprising administering to the mammal a therapeutically effective amount of:

i) an herbal preparation comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus, and Paeonia; and iii) a chemotherapeutic formulation comprising sorafenib.

3. The method of claim 2, wherein the cancer is a gastrointestinal cancer.

4. A method of relieving side effects of sorafenib in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal a therapeutically effective amount of:

i) an herbal preparation comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus, and Paeonia; and iii) a chemotherapeutic formulation comprising sorafenib.

5. A method of enhancing therapeutic effectiveness of sorafenib in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal a therapeutically effective amount of:

i) an herbal preparation comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus, and Paeonia; and iii) a chemotherapeutic formulation comprising sorafenib.

6. A method of using sorafenib, comprising administering to a mammal in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of:

i) an herbal preparation comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus, and Paeonia; and iii) a chemotherapeutic formulation comprising sorafenib.

7. A method of improving the quality of life of a mammal being treated with sorafenib comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a chemotherapeutic formulation comprising sorafenib and an herbal preparation comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus, and Paeonia.

8. A method of inhibiting the growth of tumors comprising administering to a mammal in need thereof:

i) an herbal preparation comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus, and Paeonia; and iii) a chemotherapeutic formulation comprising sorafenib.

9. The method of claim 8, wherein the tumors are present in a mammal or in vitro cells.

10. The method of any one of claims, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 9 wherein the mammal is human.

11. The method of any one of the claims 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, wherein the herbal preparation comprises Scutellaria baicalensis, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Ziziphus jujuba, and Paeonia lactiflora.

12. The method of any one of the claims 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, wherein the herbal preparation is administered via oral route and sorafenib is administered via oral route.

13. The method of claim 12, wherein the herbal preparation is administered before sorafenib is administered.

Read more

Claim Tree

  • 1
    d of increasing the therapeutic index of sorafenib by administering to a mammal to which sorafenib has been administered a therapeutically effective amount of an herbal preparation comprisin Scutel
    • aria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus, and Paeonia.
    • 10. The method of any one of claims, 1, 2, 45<
      • b>, 6, 7 and 9
  • 2
    2. A method of treating cancer in a mammal in need th reof compr
    • sing administering to the mammal a therapeutically effective amount of: i) an herbal preparation comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus,
    • nd Paeonia; and iii) a chemotherapeutic formulation co
    • prising sorafenib. 3. The method
      • f claim 2, wherein the cancer is a gastr
    • , and 8, wherein the herbal preparation comprises Scutella ia baic
      • lensis, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Ziziphus jujuba, and Paeonia lactiflora. 12. The method
  • 4
    intestinal cancer. 4. A method of relieving side effects of so afenib in
    • mammal comprising administering to the mammal a therapeutically effective amount of: i) an herbal preparation comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza,
    • iziphus, and Paeonia; and iii) a chemotherapeutic
  • 5
    ormulation comprising sorafenib. 5. A method of enhancing therapeutic effec iveness of
    • sorafenib in a mammal comprising administering to the mammal a therapeutically effective amount of: i) an herbal preparation comprising Scutellaria
    • Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus, and Paeonia; and iii) a che
  • 6
    otherapeutic formulation compri ing sorafe
    • ib. 6. A method of using sorafenib, comprising administering to a mammal in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of: i) an herbal preparation comprising
    • >Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus, and Paeonia;
  • 7
    nd iii) a chemotherapeutic formulation comprising sorafenib. 7. A method of improving the qualit
    • of life of a mammal being treated with sorafenib comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a chemotherapeutic formulation comprising sorafenib and an herbal preparatio
  • 8
    comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Zizip us, an
    • Paeonia. 8. A method of inhibiting the growth of tumors comprising administering to a mammal in need thereof: i) an h
    • bal preparation comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Zizip
    • us, and Paeonia
      • i) a chemotherapeutic formulation comprising sorafeni
  • 10
    . 9. The method of claim 8, wherein the tumors are present i a mamm
    • l or in vitro cells.
See all independent claims <>

Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to herbal compositions and the use of them for enhancing the therapeutic effects of chemotherapeutic compounds.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Cancer remains one of the major cause of death around the world. Specifically, cancer is the second overall cause of death in the United States. Gastrointestinal cancers, including colorectal, liver, and pancreatic cancers, are of particular concerns not only because of their high incidence rates, but also because of their high mortality rate, especially in pancreatic and liver cancer patients (1-4). From years 1992-1999, studies revealed that the five-year relative survival rate of colorectal cancer was 62.3% while that of liver cancer was 6.9% and 4.4% for pancreatic cancer. The median survival of liver cancer was 3.5 weeks to 6 months while it was 4 to 6 months for pancreatic cancer (3). With only very poor chemotherapeutic regimens available, pancreatic cancer has the highest mortality rate among all cancers in the United States, with a less than 5% survival rate 5 years from diagnosis (3). Although several regimens are currently used in clinical trials for hepatocellular carcinoma, there is no FDA-approved chemotherapeutic agent available. The low survival rates for both pancreatic and hepatocellular cancers are attributed to many factors including diagnosis is difficult, the tumor growth is highly aggressive, surgical removal of tumor is of low probability, and the tumor has a high rate of chemotherapy resistance.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 shows the effect of PHY906 (500 mg/kg, bid, D1-4 and 8-11) on tumor growth in Sorafenib (30 mg/kg, po, bid, D1-14)-treated BDF-1 mouse bearing mouse colon 38 tumors. Sorafenib (30 mg/kg) was given orally twice a day for a consecutive 14 days. PHY906 (500 mg/kg) was given orally 30 min before sorafenib twice a day on days 1-4 and days 8-11 (N=5 in each group).

FIG. 2 shows the effect of PHY906 (500 mg/kg, bid, D1-4, 8-11 and 15-18) on tumor growth in Sorafenib (30 mg/kg, po, bid, D1-20)-treated nude mice bearing human HepG2 tumors. Sorafenib (30 mg/kg) was given orally twice a day for a consecutive 20 days. PHY906 (500 mg/kg) was given orally 30 min before sorafenib twice a day on days 1-4, 8-11 and 15-18 (N=5 in each group).

FIG. 3 shows the impact of PHY906 and Sorafenib on blood vessels from the liver of NCr-nude mice bearing human HepG2 xenografts. Tissue sections were prepared from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver cancer specimens. Immunohistochemical staining was done using specific antibodies against CD31 (brown) and nuclear DNA (blue).

FIG. 4 shows impact of PHY906 and Sorafenib on VEGF level from the liver of NCr-nude mice bearing human HepG2 xenografts. Tissue sections were prepared from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver cancer specimens. Immunohistochemical staining was done using specific antibodies against VEGF (brown) and nuclear DNA (blue)

FIG. 5 shows the impact of PHY906 and Sorafenib on HIF-1α level from the liver of NCr-nude mice bearing human HepG2 xenografts. Tissue sections were prepared from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver cancer specimens. Immunohistochemical staining was done using specific antibodies against HIF-1α (brown) and nuclear DNA (blue).

FIG. 6 shows the effect of PHY906 on the tumor growth in Capecitabine-treated NCr-nude mice bearing human Panc-1 tumor. Capecitabine (720 mg/kg) was given orally twice a day on days 1-7, 15-21 and 29-32 days. PHY906 was given orally 30 min before capecitabine twice a day on days 1-4, 8-11, 15-18, 22-25 and 29-32 at 500 mg/kg (N=5 in each group)

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In one aspect, the present invention provides a composition comprising: i) a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier; ii) an herbal preparation comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus, and Paeonia; and iii) one or more chemotherapeutic compounds.

In another aspect, the present invention provides a method of treating a disease in a mammal in need thereof comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a composition comprising: i) a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier; ii) an herbal preparation comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus, and Paeonia; and iii) one or more chemotherapeutic compounds.

In another aspect, the present invention provides a method of increasing the therapeutic index of cancer therapeutic compounds for the treatment of cancer by administering to a mammal in need thereof, a therapeutically effective amount of a composition comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and an herbal preparation comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus, and Paeonia.

In yet another aspect, the present invention provides a method of relieving side effects of a chemotherapeutic compound in a mammal comprising administering a composition comprising: i) a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier; ii) an herbal preparation comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus, and Paeonia; and iii) one or more chemotherapeutic compounds.

In yet another aspect, the present invention provides a method of improving the quality of life of a mammal undergoing chemotherapy which comprises administering a therapeutically effective amount of one or more chemotherapeutic compounds and a composition comprising: i) a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier; ii) an herbal preparation comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus, and Paeonia; and iii) one or more chemotherapeutic compounds.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Gemcitabine is the only clinically approved chemotherapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer; however, the response rate in patients to gemcitabine is only 6-11% and the overall survival time is generally 4-6 months. Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analog with two mechanisms of action, including the inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase, an enzyme that converts nucleotide diphosphate to deoxynucleotide triphosphate and that is required for DNA synthesis and that competes with deoxycytidine triphosphate as a fraudulent base in DNA synthesis (3,5-10). With the low response and survival rates of gemcitabine monotherapy, several gemcitabine-combination drug regimens have been tested clinically for improving therapeutic efficacy. These trials include gemcitabine with other commonly used and FDA-approved anti-cancer drugs including CPT-11, capecitabine, and oxaliplatin (11-14). Unfortunately, no satisfactory combination drug regimens have been discovered and an effective regimen for pancreatic cancer is urgently needed.

Capecitabine (Xeloda), an oral fluoropyrimidine, is a rationally designed oral prodrug efficiently absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and converted to 5-FU, preferentially in neoplastic tissues. It has been approved by the FDA as a first-line chemotherapy for the treatment of colorectal and breast cancers with reduced toxicities (15-17). Capecitabine has also shown promising antitumor activity as a single agent in pancreatic cancer (18) and liver cancer (19).

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently treated by surgical procedures and chemotherapy. Surgical removal and postoperative therapies may improve the outlook for some patients. Unfortunately, the vast majority of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma will have unresectable cancers. In late 2007, sorafenib became the first FDA-approved chemotherapeutic agent for HCC. Published clinical studies indicate significant anti-tumor effects (20,21). Oral multikinase inhibitor sorafenib (BAY 43-9006) has a dual-action on Raf kinase and vascular endothelial growth factor. Sorafenib prevents tumor growth by combining inhibition in tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Preclinical studies suggest that sorafenib may offer therapeutic benefits in HCC by blocking Raf-1 signal transduction pathway.

Colorectal cancer has been reported to be the third most common cause of death from cancer in the United States (22). Recently, the FDA approved the triple combination use of Oxaliplatin/5-FU/LV as the first-line treatment for patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Oxaliplatin is a synthesized diaminocyclohexane platinum compound, which like cisplatin, causes platinum-DNA adduct formation and destroys the integrity of DNA (23). Other types of chemotherapeutic agents, such as 5-FU, CPT-11, are common chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Unfortunately, severe diarrhea has been identified as one of the dose-limiting toxicities among patients treated with chemotherapy.

Our studies showed that PHY906, an herbal composition, not only reduced chemotherapy-induced toxicities, including body weight loss and mortality, but it also enhanced the antitumor efficacy of a broad-spectrum of anticancer agents including, but not limited to CPT-11, 5-FU, CPT-11/5-FU/LV, VP-16, L-OddC and oxaliplatin/5-FU/LV in colorectal cancer; sorafenib, capecitabine, thalidomide, and CPT-11 in liver cancer; and capecitabine, oxaliplatin, gemcitabine and gemcitabine/oxaliplatin in pancreatic cancer in vivo animal models. The positive results from these preclinical studies demonstrate that PHY906 can be used as an adjuvant for a broad-spectrum of different types of chemotherapeutic agents in anti-cancer therapy. These chemotherapeutic agents include, but are not limit to, capecitabine and sorafenib. The cancers include, but are not limited to, colorectal, liver, and pancreatic cancers. The methods of the present invention can be used to improve the quality of life of patients including mammals under chemotherapy. Specifically, this invention relates to the dosing and scheduling of PHY906 in potentiating the therapeutic index of a broad-spectrum of cancer chemotherapeutic agents by the herbal composition PHY906.

In one embodiment, the present invention provides a composition comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, materials or chemicals from a plant species of each of the following genera of herbs: Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia, and one or more chemotherapeutic compounds. In another embodiment, the materials or chemicals from a plant species is in a form of a herbal composition comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia. In yet another embodiment, the herbal composition consists essentially of Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia.

In one embodiment, the plant species comprise Scutellaria baicalensis, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Ziziphus jujuba, and Paeonia lactiflora. In another embodiment of the invention one or more chemotherapeutic compounds are cancer chemotherapeutics. In one embodiment of the invention the cancer chemotherapeutics are selected from the group consisting of capecitabine, sorafenib, and a combination thereof.

In one embodiment of the invention, a therapeutically effective amount of a composition comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, materials or chemicals from a plant species of each of the following genera of herbs: Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia, and one or more chemotherapeutic compounds is used to treat a disease in a mammal in need thereof. In another embodiment, the materials or chemicals from a plant species is in a form of a herbal composition comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia. In yet another embodiment, the herbal composition consists essentially of Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia.

In one embodiment, the present invention provides a method of treating a disease in a mammal. The method comprises administering to the mammal in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of a composition comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, materials or chemicals from a plant species of each of the following genera of herbs: Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia, and one or more chemotherapeutic compounds. In another embodiment, the materials or chemicals from a plant species is in a form of a herbal composition comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia. In yet another embodiment, the herbal composition consists essentially of Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia.

In one embodiment, the present invention provides a method of relieving the side effects of a chemotherapeutic compound in a mammal. The method comprises administering to the mammal in need thereof a composition comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, materials or chemicals from a plant species of each of the following genera of herbs: Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia, and one or more chemotherapeutic compounds.

In one embodiment of the invention, a composition comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, materials or chemicals from a plant species of each of the following genera of herbs: Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia, and one or more chemotherapeutic compounds is administered to a mammal to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of chemotherapeutic compound. In another embodiment, the materials or chemicals from a plant species is in a form of a herbal composition comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia. In yet another embodiment, the herbal composition consists essentially of Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia.

In one embodiment of the invention, a composition comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, materials or chemicals from a plant species of each of the following genera of herbs: Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia, and one or more chemotherapeutic compounds is administered to a mammal to enhance the antitumor activity of a chemotherapeutic compound. In another embodiment, the materials or chemicals from a plant species is in a form of a herbal composition comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia. In yet another embodiment, the herbal composition consists essentially of Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia.

In one embodiment of the invention, a therapeutically effective amount of a composition comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, materials or chemicals from a plant species of each of the following genera of herbs: Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia, and one or more chemotherapeutic compounds is administered to a mammal to treat tumors. In another embodiment, the materials or chemicals from a plant species is in a form of a herbal composition comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia. In yet another embodiment, the herbal composition consists essentially of Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia.

In one embodiment of the invention, a composition comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, materials or chemicals from a plant species of each of the following genera of herbs: Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia, and one or more chemotherapeutic compounds is administered to a mammal to inhibit the growth of tumors in mammals. In another embodiment, the materials or chemicals from a plant species is in a form of a herbal composition comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia. In yet another embodiment, the herbal composition consists essentially of Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia.

In one embodiment of the invention, a composition comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, materials or chemicals from a plant species of each of the following genera of herbs: Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia, and one or more chemotherapeutic compounds is used to inhibit the growth of tumors. In another embodiment, the materials or chemicals from a plant species is in a form of a herbal composition comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia. In yet another embodiment, the herbal composition consists essentially of Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia. In one embodiment, the tumors are present in a mammal or in vitro cells.

In one embodiment, the present invention provides a method of improving the quality of life of a mammal undergoing chemotherapy. The method comprises administering a therapeutically effective amount of one or more chemotherapeutic compounds and a composition comprising: i) a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier; ii) materials or chemicals from a plant species of each of the following genera of herbs: Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia; and iii) one or more chemotherapeutic compounds. In another embodiment, the materials or chemicals from a plant species is in a form of a herbal composition comprising Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia. In yet another embodiment, the herbal composition consists essentially of Scutellaria, Glycyrrhiza, Ziziphus and Paeonia. Preferably, the mammal as referenced herein is a human.

The above-referenced chemotherapeutic agents or compounds, genera of herbs, and other terms and phrases have been described and defined with details in the following patent applications and patent: U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/522,055 filed Mar. 9, 2000; International Application No. PCT/US2001/007353 filed Mar. 8, 2001; U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/220,876 filed Dec. 30, 2002 and issued as U.S. Pat. No. 7,025,993 on Apr. 11, 2006; U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/625,943 filed Nov. 9, 2004; U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/100,433 filed Apr. 7, 2005; and International Application No. PCT/US2005/040605 filed Nov. 9, 2005, the content of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety for all purposes.

EXAMPLES

Materials and Methods

Drug: Sorafenib (Nexavar) was purchased from Bayer HealthCare (Leverkusen, Germany). Capecitabine (Xeloda®, CAP) was purchased from Roche Laboratories Inc. (Nutley, N.J.). The clinical drug substance of PHY906 (PHY906-6, FDA 165542) with 10% excipient was prepared by Sun Ten Pharmaceutical, Inc. (Taipei, Taiwan). The PHY906 formula is composed of four herbs: Scutellariae baicalensis Georgi, Paeonia lactiflora Pall., Ziziphus jujuba Mill and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., with a relative weight ratio of 3:2:2:2.

Mice: Female BDF-1 mice with body weights between 16 and 20 g (4-6 weeks old) were purchased from Charles River Laboratories (Wilmington, Mass.). Male NCr athymic nude mice with body weights between 16 and 20 g (4-6 weeks old) were purchased from Taconic Farms (Garmantown, N.Y.).

Preparation of Sorafenib solution: Sorafenib (200 mg/tablet) was dissolved in 5% gum arabic as the vehicle. The final solution contains 30 mg/ml of sorafenib.

Preparation of capecitabine solution from capecitabine tablet: Capecitabine (150 mg/tablet) was dissolved in 40 mM citrate buffer (pH 6.0) containing 5% gum arabic as the vehicle. The final solution contains 36 mg/ml of capecitabine.

Preparation of herbal extract from dry powder: The preparation of the herbal extract followed SOP#HERB-001-PHY906. Briefly, one gram of PHY906 dry powder, containing 10% starch excipient, was added to 10 ml of 80° C. H2O and incubated at 80° C. for 30 minutes. The supernatant was separated from the debris by centrifugation (12000 rpm, 10 min) at room temperature. The concentration of PHY906 supernatant was calculated as 90 mg/ml of PHY906 (1 g/10 ml×0.9), based on the dry weight of the dry powder. The herbal extract was stored at room temperature and used within 24 hours. Any residual precipitant that occurred upon standing was vortexed into a suspension and used to treat the animals.

Tumor cells: The human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2, human PANC-1 pancreatic cancer, and mouse Colon 38 colorectal cancer cell lines were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (Rockville, Md.). The HepG2 and Colon 38 cell lines were routinely grown in MEME media while the PANC-1 cell line was grown in DMEM media, supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The cells were implanted into the left flank of mice. Tumor transplantation from mice to mice was performed when the tumor reached 1500-2000 mm3.

Mouse tumor model: Tumor cells (5×106 cells in 0.1 ml PBS) were transplanted subcutaneously into the left flank of mice. After 14 days, tumor ranging in size from 300-500 mm3 was selected for drug studies. The length and width of the each tumor was measured with sliding calipers. The tumor size was estimated according to the following formula:

Tumor size (mm3)=length (mm)×width (mm)2/2.

The studies were conducted and the animals were maintained at the Yale Animal Facility.

Antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic agents in the presence or absence of PHY906: A total of 20 tumor-bearing mice were divided into 4 groups (N=5 mice/group):

1. Vehicle

2. PHY906

3. Chemotherapeutic agent

4. PHY906+Chemotherapeutic agent

The first day of drug treatment was defined as day 1. PHY906 (500 mg/kg, bid) was administrated orally to the mice 30 min before chemotherapeutic agents at the days indicated. Chemotherapeutic agents were given either intraperitoneally or orally at the dose and schedule indicated. The tumor size, body weight, and mortality of the mice were monitored daily. Mice were sacrificed when the tumor size reached 10% of body weight.

Immunohistochemistry: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded liver tissue was freshly cut into slices of 4 mm. The sections were mounted on Superfrost slides, dewaxed with xylene, and gradually hydrated. Antigen retrieval was achieved by 0.05% citraconic anhydride buffer (pH 7.4) at 94° C. for 1 h. The primary HIF-1α, CD31 or VEGF antibodies was diluted 1:75 using Tris-HCl buffer containing 1% BSA and 0.5% Tween-20. The primary antibody was incubated at room temperature for 1 hour. As a negative control, two slides were processed without primary antibody. Detection took place by the conventional labeled streptavidin-biotin method with alkaline phosphatase as the reporting enzyme according to the manufacturer's instructions. DAB (3,3′-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride, purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, Mo.) served as chromogen. Afterwards, the slides were briefly counterstained with hematoxylin and aqueously mounted.

Statistical analysis and statistical power of the study (24): A random effects model was employed to analyze data from similar dosing animal trials. The PROC MIXED procedure in SAS was used to take into account the correlation among observations collected from the same mouse.

The following model was used to analyze the longitudinal data:

yijk=μ+αtk+β(IDtk)+γ(IPtk)+δ(IDIPtk)+eijk,

where yijk is the relative tumor size of the jth individual with the ith group (no treatment, drug alone, PHY906 alone, and drug+PHY906) at the kth time point, tk is the kth time point, α is the baseline time effect (no treatment group), ID and IP are indicator variables for having the drug treatment and the PHY906 treatment, β is the drug-specific linear time effect, γ is the PHY906-specific linear time effect, δ is the drug-PHY906 synergistic linear time effect, and eijk is the residual (error) term. We assumed that the errors from different individuals are independent, and errors from the same individual at different time points follow the autoregressive model, AR(1), to take into account the fact the observations from the same individual within the same treatment group are more correlated, and the responses from closer time points are more correlated within the same individual. The PROC MIXED in SAS 8.01 was used to perform the statistical analysis.

Results

(1) Sorafenib

Effect of PHY906 in Antitumor Activity of Sorafenib in Murine Colon 38 Bearing BDF-1 Mice

To determine whether the combinational use of PHY906 and sorafenib in order to improve anti-tumor activity of sorafenib. Sorafenib at dose of 30 mg/kg (BID, D1-14), in combination with a fixed dose of PHY906 at 500 mg/kg (BID, D1-4 and 8-11), were studied in BDF-1 mice bearing Colon 38 murine colorectal cancer. As shown in FIG. 1, PHY906 significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of sorafenib in Colon 38 bearing mice. Indeed, the tumor growth was suppressed when mice received the combination of PHY906 and sorafenib.

Effect of PHY906 in (a) Antitumor Activity, (b) Blood Vessels, (c) VEGF Level and (d) HIF-1α of Sorafenib in Human HepG2 Xenografts

PHY906 (500 mg/kg, BID, D1-4, 8-11 and 15-18) was tested on the antitumor activity of sorafenib (30 mg/kg, BID, D1-20) in human HepG2 bearing nude mice. As shown in FIG. 2, the combination of sorafenib and PHY906 shrank the tumor size approximately 60% after the first week of combination drug treatment while mice treated with sorafenib alone did not have the shrinkage in tumor.

The immunohistochemical stainings on mouse liver indicate that the integrity of tumor blood vessels are destroyed with the combination treatment of PHY906 and sorafenib, as shown in FIG. 3. The expressions of VEGF and HIF-1α are suppressed by the combination treatment of PHY906 and sorafenib, as shown in FIGS. 4 and 5, respectively. The data also suggests that the combination treatment of PHY906 and sorafenib affects the Fos/Juk transcription.

(2) Capecitabine

Effect of PHY906 on the Antitumor Activity of Capecitabine in Human Panc-1 Tumor-Bearing Nude Mice

PHY906 was previously found to potentiate the antitumor activity of capecitabine in human HepG2 xenografts. An experiment was therefore conducted to study whether PHY906 could enhance the antitumor activity of capecitabine in human Panc-1 xenografts. Total 20 NCr nude mice transplanted with Panc-1 human pancreatic carcinoma cells were divided into 4 groups (N=5 mice/group): Group (A) vehicle control; Group (B) treated with PHY906 (500 mg/kg, bid, day 1-4, 8-11, 15-18, 22-25 and 29-32); Group (C) treated with capecitabine (720 mg/kg, bid, day 1-7, 15-21, and 29-32); and Group (D) treated with PHY906 (500 mg/kg, bid, days day 1-4, 8-11, 15-18, 22-25 and 29-32) plus capecitabine (720 mg/kg, bid, day 1-7, 15-21, and 29-32). PHY906 was found to enhance the antitumor activity of capecitabine, as shown in FIG. 6. A similar observation was found with lower doses of capecitabine (data not shown).

All applications, patent, and publications referenced herein are incorporated by reference to the same extent as if each individual application, patent, and publication was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference. Specifically, the disclosures of WO 01/66123, WO 06/053049, U.S. Pat. No. 7,025,993, US 2005/0196473, and US 2003/0211180 are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety for all purposes. Furthermore, the following references and their contents are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety for all purposes:

  • 1. Bergsland, E. K. and Venook, A. P. Hepatocellular Carcinoma [Gastrointestinal Tract]. Current Opinion in Oncology, 12: 357-361, 2000.
  • 2. Fernandez-Zapico, M. E., Kaczynski, J. A., and Urrutia, R. Pancreatic Cancer Research: Challenges, Opportunities, and Recent Developments. Curr Opin Gastroenterol, 18: 563-567, 2002.
  • 3. Jemal, A., Thomas, A., Murray, T., and Thun, M. Cancer Statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin, 52: 23-47, 2002.
  • 4. Skolnick, A. A. Basic Science Focus of Third International Symposium on Liver Cancer and Hepatitis. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 276: 1457-1458, 1996.
  • 5. Abbruzzese, J. L. New Applications of Gemcitabine and Future Directions in the Management of Pancreatic Cancer. Cancer Supplement, 95: 941-945, 2002.
  • 6. Hertel, L. W., Boder, G. B., Kroin, J. S., Rinzel, S. M., Poore, G. A., Todd, G. C., and Grindey, G. B. Evaluation of the Antitumor Activity of Gemcitabine (2′,2′-Difluro-2′-deoxycytidine). Cancer Res., 50: 4417-4422, 1990.
  • 7. Pettersson, F., Colston, K. W., and Dalgleish, A. G. Retinoic Acid Enhances the Cytotoxic Effects of Gemcitabine and Cisplatin in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cells. Pancreas, 23: 273-279, 2001.
  • 8. Philip, P. A. Gemcitabine and PLatinum Combinations in Pancreatic Cancer. Cancer Supplement, 95: 908-911, 2002.
  • 9. Schultz, R. M., Meriiman, R. L., Toth, J. E., Zimmermann, J. E., Hertel, L. W., Andis, S. L., Dudley, D. E., Rutherford, P. G., Tanzer, L. R., and Grindey, G. B. Evaluation of New Anticancer Agents against the MIA paCa-2 and PANC-1 Human Pancreatic Carcinoma Xenografts. Oncology Research, 5: 223-228, 1993.
  • 10. Von Hoff, D. D. and Bearss, D. New drugs for patients with pancreatic cancer. Current Opinion in Oncology, 14: 621-627, 2002.
  • 11. Bruns, C. J., Harbison, M. T., Davis, D. W., Portera, C. A., Tsan, R., McConkey, D. J., Evans, D. B., Abbruzzese, J. L., Hicklin, D. J., and Radinsky, R. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Blockade with C225 Plus Gemcitabine Results in Regression of Human Pancreatic Carcinoma Growing Orthotopically in Nude Mice by Antiangiogenic Mechanisms. Clinical Cancer Research, 6: 1936-1948, 2000.
  • 12. Jacobs, A. D. Gemcitabine-Based Therapy in Pancreas Cancer: Gemcitabine-Docetaxel and Other Novel Combinations. Cancer Supplement, 95: 923-927, 2002.
  • 13. McGinn, C. J., Lawrence, T. S., and Zalupski, M. M. On the Development of Gemcitabine-Based Chemoradiotherapy Regimens in Pancreatic Cancer. Cancer Supplement, 95: 933-940, 2002.
  • 14. Oettle, H. and Riess, H. Gemcitabine in Combination with 5-Fluorouracil with or without Folinic Acid in the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer. Cancer Supplement, 95: 912-922, 2002.
  • 15. Gelmon, K., Chan, A., and Harbeck, N. The role of capecitabine in first-line treatment for patients with metastatic breast cancer. The Oncologist. 11(suppl 1): 42-51, 2006.
  • 16. Ershler, W. B. Capecitabine monotherapy: safe and effective treatment for metastatic breast cancer. The Oncologist. 11(4):325-35, 2006.
  • 17. Martin, M. J. Current stage-specific chemotherapeutic options in colon cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 5(4):695-704, 2005.
  • 18. Cartwright, T. H., Cohn, A., Varkey, J. A., et al. A Phase II study of oral capecitabine in patients with advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. J Clin Oncol. 20: 160-164, 2002.
  • 19. Lozano, R. D., Patt, Y. Z., Hassan, M. M., Frome, A., Vauthey, J. N., Ellis, L. M., Schnirer, T. D., Brown, J. L., Abbruzzese, J. L., Wolff, R. A., and Charnsangavej, C. Oral Capecitabine (Xeloda) for the treatment of hepatobiliary cancers (hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and gallbladder cancer). Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 19:1025A, 2000
  • 20. Strumberg, D., Richly, H., Hilger, R. A., et al. Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of the novel Raf kinase and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor BAY 43-9006 in patients with advanced refractory solid tumors. J Clin Oncol. 23: 965-972, 2005
  • 21. Abou-Alfa, G. K., Schwartz, L., Ricci, S., et al. Phase II study of sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 24:4293-4300
  • 22. ACS Cancer Facts and Figures. American Cancer Society, 2004.
  • 23. Raymond, E., Faivre, S., Chaney, S., Woynarowski, J., and Cvitkovic, E. Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology of Oxaliplatin. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, 1:227-235, 2002.
  • 24. Diggle, P. J., Liang, K. Y., and Zeger, S. L. Analysis of Longitudinal Data, 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford Science Publications, 1994.

Read more
PatSnap Solutions

Great research starts with great data.

Use the most comprehensive innovation intelligence platform to maximise ROI on research.

Learn More

Citation

Title Current Assignee Application Date Publication Date
Preparation for reducing cancer symptoms without treating cancer TSUMURA JUNTENDO INC. 14 February 1985 21 October 1986
Adminiculum for antitumor agents TSUMURA JUNTENDO INC. 29 June 1983 23 September 1986
Use of PHY906 as treatment for inflammatory bowel disease and/or irritable bowel syndrome YALE UNIVERSITY 27 October 2008 12 May 2011
Use of PHY906 as treatment for inflammatory bowel disease and/or irritable bowel syndrome YALE UNIVERSITY 26 January 2015 02 July 2015
Herbal composition PHY906 and its use in chemotherapy YALE UNIVERSITY 10 October 2012 25 April 2013
See full citation <>

More Patents & Intellectual Property

PatSnap Solutions

PatSnap solutions are used by R&D teams, legal and IP professionals, those in business intelligence and strategic planning roles and by research staff at academic institutions globally.

PatSnap Solutions
Search & Analyze
The widest range of IP search tools makes getting the right answers and asking the right questions easier than ever. One click analysis extracts meaningful information on competitors and technology trends from IP data.
Business Intelligence
Gain powerful insights into future technology changes, market shifts and competitor strategies.
Workflow
Manage IP-related processes across multiple teams and departments with integrated collaboration and workflow tools.
Contact Sales
Clsoe