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Patent Analysis of

Hybrid magnesium cement and method of manufacture

Updated Time 12 June 2019

Patent Registration Data

Publication Number

US10150700

Application Number

US14/968214

Application Date

14 December 2015

Publication Date

11 December 2018

Current Assignee

WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY

Original Assignee (Applicant)

WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY

International Classification

C04B9/00,C04B9/04,C04B28/30,C04B9/20,C04B28/00

Cooperative Classification

C04B9/04,C04B9/20,C04B12/025,C04B28/003,C04B28/008

Inventor

WU, HWAI-CHUNG,WARNEMUENDE, KRAIG

Patent Images

This patent contains figures and images illustrating the invention and its embodiment.

US10150700 Hybrid magnesium cement 1 US10150700 Hybrid magnesium cement 2 US10150700 Hybrid magnesium cement 3
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Abstract

A hybrid magnesium cement composition formed from an A-side component and a B-side component. The A-side component includes an A1-component including a light-burn grade magnesium-containing material, and an A2-component including a non-metallic oxide salt. A B-side component having a metal silicate polymer is included.

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Claims

1. A hybrid magnesium cement composition comprising:

a first composition having

a first component including a magnesium-containing material, and a second component including a salt having a non-metallic oxide anion, the first composition being partially cured; a second composition having a metal silicate polymer, the second composition being partially cured; and inorganic polymer chains having at least 60 repeat units of SiP2O7.

2. The hybrid magnesium cement composition of claim 1, wherein the magnesium-containing material includes calcium carbonate in an amount from 0 wt. % to 70 wt. % of the magnesium-containing material, calcium oxide in an amount less than 10 wt. % of the magnesium-containing material, magnesium carbonate in an amount of 0 wt. % to 25 wt. % of the magnesium-containing material, and magnesium oxide in an amount from 18 wt. % to 70 wt. % of the magnesium-containing material.

3. The hybrid magnesium cement composition of claim 2, wherein the magnesium-containing material is a light-burn grade dolomite, pyroxenite, amphibolite, serpentine, dunite, or chlorite having a weight loss ranging from 23-28 dry wt. % relative to an uncalcined dolomite as measured by weighing dry dolomite after-calcining relative to before-calcining.

4. The hybrid magnesium cement composition of claim 3, wherein the light-burn grade dolomite includes sand and a first hydraulic additive and an optional second hydraulic additive.

5. The hybrid magnesium cement composition of claim 4, wherein the first hydraulic additive includes a ground granulated blast-furnace slag.

6. The hybrid magnesium cement composition of claim 1, further comprising water.

7. The hybrid magnesium cement composition of claim 1, wherein the metal silicate polymer comprises a mixture of a hydroxide anion and a silicate source including at least one of a flyash, slag, biomass ash and bottom ash.

8. The hybrid magnesium cement composition of claim 1, wherein the salt is a phosphate salt capable of being solubilized in amount ranging from 3.0 wt. % to 5.3 wt. % of the first composition on a dry weight basis.

9. The hybrid magnesium cement composition of claim 1, further comprising magnesium oxide wherein a weight ratio of the salt to magnesium oxide ranges from 0.1 to 1.2.

10. The hybrid magnesium cement composition of claim 1 wherein magnesium-containing material composition includes a magnesium oxide metal oxide salt.

11. The hybrid magnesium cement composition of claim 1 wherein magnesium-containing material composition includes a light burn grade dolomite and a salt having a non-metal oxide anion.

12. A magnesium-containing material composition, comprising:

calcium carbonate; calcium oxide; magnesium carbonate; magnesium oxide; and inorganic polymer chains having at least 60 repeat units of SiP2O7.

13. The magnesium-containing material composition of claim 12, comprising:

calcium carbonate present in an amount from 30 wt. % to 70 wt. % of the magnesium-containing material composition; calcium oxide in an amount less than 10 wt. % of the magnesium-containing material composition; magnesium carbonate in an amount less than 25 wt. % of the magnesium-containing material composition; and magnesium oxide present in an amount ranging from 18 wt. % to 70 wt. % of the magnesium-containing material composition.

14. The magnesium-containing material composition of claim 12, comprising:

calcium carbonate present in an amount from 50 wt. % to 60 wt. % the magnesium-containing material composition; calcium oxide present in an amount from 0.2. wt. % to 5 wt. % of the magnesium-containing material composition; magnesium carbonate in an amount less than 5 wt. % of the magnesium-containing material composition; and magnesium oxide present in an amount from 40 wt. % to 50 wt. % of the magnesium-containing material composition.

15. The magnesium-containing material composition of claim 12, further comprising sand.

16. A hybrid magnesium cement composition comprising a reaction product of:

a first composition having

a first component including a magnesium-containing material, and a second component including a salt having a non-metallic oxide anion, the first composition being partially cured; and a second composition having a metal silicate polymer, the second composition being partially cured, the hybrid magnesium cement composition being formed by combining the first composition with the second composition, the hybrid magnesium cement composition including inorganic polymer chains having at least 60 repeat units of SiP2O7.

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Claim Tree

  • 1
    1. A hybrid magnesium cement composition comprising:
    • a first composition having a first component including a magnesium-containing material, and a second component including a salt having a non-metallic oxide anion, the first composition being partially cured
    • a second composition having a metal silicate polymer, the second composition being partially cured
    • and inorganic polymer chains having at least 60 repeat units of SiP2O7.
    • 2. The hybrid magnesium cement composition of claim 1, wherein
      • the magnesium- containing
    • 6. The hybrid magnesium cement composition of claim 1, further comprising
      • water.
    • 7. The hybrid magnesium cement composition of claim 1, wherein
      • the metal silicate polymer comprises
    • 8. The hybrid magnesium cement composition of claim 1, wherein
      • the salt is a phosphate salt capable of being solubilized in amount ranging from 3.0 wt. % to 5.3 wt. % of the first composition on a dry weight basis.
    • 9. The hybrid magnesium cement composition of claim 1, further comprising
      • magnesium oxide wherein a weight ratio of the salt to magnesium oxide ranges from 0.1 to 1.2.
    • 10. The hybrid magnesium cement composition of claim 1 wherein
      • magnesium- containing
    • 11. The hybrid magnesium cement composition of claim 1 wherein
      • magnesium- containing
  • 12
    12. A magnesium- containing
    • material composition, comprising: calcium carbonate
    • calcium oxide
    • magnesium carbonate
    • magnesium oxide
    • and inorganic polymer chains having at least 60 repeat units of SiP2O7.
  • 13
    13. The magnesium- containing
    • material composition of claim 12, comprising: calcium carbonate present in an amount from 30 wt. % to 70 wt. % of the magnesium-containing material composition
    • calcium oxide in an amount less than 10 wt. % of the magnesium-containing material composition
    • magnesium carbonate in an amount less than 25 wt. % of the magnesium-containing material composition
    • and magnesium oxide present in an amount ranging from 18 wt. % to 70 wt. % of the magnesium-containing material composition.
  • 14
    14. The magnesium- containing
    • material composition of claim 12, comprising: calcium carbonate present in an amount from 50 wt. % to 60 wt. % the magnesium-containing material composition
    • calcium oxide present in an amount from 0.2. wt. % to 5 wt. % of the magnesium-containing material composition
    • magnesium carbonate in an amount less than 5 wt. % of the magnesium-containing material composition
    • and magnesium oxide present in an amount from 40 wt. % to 50 wt. % of the magnesium-containing material composition.
  • 15
    15. The magnesium- containing
    • material composition of claim 12, further comprising sand.
  • 16
    16. A hybrid magnesium cement composition comprising
    • a reaction product of: a first composition having a first component including a magnesium-containing material, and a second component including a salt having a non-metallic oxide anion, the first composition being partially cured
    • and a second composition having a metal silicate polymer, the second composition being partially cured, the hybrid magnesium cement composition being formed by combining the first composition with the second composition, the hybrid magnesium cement composition including inorganic polymer chains having at least 60 repeat units of SiP2O7.
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Description

TECHNICAL FIELD

This application relates to a hybrid magnesium cement and a method of manufacture of same.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Portland cement has been used in concrete for nearly two centuries. But, Portland cement generally requires energy-intensive production facilities sufficient to process limestone at 2,000° F. in mammoth kilns. About one pound of carbon dioxide is released to the atmosphere for every pound of Portland cement produced. While Portland cement is used in many concrete structures, Portland cement also contributes significantly to decay of installed infrastructure as Portland cement deteriorates, especially due to attack from chloride ions.

Magnesium cement is suitable as a substitute for Portland cement. At present, magnesium cements are derived from magnesium oxide and are therefore relatively costly and relatively complicated products. Marketed products involving magnesium cement are primarily limited to the interior wall applications, such as magnesium oxychloride cement boards. Magnesium oxychloride cement experiences a strength loss when wet as a result of leaching of magnesium chloride and other chloride components. Another magnesium cement, magnesium oxysulfate cement, also loses strength when wet because it still has a relatively significant magnesium chloride component. Such strength reduction is a major obstacle to other structural uses of magnesium cement. Other magnesium cements provide high performance, but have limited raw material supplies, cannot be wet-cured, and are otherwise ten-fold more expensive than Portland cement.

A more sustainable material is needed to replace Portland cement, especially a material has superior mechanical properties and duty life, especially in wet duty service, while being reasonably priced.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention solves one or more problems of the prior art by providing in at least one embodiment, a hybrid magnesium cement composition comprising a mixture of a first composition and a second composition. The first composition comprises a first component including a magnesium-containing material and a second component including a salt having a non-metallic oxide anion. The first composition is partially cured (e.g.) by reacting with water. The second composition includes a metal silicate polymer which is also partially cured (e.g, by reacting with water). The hybrid magnesium cement composition is formed by combining the first composition with the second composition. Characteristically, the hybrid magnesium cement composition includes inorganic polymer chains having at least 60 units of a silicon phosphate (e.g., SiP2O7).

In at least one embodiment, a hybrid magnesium cement composition is formed of an A-side having an A1-component including a light-burn grade magnesium-containing material, and an A2-component including a salt having a non-metallic oxide anion. A B-side having a metal silicate polymer is included.

In another embodiment, a magnesium-containing material composition is provided. The magnesium-containing material composition includes calcium carbonate, calcium oxide, magnesium carbonate, and magnesium oxide. The magnesium-containing material composition includes inorganic polymer chains having at least 60 repeat units of SiP2O7.

In at least one embodiment, a method of manufacture of a hybrid magnesium cement composition includes calcining a magnesium-containing material at a temperature in a range of 770° C. to 1,100° C. for a time period ranging from 0.2 hr to 2.5 hr to form a light-burn grade magnesium-containing material (LGBM). The method also includes mixing the LGBM with a non-metallic oxide salt to form a magnesium-oxide-non-metallic oxide salt (MONMO) inorganic polymer. In this contest, a non-metallic oxide salt is a salt having a non-metallic oxide anion. The MONMO is mixed with a metal silicate polymer to form a dry hybrid magnesium-containing composition.

In another embodiment, a light-burn grade magnesium-containing material (LGBM) composition includes calcium carbonate present in the range of 0 wt. % to 70 wt. % of the LGBM, calcium oxide in an amount less than 10 wt. % of the LGBM, magnesium carbonate in an amount less than 25 wt. % of the LGBM, and magnesium oxide present in an amount ranging from 18 wt. % to 70 wt. % of the LGBM. The composition totals 100 wt. % of the LGBM, excluding other components. In a variation, a light-burn grade magnesium-containing material (LGBM) composition includes calcium carbonate present in the range of 30 wt. % to 70 wt. % of the LGBM, calcium oxide in an amount less than 10 wt. % of the LGBM, magnesium carbonate in an amount less than 25 wt. % of the LGBM, and magnesium oxide present in an amount ranging from 18 wt. % to 70 wt. % of the LGBM.

In still another embodiment, a method of manufacture of a hybrid magnesium cement composition is provided. The method includes steps of calcining a magnesium-containing material at a temperature in a range of 770° C. to 1,100° C. for a first time period, mixing the magnesium-containing material with a first salt to form a magnesium oxide-containing inorganic polymer composition, partially curing the magnesium oxide-containing inorganic polymer composition, and mixing the magnesium oxide-containing inorganic polymer with a metal silicate polymer to form a hybrid magnesium-containing composition. Characteristically, the hybrid magnesium cement composition includes inorganic polymer chains having at least 60 repeat units of a silicon phosphate (e.g., SiP2O7).

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 graphically illustrates a time versus temperature graph of calcining of magnesium-containing materials according to at least one embodiment; and

FIG. 2 diagrammatically illustrates a method of making a hybrid magnesium-containing cement according to at least one embodiment;

FIG. 3 provides plots of ultimate strain for the samples of Table 5; and

FIG. 4 shows the 29Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) spectra acquired for a regular Portland cement (OPC) mortar and the ductile cement mortar (inorganic cement) of an embodiment of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT(S)

Reference will now be made in detail to presently preferred compositions, embodiments and methods of the present invention, which constitute the best modes of practicing the invention presently known to the inventors. The figures are not necessarily to scale. However, it is to be understood that the disclosed embodiments are merely exemplary of the invention that may be embodied in various and alternative forms. Therefore, specific details disclosed herein are not to be interpreted as limiting, but merely as a representative basis for any claims and/or as a representative basis for teaching one skilled in the art to variously employ the present invention.

Except in examples, or where otherwise expressly indicated, all numerical quantities in this description used to indicate amounts of material or dimensions are to be understood as modified by the word “about” in describing the broadest scope of the invention. Practice within the numerical limits stated is generally preferred. Also, unless expressly stated to the contrary: the description of a group or class of materials as suitable or preferred for a given purpose in connection with the invention implies that mixtures of any two or more the members of the group or class are equally suitable for preferred; the first definition of an acronym or other abbreviation applies to all subsequent uses herein of the same abbreviation and applies mutatis mutandis to normal grammatical variations of the initially defined abbreviation; and, unless expressly stated to the contrary measurement of a property is determined by the same technique as previously or later referenced for the same property. Also, unless expressly stated to the contrary, percentage, “parts of,” and ratio values are by weight, and the term “polymer” includes “oligomer,”“copolymer,”“terpolymer,”“pre-polymer,” and the like.

In an embodiment, a hybrid magnesium cement composition comprising a mixture of a first composition and a second composition is provided. The first composition includes a first component including a magnesium-containing material and a second component including a salt having a non-metallic oxide anion. Examples of such salts include, but are not limited to, phosphate salts, sulfate salts, chlorate salts, or nitrate salts. Examples for the magnesium-containing material include, but are not limited to, dolomite, magnesite, and the like. The first composition is partially cured by reacting with water. The second composition includes a metal silicate polymer and is partially cured by reacting with water. The hybrid magnesium cement composition is formed by combining the first composition with the second composition. Characteristically, the hybrid magnesium cement composition includes inorganic polymer chains having at least 60 repeat units of a silicon phosphate (e.g., SiP2O7). In a variation, the hybrid magnesium cement composition includes inorganic polymer chains having from about 60 to 1000 repeat units of a silicon phosphate (e.g., SiP2O7). In a variation, the hybrid magnesium cement composition includes inorganic polymer chains having from about 60 to 120 repeat units of a silicon phosphate (e.g., SiP2O7). In another variation, the hybrid magnesium cement composition includes inorganic polymer chains having from about 80 to 100 repeat units of a silicon phosphate (e.g., SiP2O7).

A hybrid magnesium cement, in at least one embodiment, is formed by mixing a Part A: a magnesium-containing material that includes magnesium oxide with a Part B: a metal silicate polymer. Before mixing to form the hybrid magnesium cement, the magnesium-containing material and the metal silicate polymer are each partially reacted separately, forming a partially-cured magnesium-containing material and a partially-cured metal silicate polymer. Part A is a mixture of a Part A1: a light-burn grade magnesium-containing material, and a Part A2: a non-metallic oxide salt. In this context, the term “light burn grade magnesium-containing material” is a magnesium-containing material or composition that has been calcined at temperatures ranging from 700° C.-1100° C.

Turning now to FIG. 1, a time versus weight loss graph is shown of calcining of the magnesium-containing material according to at least one embodiment. In the embodiments of FIG. 1, a dolomite is the magnesium-containing material. At line 10 is the weight loss trace of calcining the dolomite at 900° C. The weight loss equivalent to the stoichiometric amount of carbon dioxide from the decomposition of magnesium carbonate in the dolomite to magnesium oxide is reached in approximately 45 minutes. Faster temperature rise favors maximizing converting only magnesium carbonate and not calcium carbonate in the dolomite which is preferable for later forming a magnesium-oxide-non-metallic oxide salt inorganic polymer (MONMO), a magnesium-containing cement mortar, a partially-cured magnesium-containing cement mortar, and the hybrid magnesium cement. Faster processing of the dolomite to the stoichiometric maximum loss of carbon dioxide, line 14 of FIG. 1, from the decomposition of magnesium carbonate is advantageous from a manufacturing cost perspective with less energy used and a better utilization rate of a calciner relative to a longer calcining time at a higher calcining temperature with a conventional Portland cement calcining operation. At line 12 is the weight loss trace of calcining the dolomite at 850° C. The loss of the stoichiometric amount of carbon dioxide from the decomposition of magnesium carbonate in the dolomite to magnesium oxide is reached in approximately 115 minutes. At line 16 is the weight loss trace of calcining the dolomite at 750° C. The loss of the stoichiometric amount of carbon dioxide from the decomposition of magnesium carbonate in the dolomite to magnesium oxide is not achieved. At line 18 is the weight loss trace of calcining the dolomite at 600° C. The loss of the stoichiometric amount of carbon dioxide from the decomposition of magnesium carbonate in the dolomite to magnesium oxide is never achieved. It should be understood that in other embodiments using different materials and equipment, other temperature settings may achieve the maximum stoichiometric decomposition of magnesium carbonate. It is also understood that other temperature and equipment combinations may achieve hybrid cements having lesser, but still acceptable, performance properties for the intended use.

It is understood that there are substantial variations in magnesium, calcium, and contaminant amounts in naturally occurring dolomite. In a nominal dolomite, calcium is present in an amount of 54.3 wt. % CaCO3 and magnesium is present in an amount of 45.7 wt. %. Dolomite variations from nominal contemplated within the scope of this invention include, but are not limited to, a calcitic dolomite, a dolomitic limestone, a magnesium limestone, a steel-melting-shop grade of dolomite, and a blast-furnace grade of dolomite.

In at least one embodiment the light-burn grade magnesium-material has a composition as shown in Table 1A, where the composition accumulates to 100%.


TABLE 1A
MINIMUM
MAXIMUM
COMPONENT
AMOUNT (%)
AMOUNT (%)
CaCO3
30
70
CaO
0
10
MgCO3
0
25
MgO
18
70
Other
0
12

In another embodiment the light-burn grade magnesium-material has a composition as shown in Table 1B, where the composition accumulates to 100%.


TABLE 1B
MINIMUM
MAXIMUM
COMPONENT
AMOUNT (%)
AMOUNT (%)
CaCO3
40
65
CaO
0.1
7.5
MgCO3
0
10
MgO
30
60
Other
0.1
7

In another embodiment the light-burn grade magnesium-material has a composition as shown in Table 1C, where the composition accumulates to 100%.


TABLE 1C
MINIMUM
MAXIMUM
COMPONENT
AMOUNT (%)
AMOUNT (%)
CaCO3
50
60
CaO
0.2
5
MgCO3
0
5
MgO
40
50
Other
0.1
7

In at least one embodiment, the weight ratio in the light-burn grade magnesium-containing material of MgCO3 to MgO ranges from 0 to 0.71. In another embodiment, the weight ratio of the light-burn grade magnesium-containing material MgCO3 to MgO ranges from 0.01 to 0.55. In yet another embodiment, the weight ratio of the light-burn grade magnesium-containing material MgCO3 to MgO ranges from 0.05 to 0.20.

In at least one embodiment, in forming light-burn grade magnesium-containing material, essentially all MgCO3 in the raw material is transformed by calcining into MgO as measured by weight between the initial dried material and the after-calcining, cooled dried material. In another embodiment, in forming light-burn grade magnesium-containing material essentially all MgCO3 in the raw material is transformed by calcining into MgO and essentially none of the CaCO3 in the raw material is converted into CaO. In another embodiment, in forming light-burn grade magnesium-containing material essentially all MgCO3 in the raw material is transformed by calcining into MgO and less than 20 rel. % of the CaCO3 in the raw material is converted into CaO. In another embodiment, in forming light-burn grade magnesium-containing material essentially all MgCO3 in the raw material is transformed by calcining into MgO and less than 10 rel. % of the CaCO3 in the raw material is converted into CaO. In another embodiment, in forming light-burn grade magnesium-containing material at least 80 rel. % of MgCO3 in the raw material is transformed by calcining into MgO and less than 20 rel. % of the CaCO3 in the raw material is converted into CaO. In another embodiment, in forming light-burn grade magnesium-containing material at least 90 rel. % of MgCO3 in the raw material is transformed by calcining into MgO and less than 20 rel. % of the CaCO3 in the raw material is converted into CaO. In another embodiment, in forming light-burn grade magnesium-containing material at least 90 rel. % of MgCO3 in the raw material is transformed by calcining into MgO and less than 10 rel. % of the CaCO3 in the raw material is converted into CaO.

In at least one embodiment, the magnesium-containing material is the dolomite that is calcined to form a light-burn grade dolomite. The light-burn grade dolomite is calcined at temperature for a time period ranging from 0.2 hours to 2.5 hours. In another embodiment, the light-burn grade dolomite is calcined at temperature for a time period ranging from 0.5 hours to 2 hours. In another embodiment, the light-burn grade dolomite is calcined at temperature for a time period ranging from 0.75 hours to 1.5 hours.

The magnesium-containing material, in at least one embodiment, is the light-burn grade dolomite formed by calcining a dolomite at a temperature ranging from 770° C. to 1,100° C. In another embodiment, the light-burn grade dolomite is formed by calcining the dolomite at a temperature ranging from 800° C. to 950° C. In yet another embodiment, the light-burn grade dolomite is formed by calcining the dolomite at a temperature ranging from 850° C. to 900° C. It was surprising that an exceptionally and unacceptably violent reaction occurs when the light-burn grade dolomite is calcined at temperatures at or above 1,100° C. and subsequently mixed with a non-metallic oxide salt.

In at least one embodiment, the mixture of light-burn grade dolomite with the non-metallic oxide salt forms a magnesium-oxide-non-metallic oxide salt inorganic polymer (MONMO). In this context, non-metallic oxide salt refers to the anion part of the salt. MONMO is reactable with the metal silicate polymer to form the hybrid cement in certain embodiments.

In at least one embodiment, the non-metallic oxide salt is a sulfate salt. In another embodiment, the non-metallic oxide salt is a phosphate salt.

In at least one embodiment, the phosphate salt is a soluble phosphate. In another embodiment, the phosphate is a crystalline phosphate. Non-limiting examples of the phosphate salt include metal dihydrogen phosphate, dimetal hydrogen phosphate, metal phosphate, where the metal is a monovalent metal cation, such as potassium. In another embodiment, the phosphate salt may include phosphate compositions having ammonium, alkaline earth, and/or di- and/or trivalent metal cations.

In at least one embodiment, the weight ratio of the non-metallic oxide salt to the magnesium oxide in the light-burned grade dolomite ranges from 0.1 to 1.2. In another embodiment, the weight ratio of the non-metallic oxide salt to the magnesium oxide in the light-burned grade dolomite ranges from 0.3 to 1.1. In yet another embodiment, the weight ratio of the non-metallic oxide salt to the magnesium oxide in the light-burned grade dolomite ranges from 0.5 to 0.95. It is unexpected that the weight ratio of non-metallic oxide salt to magnesium oxide is significantly different from the stoichiometric ratio. Without being tied to any one theory, this unexpected result may arise from the broad distribution of particles sizes of the light-burn grade dolomite, where the large particle sizes do not receive all of the reactants during the relative short reaction time period.

Besides temperature and residence time in a calciner, the particle size may contribute to the magnesium-containing material's effectiveness in the hybrid cement. The particle size distribution of the dolomite, in at least one embodiment, has more than 85 wt. % being less than a Tyler Equivalent 100-mesh screen and less than 15 wt. % being less than a 4.8 μm particle size when measured according to ASTM D422-07. In another embodiment, the particle size distribution of the dolomite has a particle size distribution with more than 90 wt. % being less than a Tyler Equivalent 100-mesh screen and less than 15 wt. % being less than a 15.8 μm particle size. In yet another embodiment, particle size distribution of the dolomite has a particle size distribution with more than 95 wt. % being less than a Tyler Equivalent 100-mesh screen and less than 15 wt. % being less than a 36.2 μm particle size.

In another embodiment, there is a surprising synergy between a relatively rapid heating rate and the ultimate heating temperature, with the objective of maximizing the formation of magnesium oxide while minimizing the calcium oxide formed. Other process parameters, such as particle size and surface area, and the mineral mixture of the source material play roles in this surprising synergy. One surrogate measure of the synergy is the amount of carbon dioxide and other mass components being driven off the raw materials during calcining.

During the calcining of the light-burn grade dolomite, in at least one embodiment, the light-burn grade dolomite experiences a weight loss ranging from 23-28 dry weight percentage relative to an uncalcined dolomite. In another embodiment, the light-burn grade dolomite experiences a weight loss ranging from 24-27 dry weight percentage relative to an uncalcined dolomite. In yet another embodiment, the light-burn grade dolomite experiences a weight loss ranging from 25-26 dry weight percentage relative to an uncalcined dolomite. It is preferable that the weight loss measured be weight lost from magnesium-containing materials releasing carbon dioxide while forming magnesium oxide. In at least one embodiment, the carbon dioxide amount released from magnesium-containing materials ranges from 60 wt. % of the total weight loss to 95 wt. % of the total weight loss. In another embodiment, the carbon dioxide amount released from magnesium-containing materials ranges from 70 wt. % of the total weight loss to 90 wt. % of the total weight loss. In another embodiment, the carbon dioxide amount released from magnesium-containing materials ranges from 75 wt. % of the total weight loss to 85 wt. % of the total weight loss.

In another embodiment, the carbon dioxide amount released from magnesium-containing materials ranges from 70 wt. % to 120 wt. % of the stoichiometric maximum weight loss of magnesium carbonate. An exemplary calculation of the stoichiometric maximum weight loss is as follows: in at least one embodiment, a dolomite blend includes 51 wt. % calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and 42 wt. % magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). The molar mass of CaCO3 is 100 g and CaO is 56 g. The molar mass of MgCO3 is 84.5 g and MgO is 40 g. In a 100 g sample of a representative blend of dolomitic materials, there is 42 g of MgCO3. After a heating time period, the dolomite magnesium theoretically decomposes only MgCO3 to only MgO, the sample would weigh 40/84.5 of the original amount 47.3% of the original MgCO3 mass or 19.9 g MgO. The resultant weight of light-burn grade dolomite is, therefore, only (51+19.9)/(51+42) or 76% of the original weight. Stated as the stoichiometric loss of carbon dioxide, i.e. 100 wt. %-76 wt. %, that is 24 wt. % loss. In another embodiment, the carbon dioxide amount released from magnesium-containing materials ranges from 80 wt. % to 110 wt. % of the stoichiometric maximum mass loss of magnesium carbonate. In another embodiment, the carbon dioxide amount released from magnesium-containing materials ranges from 90 wt. % to 105 wt. % of the stoichiometric maximum mass loss of magnesium carbonate.

Calcining of the dolomite may occur using heating techniques known in the art. Non-limiting examples of heating techniques include a static oven method, a static oven method with preheating, a calciner method, a calciner process with preheating, a dielectrically-heated method, and a microwave-heated method.

It was surprising that the light-burn grade dolomite, when formed into the magnesium cement, experienced reduced tensile strength by as much as 50% relative to the magnesium cement formed with the light-burn grade dolomite that did not experience a weight loss as in the ranges above.

It is understood that while the examples have been presented in embodiments involving dolomite, other magnesium-containing minerals are suitable for use in certain other embodiments without exceeding the scope and limitations of the contemplated invention. Non-limiting examples of other magnesium-containing materials include magnesite, pyroxenite, amphibolite, serpentine, dunite, and chlorite.

In at least one embodiment, when a portion of calcium oxide is formed during calcining, especially above 1,000° C., the reaction of the calcium oxide with the metal silicate polymer can be hazardously exothermic. The excess calcium oxide can be retarded with a preliminary addition of water to form a hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) prior to mixing with the metal silicate polymer.

In at least one embodiment, the magnesium-containing material has chloride present in a maximum amount of 10 wt. % chloride content. In another embodiment, the magnesium-containing material has chloride present in a maximum amount of 5 wt. % chloride content. In another embodiment, the magnesium-containing material has chloride present in a maximum amount of 2 wt. %.

In another embodiment, the magnesium-containing material may be retarded using a set retarder such as boric acid or borax. In at least one embodiment, the retarded magnesium-containing material may be also un-retarded by addition of materials to neutralize or sequester the boron-containing compounds.

A dolomite cement mortar is formed from the light-burn grade dolomite, phosphate salt, a first latent hydraulic additive, a second latent hydraulic additive, water, and sand. The dolomite cement mortar is reacted with the metal silicate polymer to form the hybrid cement in at least one embodiment.

The dolomite cement mortar composition, in at least one embodiment, includes the formulation in Table 2, as follows, where the composition totals 100 wt. %:


TABLE 2
Component
Minimum Wt. %
Maximum Wt. %
Light-Burn Grade Dolomite1
24
39
Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate
2.7
4.5
First Latent Hydraulic Additive2
19
30
Second Latent Hydraulic Additive3
1.3
2.5
Sand4
19
30
Water
9
15
1Raw Dolomite supplied by Osborne Materials Co., Drummond Island, MI
2Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag (GGBFS)
3Silica Fume
4White silica sand-fine particle size

In at least one embodiment, the reaction of the magnesium-containing material with the metal silicate is too rapid for good mixing. Unexpectedly, the rapid reaction results in damage to the molds, relatively poor workability, relatively low hardened strength, and relatively large granularity of the dolomite cement mortar. The addition of the GGBFS to the magnesium-containing material results in a relatively slower reaction rate, in at least one embodiment. In addition, having the GGBFS in the composition lowers the heat of hydration and lower temperature increases during the mixing of the dolomite cement mortar in certain embodiments. GGBFS, in certain embodiments, also reduces the occurrence of microcracking in the dolomite cement mortar because of reduced thermal gradients during the curing of the dolomite cement mortar.

The metal silicate polymer, at least one embodiment, is formed by an inorganic polymerization reaction at the nano-structure condition in a gelled state using a relatively low temperature regime of less than 100° C. Such a condition leads to formation of longer inorganic chains and loosely cross-linked chains in acidic regimes with elevated reagent concentrations. Rings, cluster networks, and cages are included in the basic regimes with relatively low reagent concentrations. In at least one embodiment, a silica-containing compound is reacted with a hydroxide anion using a water glass reaction at relatively high reagent concentrations in a very basic pH regime defined by 3.7 wt. % anhydrous sodium hydroxide anion to form an aluminum silicate inorganic polymer. The silica-containing compounds include silicates known in the art to be wastes without many current use applications. Non-limiting examples of silicate-containing compounds include a municipal incineration ash, a biomass ash, a silicate glass, a ground glass, mine tailings, and mixtures thereof. Non-limiting examples of biomass ash include ash from combustion of rice, husks, straw, algae, or switchgrass. Non-limiting examples of the silicate glass include sodium silicate, fly ash, class C fly ash, class F fly ash, silica fume, high-reactivity metakaolin, blast furnace slag, and bottom ash, especially bottom ash ground to an average particle size ranging from less than 100 Tyler mesh to 4.8 μm. The unexpected ability to use bottom ash is advantageous despite its relative inertness, especially because of the large amount of essentially unusable bottom ash waste material that is available.

In at least one embodiment, the hydroxide anion is present in an amount ranging from 7 weight percent in solution to a saturated hydroxide anion solution. Non-limiting examples of hydroxide anion include sodium hydroxide anion, ammonium hydroxide anion, magnesium hydroxide anion and calcium hydroxide anion, preferably calcium hydroxide formed by hydration of calcium oxide in the magnesium-containing material. Use of calcium oxide or hydroxide anion from the magnesium-containing material is unexpectedly advantageous in reducing cost and the use of low-value materials in forming the metal silicate polymer when the polymer is combined with the magnesium-containing material. The hydration of calcium oxide surprisingly transformed the excessive amount and rate of energy released when amounts of calcium oxide are reacted with the phosphate salts into a useful source of hydroxide anion with an acceptably lower amount and controllable rate of energy release during the reaction. In at least one embodiment, calcium oxide in the light-burn grade dolomite is present at less than 5 wt. % of the light-burn grade dolomite. In another embodiment, calcium oxide in the light-burn grade dolomite is present at less than 9.5 wt. % of the light-burn grade dolomite.

In at least one embodiment, the metal silicate polymer is present in an amount ranging from 65 wt. % to 97 wt. % of the metal silicate polymer composition. In another embodiment, the metal silicate polymer is present in an amount ranging from 75 wt. % to 93 wt. % of the metal silicate polymer composition. In yet another embodiment, the metal silicate polymer is present in an amount ranging from 80 wt. % to 90 wt. % of the metal silicate polymer composition. A non-limiting example of the metal silicate polymer includes an aluminosilicate inorganic polymer.

In at least one embodiment, the metal silicate polymer composition is given in the range in Table 3, as follows, where the composition totals 100 wt. %:


TABLE 3
Component
Minimum Wt. %
Maximum Wt. %
Strong Base1
2.8
4.5
Supplementary Cementitious
6.5
10.5
Material Accelerator2
Silicate3
20
37
Second Latent Hydraulic Additive4
2
3.5
Sand5
35
55
Water
9
15
1Sodium Hydroxide anion, anhydrous
2A complex amorphous structure composition having long-range order including aluminum atoms, silicon atoms, and oxygen atoms, including the metakaolin
3A silicate-calcium oxide source: Class F Flyash supplied by Boral Material Technologies, San Antonio, TX
4Silica Fume
5White silica sand-fine particle size

In at least one embodiment, an additive is included in the hybrid magnesium cement composition or components thereof. Non-limiting examples of the additive include a supplemental oxide, such as an iron oxide; a chemical activator, such as sodium sulfate; a superplasticizer, such as a sulfonated composition; a lightening agent, such as cenospheres; a foaming agent, such as an inorganic foaming agent; a stabilization agent; a fiber reinforcement, such as a short fiber or a continuous fiber; and a filler, such as a sand and/or an aggregate filler forming a hybrid magnesium concrete.

In at least one embodiment, when MOP (magnesium-oxide phosphate inorganic polymer) is reacted with a metal silicate polymer to form a silicon phosphate. A non-limiting example such a silicon phosphate includes SiP2O7, and in particular, crystalline SiP2O7. In at least one embodiment, the crystalline silicon phosphate includes needle-shaped crystals having a relatively long chain length. In a refinement, the silicon phosphate includes inorganic polymer chains having at least 60 repeat units of a silicon phosphate (e.g., SiP2O7). In another refinement, the silicon phosphate includes inorganic polymer chains having from about 60 to 1000 repeat units of a silicon phosphate (e.g., SiP2O7). In another refinement, the silicon phosphate includes inorganic polymer chains having from about 60 to 120 repeat units of a silicon phosphate (e.g., SiP2O7). The malleability of MOP with the needle-shaped crystal significantly exceeds the malleability observed in the art with relatively short chain crystals of a silicon phosphate (e.g., SiP2O7). Without being confined to any one theory, the silicon phosphate allows slippage along the inorganic polymer chain, advantageously improving the malleability of the hybrid cement relative to Portland cement's ultimate compressive strain capacity of less than 0.3%.

In at least one embodiment, the hybrid cement (i.e., silicon phosphate) has an ultimate compressive strain capacity ranging from 0.5% to 3%. In another embodiment, the hybrid cement has an ultimate strain capacity ranging from 0.8% to 2.5%.

A soluble phosphate salt may be ground and mixed in with the dry hybrid magnesium-containing cement composition, forming shotcrete-dry mix, in at least one embodiment. In another embodiment, the soluble phosphate salt may be dissolved in water which is then mixed with the dry hybrid magnesium cement composition forming shotcrete-wet mix. It is surprising that the soluble phosphate salt accelerates the polymerization of the hybrid magnesium cement composition to a point where the mixture is unworkable after a time period ranging from 30 seconds to 5 minutes. The amount of phosphate salt in at least one embodiment, ranges from 0.5 weight percent to 20 weight percent of the hybrid magnesium cement composition. In another embodiment, the phosphate salt is present in an amount ranging from 2 weight percent to 15 weight percent of the hybrid magnesium cement composition. In yet another embodiment, the phosphate salt is present in an amount ranging from 5 weight percent to 10 weight percent of the hybrid magnesium cement composition.

In at least one embodiment, the reinforcement includes a short fiber having a length ranging from 0.06 inches to 1 inch. In another embodiment, the short fiber has a length ranging from 0.25 inch to 0.75 inch. In another embodiment, reinforcement includes a continuous fiber including a woven reinforcement and/or a nonwoven reinforcement.

In at least one embodiment, the reinforcement includes a fiber having a metal composition. In another embodiment, the reinforcement includes a fiber having a ceramic composition, such as a glass fiber. In yet another embodiment, the reinforcement includes a fiber having an organic composition, such as a natural fiber, an aramid fiber, a carbon fiber, a polypropylene fiber or a nanotube.

In at least one embodiment, the reinforcement includes a crenulated fiber. In another embodiment, reinforcement includes a milled fiber. In yet another embodiment, the reinforcement includes an extruded fiber.

In at least one embodiment, aggregate is added with the sand to form a magnesium concrete. In at least one embodiment, the aggregate is gravel. The aggregate, in at least one embodiment, is added to the magnesium cement composition in an amount ranging from 25 volume percent to 50 volume percent of the magnesium cement composition before the sand and aggregate is added. In another embodiment, the aggregate is added to the magnesium cement composition in an amount ranging from 35 volume percent to 45 volume percent.

In at least one embodiment, the ratio of sand to gravel in the magnesium cement composition ranges from 0.5 to 0.75. In another embodiment, the ratio of sand and gravel in the magnesium cement composition ranges from 0.6 to 0.7. In at least one embodiment, when the magnesium cement composition, sand, and gravel are mixed the magnesium concrete is formed.

In another embodiment, a method of manufacture of a hybrid magnesium cement composition is provided. The method includes steps of calcining a magnesium-containing material at a temperature in a range of 770° C. to 1,100° C. for a first time period, mixing the magnesium-containing material with a first salt to form a magnesium oxide-containing inorganic polymer composition, partially curing the magnesium oxide-containing inorganic polymer composition, and mixing the magnesium oxide-containing inorganic polymer with a metal silicate polymer to form a hybrid magnesium-containing composition. Characteristically, the hybrid magnesium cement composition includes inorganic polymer chains having at least 60 repeat units of a silicon phosphate (e.g., SiP2O7). In a variation, the hybrid magnesium cement composition includes inorganic polymer chains having from about 60 to 1000 repeat units of a silicon phosphate (e.g., SiP2O7). In a variation, the hybrid magnesium cement composition includes inorganic polymer chains having from about 60 to 120 repeat units of a silicon phosphate (e.g., SiP2O7). In another variation, the hybrid magnesium cement composition includes inorganic polymer chains having from about 80 to 100 repeat units of a silicon phosphate (e.g., SiP2O7). In a refinement, the metal silicate polymer composition includes a base, an accelerator, a hydraulic additive, sand, and a silicate selected from the group consisting of flyash, slag, biomass ash and bottom ash. In a refinement, the method further includes a step of adding water to form a wetted hybrid magnesium-containing cement composition. In a further refinement, a second salt is mixed with the wetted hybrid magnesium-containing cement composition to form a magnesium-containing shotcrete wet mix. In still another refinement, the method includes a step of mixing a second salt to the hybrid magnesium-containing composition forming a magnesium-containing shotcrete dry mix. In this embodiment and its refinements, the first and second salts independently include an anion that is a non-metallic metal oxide. Examples for the first and second salt being selected from the group consisting of phosphate salts, sulfate salts, chlorate salts, or nitrate salts. In still another refinement, the method further includes steps of mixing a first hydraulic additive in the magnesium oxide-containing inorganic polymer composition; and mixing a sand with the magnesium oxide-containing inorganic polymer composition and the first hydraulic additive. In yet another refinement, the method further includes a step of mixing a second hydraulic additive in the magnesium oxide-containing inorganic polymer composition.

With reference to FIG. 2, a method of manufacture of a hybrid magnesium-containing cement mortar is diagrammatically illustrated according to at least one embodiment. In step 100, the magnesium-containing material, such as the dolomite, is provided. In step 102, the magnesium-containing material is calcined at 770° C. to 1,100° C. for 0.2 hours to 2.5 hours forming the light-burn grade magnesium-containing material. In step 104, the light-burn grade magnesium-containing material is mixed with the soluble phosphate salt forming the MOP. In step 106, the MOP is mixed with a silicate to form the magnesium-containing cement mortar without water. In step 108, magnesium-containing cement mortar is partially cured as result of mixing with water forming a partially-cured magnesium-containing cement mortar. In step 110, an uncured metal silicate polymer precursor is provided, such as the formulation in Table 3 without the water. Upon addition of water, in step 112, the metal silicate polymer precursor partially cures forming a partially-cured metal silicate polymer. In step 114, the partially-cured magnesium-containing cement mortar and the partially-cured metal silicate polymer are mixed to form the hybrid magnesium-containing cement.

EXAMPLES

Example 1

A sample magnesium-containing cement mortar is prepared with 1 part magnesium oxide in a light-burn grade dolomite, 1 part GGBFS, and 0.1 part tripotassium phosphate. A sample of a metal silicate polymer is prepared with 1 part Class F fly ash, and 0.13 parts sodium hydroxide anion. Between the magnesium-containing cement mortar and the metal silicate polymer, 1.9 parts of sand, 0.15 parts of silica, and 0.73 parts of water are dispersed. The mixture is mixed thoroughly forming a hybrid magnesium-containing cement sample composition. The hydration mechanism is not fully understood in this case, but is known to be different than the hydration mechanism of Portland cement.

Example 2

The composition of Example 1 is cast into 40 mm×40 mm×40 mm molds. The samples are demolded after 24 hours. After three days, the compressive strength is measured at 35 MPa when tested to failure at a constant cross-head speed of 0.001 mm/sec according to test method ASTM C773-88 (2011). After two weeks, the compressive strength achieves 50 MPa with a variability of +/−15%. The ultimate strain of the samples ranges from 1.o % to 2.o %, which is at least three times the ultimate strain of Portland cement. While not wishing to be bound by any one theory, the increase in ultimate strain, i.e. the malleability, is believed to be the result of the formation of needle-like crystals of SiP2O7 having unexpectedly long polymeric chains.

Example 3

The composition of Example 1 is cast as a 3 mm plate. Short fibers, having an average length ranging from 1.6 mm to 60 mm, are added to Example 1 and are present in an amount ranging from 0.1 vol. % to 2 vol. %.

Example 4

The composition of Example 1 is cast as a 3 mm plate. Continuous fibers, having an average length ranging greater than 60 mm, are added to Example 1 and are present in an amount ranging from 0.1 vol. % to 5 vol. %.

Example 5

The samples of Examples 3 and 4, i.e. magnesium-containing hybrid cements made with fibers unexpectedly show an ability to sustain increasing loads beyond the first crack strength, thereby failing progressively rather than catastrophically. The failure appears to be more like the yielding of steel and is classified as pseudo-strain hardening. Catastrophic failure is typically expected of ceramics like the hybrid magnesium-containing cement.

Example 6

Samples having the composition of Table 2, but with a weight ratio of potassium dihydrogen phosphate to dolomite of 0.3, are calcined and tested for compressive strength. The tests show that the maximum strength observed is achieved at 900° C., and decreases as the dolomite is calcined at 1,000° C., as shown in Table 4.


TABLE 4
Calcining
Average Compressive
Temperature (° C.)
Strength (MPa)1
0
0
600
1.2
750
1.3
900
6.7
1,000
3.8
1Measured after 24 hr

Example 7

Samples having the composition of Table 2, but with a weight ratio of potassium dihydrogen phosphate to dolomite ranging from 0.1 to 0.9, are calcined at 900° C. and tested for compressive strength. The tests show that the maximum strength observed is achieved when the weight ratio is between 0.3 and 0.9 as shown in Table 5.


TABLE 5
Weight Ratio of
Average Compressive
KH2PO4 to dolomite
Strength (MPa)1
0.1
1.5
0.2
4.8
0.3
6.7
0.9
6.2
1Measured after 24 hr

Example 8

In this set of experiments, various mix compositions of inorganic polymers have been formulated and tested, paying special attention to tailoring the mix constituents to promote chain growth of the crystallites during polymerization. The mix compositions of one example of such inorganic polymers, called inorganic cement, by weight are given in Table 6. Mixing was carried out in two steps. In the first step, the base portion (Part A in our invention) of the mix and the acid portion (Part B in our invention) were separately mixed for 5 minutes in a concrete mixer. In the second step, both mixtures were then mixed together for additional 3 minutes. The mixing and curing were all performed at room temperature. The fresh mix was cast into cubic molds, 40×40×40 mm in dimension. Specimens were demolded after 24 hours and stored in air under standard laboratory conditions until testing. Each cube specimen was instrumented with strain gages and ramped to failure at a constant crosshead speed of 0.001 mm/sec by a high-capacity MTS testing machine. The 3-day compressive strength was 35 MPa and reached 50 MPa after 2 weeks; the strength variation was within 15%. The most significant finding was the substantial gain in ductility. As shown in FIG. 3, the ultimate strain (strain at the peak load) is around 1.5%, which is more than 3 times higher than that of regular portland concrete. When the test was terminated right after exceeding the maximum load, the specimen still retained its structural integrity. A highly ductile failure was observed. In contract, Part A mix and Part B mix were cast into the same cubic molds separately. Therefore, Part A alone and Part B alone samples were prepared and tested following the same procedure described above. The 3-day compressive strength was 22 MPa and 20 MPa for Part A and Part B sample, respectively. The corresponding ultimate strain was 0.3% for both types of samples.


TABLE 6
Mix proportions by weight.
Part A
Part B
Fly Ash
Slag
Sand
SiO2
NaOH
Water
MgO
Slag
Sand
K3PO4
Water
Proportion
1
0.3
1.0
0.15
0.13
0.39
1
0.7
0.9
0.1
0.34

The results of an NMR analysis are set forth in FIG. 4. FIG. 4 shows the 29Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) spectra acquired for a regular Portland cement (OPC) mortar and the ductile cement mortar (inorganic cement) discussed above. 29Si MAS NMR is a well known spectroscopic method for the characterization of the silicon species with different number of bridging oxygens (Qn). For the OPC mortar, the majority of the silicon species exist as Q4 (74%) and the rest as Q2 (26%). In other words, most of the silicon species are tetrahedrally coordinated, which form the basic units of the structural network in the cement. On the other hand, most of the silicon species in the ductile cement mortar exist as Q2 (76%), which implies that most of the silicon atoms have only two bridging oxygens. For the minor 29Si peaks at −110 and −121 ppm, they are readily assigned to Q4. While the Q4 at −110 ppm may have pure Si—O—Si connectivities, it is not trivial to determine what kind of tetrahedral coordination would give rise to the peak at −121 ppm. In any case, the preliminary 29Si NMR data provide an unequivocal evidence for the presence of linearly polymerized silicon species (Q2) in the ductile cement. This significant increase in ductility is likely due to the enhanced growth of the crystallites during polymerization as evidenced in the NMR spectra. These longer chains could realign themselves and allow relative slippage during loading.

While embodiments of the invention have been illustrated and described, it is not intended that these embodiments illustrate and describe all possible forms of the invention. Rather, the words used in the specification are words of description rather than limitation, and it is understood that various changes may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

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Citation

Patents Cited in This Cited by
Title Current Assignee Application Date Publication Date
Cement composition TOBU KAGAKU KABUSHIKI KAISHA,INCORPORATED ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCY NATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND FOOD RESEARCH ORGANIZATION 21 February 2001 27 January 2005
Refractory repairing material for equipment of iron/steel making, method for preparing thereof and composition comprising the same WONJIN WORLDWIDE CO., LTD.,SON, DAL HO 23 October 2008 04 March 2010
Sprayable phosphate cementitious coatings and a method and apparatus for the production thereof GOODSON DAVID M. 02 August 2000 01 October 2002
Sorel cements and methods of making and using same HALLIBURTON ENERGY SERVICES, INC. 10 July 2008 14 January 2010
セメント混和材及びセメント組成物 電気化学工業株式会社 28 June 2007 15 January 2009
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US10150700 Hybrid magnesium cement 1 US10150700 Hybrid magnesium cement 2 US10150700 Hybrid magnesium cement 3