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Patent Analysis of

Trifluoromethyl alcohols as modulators of RORγt

Updated Time 12 June 2019

Patent Registration Data

Publication Number

US10150762

Application Number

US15/664673

Application Date

31 July 2017

Publication Date

11 December 2018

Current Assignee

JANSSEN PHARMACEUTICA, NV

Original Assignee (Applicant)

JANSSEN PHARMACEUTICA NV

International Classification

C07D277/56,A61K31/4439,C07D487/08,A61K31/427,C07D495/10

Cooperative Classification

C07D417/06,A61K31/426,A61K31/427,A61K31/4439,A61K31/454

Inventor

GOLDBERG, STEVEN,VENKATESAN, HARIHARAN,KINZEL, OLAF,GEGE, CHRISTIAN,STEENECK, CHRISTOPH,KLEYMANN, GERALD,HOFFMANN, THOMAS

Patent Images

This patent contains figures and images illustrating the invention and its embodiment.

US10150762 Trifluoromethyl alcohols modulators 1 US10150762 Trifluoromethyl alcohols modulators 2 US10150762 Trifluoromethyl alcohols modulators 3
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Abstract

The present invention comprises methods of making 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(R1-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide, wherein R1 is defined in the specification.

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Claims

1. A method of making a 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(R1-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide comprising the step of reacting R1—H with 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid in the presence of N,N-diisopropylethylamine and O-(7-azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate, as shown in the reaction below: wherein R1 is selected from the group consisting of:

2. The method of claim 1, further comprising the step of making 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1, 1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid by reacting methyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate with KOH, methanol, and water, as shown in the reaction below:

3. The method of claim 2, further comprising the step of making methyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate by reacting 2-(4-bromo-2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol with methyl 2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate, KOAc, Pd(OAc)2, and PPh3, as shown in the reaction below:

4. The method of claim 3, further comprising the step of making methyl 2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate by reacting 4-bromro-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide, TEA, MeOH, and Pd(dppf)Cl2, as shown in the reaction below:

5. The method of claim 4 further comprising the step of making 4-bromo-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamride by reacting 4-bromothiazole-2-carboxylic acid, HOBt, 1-amino-2-methyl-propan-2-ol, EDCI, and TEA as shown in the reaction below:

6. The method of claim 1, wherein R1 is further selected from the group consisting of:

7. The method of claim 5, wherein R1 is

8. The method of claim 5, wherein R1 is

9. The method of claim 5, wherein R1 is

10. The method of claim 5, wherein R1 is

11. A method of making a (S)-5-(R2)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine −1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide comprising the step of reacting (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide, R2—Br, K2CO3, pivalic acid, Pd2(dba)3.CHCl3, and cataCXium® A, as shown in the reaction below: wherein R2 is selected from the group consisting of:

12. The method of claim 11 further comprising the synthesis of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide by means of reacting lithium (S)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate and 1-amino-2-methylpropan-2-ol, TEA, and HATU, as shown in the reaction below:

13. The method of claim 12 further comprising the synthesis of lithium (S)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate by means of reacting ethyl (S)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate with LiOH, as shown in the reaction below:

14. The method of claim 13 further comprising the synthesis of ethyl (S)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate by means of reacting 2-(ethoxycarbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid, (S)-2-methylpyrrolidine, TEA, and HATU, as shown in the reaction below:

15. The method of claim 14, wherein R2 is:

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Claim Tree

  • 1
    1. A method of making a 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(R1-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide comprising
    • the step of reacting R1—H with 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid in the presence of N,N-diisopropylethylamine and O-(7-azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate, as shown in the reaction below: wherein R1 is selected from the group consisting of:
    • 2. The method of claim 1, further comprising
      • the step of making 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1, 1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid by reacting methyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate with KOH, methanol, and water, as shown in the reaction below:
    • 6. The method of claim 1, wherein
      • R1 is further selected from the group consisting of
  • 11
    11. A method of making a (S)-5-(R2)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine −1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide comprising
    • the step of reacting (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide, R2—Br, K2CO3, pivalic acid, Pd2(dba)3.CHCl3, and cataCXium® A, as shown in the reaction below: wherein R2 is selected from the group consisting of:
    • 12. The method of claim 11 further comprising
      • the synthesis of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide by means of reacting lithium (S)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate and 1-amino-2-methylpropan-2-ol, TEA, and HATU, as shown in the reaction below:
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Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention is directed to substituted thiazole compounds, which are modulators of the nuclear receptor RORγt, pharmaceutical compositions, and methods for use thereof. More particularly, the RORγt modulators are useful for preventing, treating or ameliorating an RORγt mediated inflammatory syndrome, disorder or disease.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Retinoic acid-related nuclear receptor gamma t (RORγt) is a nuclear receptor, exclusively expressed in cells of the immune system, and a key transcription factor driving Th17 cell differentiation. Th17 cells are a subset of CD4+ T cells, expressing CCR6 on their surface to mediate their migration to sites of inflammation, and dependent on IL-23 stimulation, through the IL-23 receptor, for their maintenance and expansion. Th17 cells produce several proinflammatory cytokines including IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-22 (Korn, T., E. Bettelli, et al. (2009). “IL-17 and Th17 Cells.” Annu Rev Immunol 27: 485-517.), which stimulate tissue cells to produce a panel of inflammatory chemokines, cytokines and metalloproteases, and promote recruitment of granulocytes (Kolls, J. K. and A. Linden (2004). “Interleukin-17 family members and inflammation.” Immunity 21(4): 467-76; Stamp, L. K., M. J. James, et al. (2004). “Interleukin-17: the missing link between T-cell accumulation and effector cell actions in rheumatoid arthritis” Immunol Cell Biol 82(1): 1-9). Th17 cells have been shown to be the major pathogenic population in several models of autoimmune inflammation, including collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) (Dong, C. (2006). “Diversification of T-helper-cell lineages: finding the family root of IL-17-producing cells.” Nat Rev Immunol 6(4): 329-33; McKenzie, B. S., R. A. Kastelein, et al. (2006). “Understanding the IL-23-IL-17 immune pathway.” Trends Immunol 27(1): 17-23.). RORγt-deficient mice are healthy and reproduce normally, but have shown impaired Th17 cell differentiation in vitro, a significantly reduced Th17 cell population in vivo, and decreased susceptibility to EAE (Ivanov, II, B. S. McKenzie, et al. (2006). “The orphan nuclear receptor RORgammat directs the differentiation program of proinflammatory IL-17+ T helper cells.” Cell 126(6): 1121-33.). Mice deficient for IL-23, a cytokine required for Th17 cell survival, fail to produce Th17 cells and are resistant to EAE, CIA, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (Cua, D. J., J. Sherlock, et al. (2003). “Interleukin-23 rather than interleukin-12 is the critical cytokine for autoimmune inflammation of the brain.” Nature 421(6924): 744-8.; Langrish, C. L., Y. Chen, et al. (2005). “IL-23 drives a pathogenic T cell population that induces autoimmune inflammation.” J Exp Med 201(2): 233-40; Yen, D., J. Cheung, et al. (2006). “IL-23 is essential for T cell-mediated colitis and promotes inflammation via IL-17 and IL-6.” J Clin Invest 116(5): 1310-6.). Consistent with these findings, an anti-IL23-specific monoclonal antibody blocks development of psoriasis-like inflammation in a murine disease model (Tonel, G., C. Conrad, et al. “Cutting edge: A critical functional role for IL-23 in psoriasis.” J Immunol 185(10): 5688-91).

In humans, a number of observations support the role of the IL-23/Th17 pathway in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. IL-17, the key cytokine produced by Th17 cells, is expressed at elevated levels in a variety of allergic and autoimmune diseases (Barczyk, A., W. Pierzchala, et al. (2003). “Interleukin-17 in sputum correlates with airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine.” Respir Med 97(6): 726-33.; Fujino, S., A. Andoh, et al. (2003). “Increased expression of interleukin 17 in inflammatory bowel disease.” Gut 52(1): 65-70.; Lock, C., G. Hermans, et al. (2002). “Gene-microarray analysis of multiple sclerosis lesions yields new targets validated in autoimmune encephalomyelitis.” Nat Med 8(5): 500-8.; Krueger, J. G., S. Fretzin, et al. “IL-17A is essential for cell activation and inflammatory gene circuits in subjects with psoriasis.” J Allergy Clin Immunol 130(1): 145-154 e9.). Furthermore, human genetic studies have shown association of polymorphisms in the genes for Th17 cell-surface receptors, IL-23R and CCR6, with susceptibility to IBD, multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriasis (Gazouli, M., I. Pachoula, et al. “NOD2/CARD15, ATG16L1 and IL23R gene polymorphisms and childhood-onset of Crohn's disease.” World J Gastroenterol 16(14): 1753-8., Nunez, C., B. Dema, et al. (2008). “IL23R: a susceptibility locus for celiac disease and multiple sclerosis?” Genes Immun 9(4): 289-93.; Bowes, J. and A. Barton “The genetics of psoriatic arthritis: lessons from genome-wide association studies.” Discov Med 10(52): 177-83; Kochi, Y., Y. Okada, et al. “A regulatory variant in CCR6 is associated with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility.” Nat Genet 42(6): 515-9.).

Ustekinumab (Stelara®), an anti-p40 monoclonal antibody blocking both IL-12 and IL-23, is approved for the treatment of adult patients (18 years or older), with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis, who are candidates for phototherapy or systemic therapy. Currently, monoclonal antibodies specifically targeting only IL-23, to more selectively inhibit the Th17 subset, are also in clinical development for psoriasis (Garber K. (2011). “Psoriasis: from bed to bench and back” Nat Biotech 29, 563-566), further implicating the important role of the IL-23- and RORγt-driven Th17 pathway in this disease. Results from recent phase II clinical studies strongly support this hypothesis, as anti-IL-17 receptor and anti-IL-17 therapeutic antibodies both demonstrated high levels of efficacy in patients with chronic psoriasis (Papp, K. A., “Brodalumab, an anti-interleukin-17-receptor antibody for psoriasis.” N Engl J Med 2012 366(13): 1181-9.; Leonardi, C., R. Matheson, et al. “Anti-interleukin-17 monoclonal antibody ixekizumab in chronic plaque psoriasis.” N Engl J Med 366(13): 1190-9.). Anti-IL-17 antibodies have also demonstrated clinically relevant responses in early trials in RA and uveitis (Hueber, W., Patel, D. D., Dryja, T., Wright, A. M., Koroleva, I., Bruin, G., Antoni, C., Draelos, Z., Gold, M. H., Durez, P., Tak, P. P., Gomez-Reino, J. J., Foster, C. S., Kim, R. Y., Samson, C. M., Falk, N. S., Chu, D. S., Callanan, D., Nguyen, Q. D., Rose, K., Haider, A., Di Padova, F. (2010) Effects of AIN457, a fully human antibody to interleukin-17A, on psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and uveitis. Sci Transl Med 2, 5272.).

All the above evidence supports inhibition of the Th17 pathway by modulating RORγt activity as an effective strategy for the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention comprises a compound of Formula I.

wherein

X is CH, CR1, or N;

A1 is C(1-2)alkyl;

A2 is cyclobutyl, or C(1-4)alkyl, wherein said C(1-4)alkyl is optionally substituted with OCH3 or up to three fluorine atoms;

    • or A1 and A2 are taken together with their attached nitrogen to form a ring selected the group consisting of azetidinyl, piperidinyl, pyrrolidinyl,

wherein said ring is optionally substituted with up to three substituents independently selected from the group consisting of F, CF3, CH3, —CN, and CH2OH;

R1 is Cl, C(CH3)3, CH2CH3, OCF3, CF3, OCH(CH3)2, CHF2, OCHF2, OCH3, F, CH3, or —CN;

R2 is H, F, or Cl;

    • or R1 and R2 may be taken together with their attached phenyl to form a naphthalenyl, or quinolinyl group;

R3 is CF3, or CH2CH3;

A3 is H

A4 is H, C(1-5)alkyl,

wherein said C(1-5)alkyl is optionally substituted with one to two substituents independently selected from COOH, CONH2, —CN, and OH;

    • or A3 and A4 may be taken together with their attached nitrogen to make a ring selected from the group consisting of

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention comprises a compound of Formula I.

wherein

X is CH, CR1, or N;

A1 is C(1-2)alkyl;

A2 is cyclobutyl, or C(1-4)alkyl, wherein said C(1-4)alkyl is optionally substituted with OCH3 or up to three fluorine atoms;

    • or A1 and A2 are taken together with their attached nitrogen to form a ring selected the group consisting of azetidinyl, piperidinyl, pyrrolidinyl

wherein said ring is optionally substituted with up to three substituents independently selected from the group consisting of F, CF3, CH3, —CN, and CH2OH;

R1 is Cl, C(CH3)3, CH2CH3, OCF3, CF3, OCH(CH3)2, CHF2, OCHF2, OCH3, F, CH3, or —CN;

R2 is H, F, or Cl;

    • or R1 and R2 may be taken together with their attached phenyl to form a naphthalenyl, or quinolinyl group;

R3 is CF3, or CH2CH3;

A3 is H

A4 is H, C(1-5)alkyl

wherein said C(1-5)alkyl is optionally substituted with one to two substituents independently selected from COOH, CONH2, —CN, and OH;

    • or A3 and A4 may be taken together with their attached nitrogen to make a ring selected from the group consisting of

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

In another embodiment of the invention:

X is CH, CR1, or N;

A1 is C(1-2)alkyl;

A2 is cyclobutyl, or C(1-4)alkyl, wherein said C(1-4)alkyl is optionally substituted with OCH3 or up to three fluorine atoms;

    • or A1 and A2 are taken together with their attached nitrogen to form a ring selected the group consisting of azetidinyl, piperidinyl, pyrrolidinyl,

wherein said ring is optionally substituted with up to three substituents independently selected from the group consisting of F, CF3, CH3, —CN, and CH2OH;

R1 is Cl, C(CH3)3, CH2CH3, OCF3, CF3, OCH(CH3)2, CHF2, OCHF2, OCH3, F, or CH3;

R2 is H, F, or Cl;

    • or R1 and R2 may be taken together with their attached phenyl to form a naphthalenyl, or quinolinyl group;

R3 is CF3, or CH2CH3;

A3 is H

A4 is H, C(1-5)alkyl,

wherein said C(1-5)alkyl is optionally substituted with one to two substituents independently selected from CONH2, —CN, and OH;

    • or A3 and A4 may be taken together with their attached nitrogen to make a ring selected from the group consisting of

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

Another embodiment of the invention is a compound of Formula II:

wherein

X is CH, CR1, or N;

A1 is C(1-2)alkyl;

A2 is cyclobutyl, or C(1-4)alkyl, wherein said C(1-4)alkyl is optionally substituted with OCH3 or up to three fluorine atoms;

    • or A1 and A2 are taken together with their attached nitrogen to form a ring selected the group consisting of azetidinyl, piperidinyl, pyrrolidinyl,

wherein said ring is optionally substituted with up to three substituents independently selected from the group consisting of F, CF3, CH3, —CN, and CH2OH;

R1 is Cl, C(CH3)3, CH2CH3, OCF3, CF3, OCH(CH3)2, CHF2, OCHF2, OCH3, F, or CH3;

R2 is H, F, or Cl;

    • or R1 and R2 may be taken together with their attached phenyl to form a naphthalenyl, or quinolinyl group;

R3 is CF3, or CH2CH3;

A3 is H

A4 is H, C(1-5)alkyl,

wherein said C(1-5)alkyl is optionally substituted with one to two substituents independently selected from CONH2, —CN, and OH;

    • or A3 and A4 may be taken together with their attached nitrogen to make a ring selected from the group consisting of

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof

Another embodiment of the invention is a compound selected from the group consisting of:

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

Another embodiment of the invention is a compound selected from the group consisting of:

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof

Another embodiment of the invention is a compound selected from the group consisting of:

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

Another embodiment of the invention comprises a compound of Formula I and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

The present invention also provides a method for preventing, treating or ameliorating an RORγt mediated inflammatory syndrome, disorder or disease comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of Formula I or a form, composition or medicament thereof.

The present invention provides a method of preventing, treating or ameliorating a syndrome, disorder or disease, wherein said syndrome, disorder or disease is selected from the group consisting of: ophthalmic disorders, uveitis, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, atopic dermatitis, multiple sclerosis, Crohn's Disease, ulcerative colitis, ankylosing spondylitis, nephritis, organ allograft rejection, fibroid lung, systic fibrosis, renal insufficiency, diabetes and diabetic complications, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic retinitis, diabetic microangiopathy, tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sarcoidosis, invasive staphylococcia, inflammation after cataract surgery, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, chronic urticaria, systemic lupus erythematosus, asthma, allergic asthma, steroid resistant asthma, neutrophilic asthma, periodontal diseases, periodonitis, gingivitis, gum disease, diastolic cardiomyopathies, cardiac infarction, myocarditis, chronic heart failure, angiostenosis, restenosis, reperfusion disorders, glomerulonephritis, solid tumors and cancers, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, malignant myeloma, Hodgkin's disease, and carcinomas of the bladder, breast, cervix, colon, lung, prostate, or stomach comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of Formula I or a form, composition or medicament thereof.

The present invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating a syndrome, disorder or disease, wherein said syndrome, disorder or disease is selected from the group consisting of: rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.

The present invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating a syndrome, disorder or disease, wherein said syndrome, disorder or disease is selected from the group consisting of: rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of Formula I or a form, composition or medicament thereof.

The present invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating a syndrome, disorder or disease, wherein said syndrome, disorder or disease is selected from the group consisting of: inflammatory bowel diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, neutrophilic asthma, steroid resistant asthma, multiple sclerosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of Formula I or a form, composition or medicament thereof.

The present invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating a syndrome, disorder or disease, wherein said syndrome, disorder or disease is selected from the group consisting of: rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of Formula I or a form, composition or medicament thereof.

The present invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating a syndrome, disorder or disease, in a subject in need thereof comprising administering to the subject an effective amount of the compound of Formula I or composition or medicament thereof in a combination therapy with one or more anti-inflammatory agents, or immunosuppressive agents, wherein said syndrome, disorder or disease is selected from the group consisting of: rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis.

The present invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating a syndrome, disorder or disease, wherein said syndrome, disorder or disease is rheumatoid arthritis, comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of Formula I or a form, composition or medicament thereof.

The present invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating a syndrome, disorder or disease, wherein said syndrome, disorder or disease is psoriasis comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of Formula I or a form, composition or medicament thereof.

The present invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating a syndrome, disorder or disease, wherein said syndrome, disorder or disease is chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of Formula I or a form, composition or medicament thereof.

The present invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating a syndrome, disorder or disease, wherein said syndrome, disorder or disease is psoriatic arthritis comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of Formula I or a form, composition or medicament thereof.

The present invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating a syndrome, disorder or disease, wherein said syndrome, disorder or disease is ankylosing spondylitis comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of Formula I or a form, composition or medicament thereof.

The present invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating an inflammatory bowel disease, wherein said inflammatory bowel disease is Crohn's disease comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of Formula I or a form, composition or medicament thereof.

The present invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating an inflammatory bowel disease, wherein said inflammatory bowel disease is ulcerative colitis comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of Formula I or a form, composition or medicament thereof.

The present invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating a syndrome, disorder or disease, wherein said syndrome, disorder or disease is neutrophilic asthma comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of Formula I or a form, composition or medicament thereof.

The present invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating a syndrome, disorder or disease, wherein said syndrome, disorder or disease is steroid resistant asthma comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of Formula I or a form, composition or medicament thereof.

The present invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating a syndrome, disorder or disease, wherein said syndrome, disorder or disease is multiple sclerosis comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of Formula I or a form, composition or medicament thereof.

The present invention provides a method of treating or ameliorating a syndrome, disorder or disease, wherein said syndrome, disorder or disease is systemic lupus erythematosus comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of Formula I or a form, composition or medicament thereof.

The invention also relates to methods of modulating RORγt activity in a mammal by administration of an effective amount of at least one compound of Formula I.

DEFINITIONS

The term “administering” with respect to the methods of the invention, means a method for therapeutically or prophylactically preventing, treating or ameliorating a syndrome, disorder or disease as described herein by using a compound of Formula I or a form, composition or medicament thereof. Such methods include administering an effective amount of said compound, compound form, composition or medicament at different times during the course of a therapy or concurrently in a combination form. The methods of the invention are to be understood as embracing all known therapeutic treatment regimens.

The term “subject” refers to a patient, which may be an animal, typically a mammal, typically a human, which has been the object of treatment, observation or experiment and is at risk of (or susceptible to) developing a syndrome, disorder or disease that is associated with abberant RORγt expression or RORγt overexpression, or a patient with an inflammatory condition that accompanies syndromes, disorders or diseases associated with abberant RORγt expression or RORγt overexpression.

The term “effective amount” means that amount of active compound or pharmaceutical agent that elicits the biological or medicinal response in a tissue system, animal or human, that is being sought by a researcher, veterinarian, medical doctor, or other clinician, which includes preventing, treating or ameliorating the symptoms of a syndrome, disorder or disease being treated.

As used herein, the term “composition” is intended to encompass a product comprising the specified ingredients in the specified amounts, as well as any product which results, directly or indirectly, from combinations of the specified ingredients in the specified amounts.

The term “alkyl” refers to both linear and branched chain radicals of up to 12 carbon atoms, preferably up to 6 carbon atoms, unless otherwise indicated, and includes, but is not limited to, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, isopentyl, hexyl, isohexyl, heptyl, octyl, 2,2,4-trimethylpentyl, nonyl, decyl, undecyl and dodecyl. Any alkyl group may be optionally substituted with one OCH3, one OH, or up to two fluorine atoms.

The term “C(a-b)” (where a and b are integers referring to a designated number of carbon atoms) refers to an alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, alkoxy or cycloalkyl radical or to the alkyl portion of a radical in which alkyl appears as the prefix root containing from a to b carbon atoms inclusive.

For example, C(1-4) denotes a radical containing 1, 2, 3 or 4 carbon atoms.

The term “cycloalkyl” refers to a saturated or partially unsaturated monocyclic or bicyclic hydrocarbon ring radical derived by the removal of one hydrogen atom from a single ring carbon atom. Typical cycloalkyl radicals include cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclopentenyl, cyclohexyl, cyclohexenyl, cycloheptyl and cyclooctyl. Additional examples include C(3-6)cycloalkyl, C(5-8)cycloalkyl, decahydronaphthalenyl, and 2,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-1H-indenyl. Any cycloalkyl group may be optionally substituted with one OCH3, one OH, or up to two fluorine atoms.

As used herein, the term “thiophenyl” is intended to describe the radical formed by removing a hydrogen atom from the molecule with the structure:

Pharmaceutically Acceptable Salts

Pharmaceutically acceptable acidic/anionic salts include, and are not limited to acetate, benzenesulfonate, benzoate, bicarbonate, bitartrate, bromide, calcium edetate, camsylate, carbonate, chloride, citrate, dihydrochloride, edetate, edisylate, estolate, esylate, fumarate, glyceptate, gluconate, glutamate, glycollylarsanilate, hexylresorcinate, hydrabamine, hydrobromide, hydrochloride, hydroxynaphthoate, iodide, isethionate, lactate, lactobionate, malate, maleate, mandelate, mesylate, methylbromide, methylnitrate, methylsulfate, mucate, napsylate, nitrate, pamoate, pantothenate, phosphate/diphosphate, polygalacturonate, salicylate, stearate, subacetate, succinate, sulfate, tannate, tartrate, teoclate, tosylate and triethiodide.

Organic or inorganic acids also include, and are not limited to, hydriodic, perchloric, sulfuric, phosphoric, propionic, glycolic, methanesulfonic, hydroxyethanesulfonic, oxalic, 2-naphthalenesulfonic, p-toluenesulfonic, cyclohexanesulfamic, saccharinic or trifluoroacetic acid.

Pharmaceutically acceptable basic/cationic salts include, and are not limited to aluminum, 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-propane-1,3-diol (also known as tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, tromethane or “TRIS”), ammonia, benzathine, t-butylamine, calcium, calcium gluconate, calcium hydroxide, chloroprocaine, choline, choline bicarbonate, choline chloride, cyclohexylamine, diethanolamine, ethylenediamine, lithium, LiOMe, L-lysine, magnesium, meglumine, NH3, NH4OH, N-methyl-D-glucamine, piperidine, potassium, potassium-t-butoxide, potassium hydroxide (aqueous), procaine, quinine, sodium, sodium carbonate, sodium-2-ethylhexanoate, sodium hydroxide, triethanolamine, or zinc.

Methods of Use

The present invention is directed to a method for preventing, treating or ameliorating a RORγt mediated inflammatory syndrome, disorder or disease comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of Formula I or a form, composition or medicament thereof.

Since RORγt is an N-terminal isoform of RORγ, it is recognized that compounds of the present invention which are modulators of RORγt are likely to be modulators of RORγ as well. Therefore the mechanistic description “RORγt modulators” is intended to encompass RORγ modulators as well.

When employed as RORγt modulators, the compounds of the invention may be administered in an effective amount within the dosage range of about 0.5 mg to about 10 g, preferably between about 0.5 mg to about 5 g, in single or divided daily doses. The dosage administered will be affected by factors such as the route of administration, the health, weight and age of the recipient, the frequency of the treatment and the presence of concurrent and unrelated treatments.

It is also apparent to one skilled in the art that the therapeutically effective dose for compounds of the present invention or a pharmaceutical composition thereof will vary according to the desired effect. Therefore, optimal dosages to be administered may be readily determined by one skilled in the art and will vary with the particular compound used, the mode of administration, the strength of the preparation, and the advancement of the disease condition. In addition, factors associated with the particular subject being treated, including subject age, weight, diet and time of administration, will result in the need to adjust the dose to an appropriate therapeutic level. The above dosages are thus exemplary of the average case. There can, of course, be individual instances where higher or lower dosage ranges are merited, and such are within the scope of this invention.

The compounds of Formula I may be formulated into pharmaceutical compositions comprising any known pharmaceutically acceptable carriers. Exemplary carriers include, but are not limited to, any suitable solvents, dispersion media, coatings, antibacterial and antifungal agents and isotonic agents. Exemplary excipients that may also be components of the formulation include fillers, binders, disintegrating agents and lubricants.

The pharmaceutically-acceptable salts of the compounds of Formula I include the conventional non-toxic salts or the quaternary ammonium salts which are formed from inorganic or organic acids or bases. Examples of such acid addition salts include acetate, adipate, benzoate, benzenesulfonate, citrate, camphorate, dodecylsulfate, hydrochloride, hydrobromide, lactate, maleate, methanesulfonate, nitrate, oxalate, pivalate, propionate, succinate, sulfate and tartrate.

Base salts include ammonium salts, alkali metal salts such as sodium and potassium salts, alkaline earth metal salts such as calcium and magnesium salts, salts with organic bases such as dicyclohexylamino salts and salts with amino acids such as arginine. Also, the basic nitrogen-containing groups may be quaternized with, for example, alkyl halides.

The pharmaceutical compositions of the invention may be administered by any means that accomplish their intended purpose. Examples include administration by parenteral, subcutaneous, intravenous, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, transdermal, buccal or ocular routes.

Alternatively or concurrently, administration may be by the oral route. Suitable formulations for parenteral administration include aqueous solutions of the active compounds in water-soluble form, for example, water-soluble salts, acidic solutions, alkaline solutions, dextrose-water solutions, isotonic carbohydrate solutions and cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

The present invention also encompasses a method of making a pharmaceutical composition comprising mixing a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier with any of the compounds of the present invention. Additionally, the present invention includes pharmaceutical compositions made by mixing a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier with any of the compounds of the present invention.

Polymorphs and Solvates

Furthermore, the compounds of the present invention may have one or more polymorph or amorphous crystalline forms and as such are intended to be included in the scope of the invention.

In addition, the compounds may form solvates, for example with water (i.e., hydrates) or common organic solvents. As used herein, the term “solvate” means a physical association of the compounds of the present invention with one or more solvent molecules. This physical association involves varying degrees of ionic and covalent bonding, including hydrogen bonding.

In certain instances the solvate will be capable of isolation, for example when one or more solvent molecules are incorporated in the crystal lattice of the crystalline solid. The term “solvate” is intended to encompass both solution-phase and isolatable solvates. Non-limiting examples of suitable solvates include ethanolates, methanolates, and the like.

It is intended that the present invention include within its scope polymorphs and solvates of the compounds of the present invention. Thus, in the methods of treatment of the present invention, the term “administering” shall encompass the means for treating, ameliorating or preventing a syndrome, disorder or disease described herein with the compounds of the present invention or a polymorph or solvate thereof, which would obviously be included within the scope of the invention albeit not specifically disclosed.

In another embodiment, the invention relates to a compound as described in Formula I for use as a medicament.

In another embodiment, the invention relates to the use of a compound as described in Formula I for the preparation of a medicament for the treatment of a disease associated with an elevated or aberrant RORγt activity.

The present invention includes within its scope prodrugs of the compounds of this invention. In general, such prodrugs will be functional derivatives of the compounds which are readily convertible in vivo into the required compound. Thus, in the methods of treatment of the present invention, the term “administering” shall encompass the treatment of the various disorders described with the compound specifically disclosed or with a compound which may not be specifically disclosed, but which converts to the specified compound in vivo after administration to the patient. Conventional procedures for the selection and preparation of suitable prodrug derivatives are described, for example, in “Design of Prodrugs”, Ed. H. Bundgaard, Elsevier, 1985.

Furthermore, it is intended that within the scope of the present invention, any element, in particular when mentioned in relation to a compound of Formula I, shall comprise all isotopes and isotopic mixtures of said element, either naturally occurring or synthetically produced, either with natural abundance or in an isotopically enriched form. For example, a reference to hydrogen includes within its scope 1H, 2H (D), and 3H (T). Similarly, references to carbon and oxygen include within their scope respectively 12C, 13C and 14C and 16O and 18O. The isotopes may be radioactive or non-radioactive. Radiolabelled compounds of Formula I may comprise a radioactive isotope selected from the group of 3H, 11C, 18F, 122I, 123I, 125I, 131I, 75Br, 76Br, 77Br and 82Br. Preferably, the radioactive isotope is selected from the group of 3H, 11C and 18F.

Some compounds of the present invention may exist as atropisomers. Atropisomers are stereoisomers resulting from hindered rotation about single bonds where the steric strain barrier to rotation is high enough to allow for the isolation of the conformers. It is to be understood that all such conformers and mixtures thereof are encompassed within the scope of the present invention.

Where the compounds according to this invention have at least one stereo center, they may accordingly exist as enantiomers or diastereomers. It is to be understood that all such isomers and mixtures thereof are encompassed within the scope of the present invention.

Where the processes for the preparation of the compounds according to the invention give rise to mixture of stereoisomers, these isomers may be separated by conventional techniques such as preparative chromatography. The compounds may be prepared in racemic form, or individual enantiomers may be prepared either by enantiospecific synthesis or by resolution. The compounds may, for example, be resolved into their component enantiomers by standard techniques, such as the formation of diastereomeric pairs by salt formation with an optically active acid, such as (−)-di-p-toluoyl-D-tartaric acid and/or (+)-di-p-toluoyl-L-tartaric acid followed by fractional crystallization and regeneration of the free base. The compounds may also be resolved by formation of diastereomeric esters or amides, followed by chromatographic separation and removal of the chiral auxiliary. Alternatively, the compounds may be resolved using a chiral HPLC column.

During any of the processes for preparation of the compounds of the present invention, it may be necessary and/or desirable to protect sensitive or reactive groups on any of the molecules concerned. This may be achieved by means of conventional protecting groups, such as those described in Protective Groups in Organic Chemistry, ed. J. F. W. McOmie, Plenum Press, 1973; and T. W. Greene & P. G. M. Wuts, Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, John Wiley & Sons, 1991. The protecting groups may be removed at a convenient subsequent stage using methods known from the art.

ABBREVIATIONS

Herein and throughout the application, the following abbreviations may be used.

  • Ac acetyl
  • br broad
  • bu butyl
  • cataCXium® A Di(1-adamantyl)-n-butylphosphine
  • CDI carbonyldiimidazole
  • cy cyclohexyl
  • d doublet
  • dba dibenzylideneacetone
  • DABCO 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane
  • DAST diethylaminosulfur trifluoride
  • DCM dichloromethane
  • DEA diethylamine
  • Dess-Martin Periodinane 1,1,1-tris(acetyloxy)-1,1-dihydro-1,2-benziodoxol-3-(1H)-one
  • dppf 1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphino) ferrocine
  • DIPEA N,N-diisopropylethylamine (Hünig's base)
  • DME 1,2-dimethoxyethane
  • DMA N,N-dimethylacetamide
  • DMF N,N-dimethylformamide
  • DMSO dimethyl sulfoxide
  • EDCI 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide
  • EtOAc ethyl acetate
  • ESI electrospray ionization
  • Et ethyl
  • FCC flash column chromatography
  • h hour(s)
  • HATU O-(7-azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate
  • HOBt 1-hydroxybenzotriazole
  • HOAt 1-hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole
  • HPLC high pressure liquid chromatography
  • Hz Hertz
  • IPA isopropylalcohol
  • MS mass spectrometry
  • m multiplet
  • m-CPBA meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid
  • M molar (moles/liter)
  • Me methyl
  • MPa megapascal
  • NBS N-bromosuccinimide
  • NMR nuclear magnetic resonance
  • PE petroleum ether
  • Ph phenyl
  • Piv pivaloyl (Me3CCO)
  • PMB 4-methoxybenzyl
  • ppm parts per million
  • Psi pounds per square inch
  • q quartet
  • rt room temperature
  • s singlet
  • SEMC1 (2-(chloromethoxy)ethyl)trimethylsilane
  • t triplet
  • t-bu tertiary butyl
  • TBAF tetrabutylammonium fluoride
  • TEA triethylamine
  • TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxidanyl
  • TFA trifluoroacetic acid
  • TFAA trifluoroacetic acid anhydride
  • THF tetrahydrofuran
  • TLC thin layer chromatography
  • TMS trimethylsilyl
  • Ts tosyl

General Schemes:

Compounds of Formula I in the present invention can be synthesized in accordance with the general synthetic methods known to those who are skilled in the art. The following reaction schemes are only meant to represent examples of the invention and are in no way meant to be a limit of the invention.

The compounds of the present invention can be prepared according to schemes 1 to 5. Coupling of an aryl group to the thiazole ring of compounds of Formula I can be accomplished by coupling the bromo-aryl/heteroaryl building blocks E-I/II or F-I to the thiazole derivates A-I-V in the presence of palladium catalysis, using appropriate ligands, solvents, additives and temperatures to form the 5-aryl/heteroaryl-substituted thiazoles B-I to B-VII (Scheme 1). The thiazole reactants can be 2- and 4-substituted either by an ester group (A-I, A-II, A-IV), an amide group (A-I-III, A-V) or an alkyl group (A-IV-V).

The preparation of thiazole derivatives A-I-V is shown in Scheme 2. A-I and A-III can be prepared by standard methods for amide bond formation and ester hydrolysis starting from 2-(alkoxycarbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid. Alternatively, intermediates A-I can undergo a direct aminolysis with amines in appropriate solvents and temperatures to afford A-III. The thiazole esters A-II can either be prepared by first amide coupling of 2-carboxy-bromo-thiazole C-II, followed by a carbonylation to afford the thiazole methyl ester A-IIa or by formation of tert-butyl ester C-IV from C-I which is followed by a selective ester hydrolysis at the 2-position of the thiazole ring and a final amide coupling reaction to provide A-IIb. Thiazole derivative A-IV can be prepared in a cyclocondensation step from 1-bromo-3-hydroxypropan-2-one and alkyl 2-amino-2-thioxoacetate C-V. Ester hydrolysis of A-IV followed by amide coupling provides intermediate A-V. (Scheme 2).

Preparation of the bromo-aryl/heteroaryl derivatives E-I/E-II/F-I are shown in Scheme 3. 1,4-Dibromo- or 1-bromo-4-iodo-aromatics can be used as reactants for a metallation reaction, e.g. a lithiation with n-butyl-lithium or Grignard formation using isopropyl magnesium chloride. The 1,4-dibromo aromatics should have identical substituents R1 and R2. The metallated species can react with the Weinreb amide of trifluoroacetic acid to form 1-bromo-4-trifluoroacetyl derivates D-II. Alternatively, the metallated species can react with hexafluoroactone to directly form trifluoroacetone alcohols E-I where R3 is a CF3 group. The trifluoromethyl alcohols E-I can be formed by reaction of D-II with TMSCF3 in the presence of a fluoride source or by reaction with an alkyl Grignard reagent. The intermediates D-II can also be formed by a reaction of 1-bromo-4-alkoxycarbonyl aromatics, which can be prepared from the corresponding 4-bromobenzoic acids (D-III) via esterificataion using reagents such as thionyl chloride and methanol, with TMSCF3 in the presence of a fluoride source. Alternatively, intermediate D-II can be formed from 1-bromo-4-formyl aromatics by reaction with TMSCF3 in the presence of a fluoride source and subsequent oxidation (Scheme 3). 5-Bromo-2-iodopyridines (D-VI) can be used as reactants for a metallation reaction, e.g. a lithiation with n-butyl-lithium, and the metallated species can react with the ethyl trifluoroacetate to form 5-bromo-2-trifluoroacetylpyridine derivates D-VII.

The trifluoromethyl alcohols E-II can be formed by reaction of D-II with TMSCF3 in the presence of a fluoride source. 1,3-Dibromoaryl derivatives F-II can be metallated, e.g. a lithiation with n-butyl-lithium, and subsequent reaction with the Weinreb amide of trifluoroacetic acid will form the 1-bromo-3-trifluoroacetyl derivates F-III. The trifluoromethyl alcohols F-I can be formed by reaction of F-III with TMSCF3 in the presence of a fluoride source or by reaction with an alkyl Grignard reagent.

An alternative synthetic route to afford the compounds of formula B-III of the present invention is shown in scheme 4. Starting from the products of the palladium catalyzed coupling reactions B-IV, B-I or B-II (as shown in scheme 1), hydroxymethyl-intermediate B-IV can be oxidized to the corresponding carboxylic acid, which can be used in an amide coupling reaction to give intermediates B-I. B-I and B-II can both be transformed into the compounds of the present invention B-III by first an ester hydrolysis and a subsequent amide coupling reaction. Alternatively, intermediates B-I can undergo a direct aminolysis with amines in appropriate solvents and temperatures to afford the compounds of the present invention B-III in one step. In another alternative route compounds of formula B-III can be obtained from intermediate B-VI through oxidation followed by amide coupling (Scheme 4).

EXAMPLES

Compounds of the present invention can be prepared by methods known to those who are skilled in the art. The following examples are only meant to represent examples of the invention and are in no way meant to be a limit of the invention.

Intermediate 1: Step a

1-(4-Bromonaphthalen-1-yl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone

To a solution of 1,4-dibromonaphthalene (28.6 g, 100 mmol) in anhydrous THF (200 mL) was added n-BuLi (2.5 M in hexane, 44 mL, 110 mmol) at −78° C. under nitrogen, and the solution was stirred at this temperature for 30 minutes. The resulting solution was slowly added to a solution of 2,2,2-trifluoro-N-methoxy-N-methyl-acetamide (23.5 g, 148 mmol) in anhydrous THF (250 mL) at −78° C., and the solution was stirred for an additional 2 h. The solution was quenched with aqueous NH4Cl and extracted twice with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were washed with water and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=100/1) to give the title compound as a pale yellow oil.

Intermediate 1

2-(4-Bromonaphthalen-1-yl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

To a solution of 1-(4-bromonaphthalen-1-yl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone (27.4 g, 90.4 mmol, Intermediate 1, step a) and TMSCF3 (64.1 g, 452 mmol) in anhydrous THF (250 mL) was added a solution of TBAF (35.9 g, 136 mmol) in anhydrous THF (350 mL) at 0° C., and the solution was stirred at rt overnight. The resulting solution was quenched with 1 N aqueous HCl, diluted with EtOAc and the two layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with water and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness and purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=5/1) to give the title compound as a yellow oil.

Intermediate 2: Step a

1-(4-Bromo-2,3-dichlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone

To a solution of 1-bromo-2,3-dichloro-4-iodobenzene (3.52 g, 10.0 mmol) in anhydrous THF (20 mL) was added n-BuLi (2.5 M in hexane, 4.4 mL, 11.0 mmol) at −78° C. under nitrogen, and the solution was stirred at this temperature for 30 minutes. The resulting solution was slowly added to a solution of 2,2,2-trifluoro-N-methoxy-N-methyl-acetamide (2.35 g, 14.8 mmol) in anhydrous THF (25.0 mL) at −78° C., and the solution was stirred for an additional 2 h. The solution was quenched with aqueous NH4Cl and extracted with EtOAc twice. The combined organic layers were washed with water and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=100/1) to give the title compound as a pale yellow oil.

Alternate Synthesis of Intermediate 2: Step a

To a flask was added 1-bromo-2,3-dichloro-4-iodobenzene (30.0 g, 85.3 mmol) and THF (240 mL). This mixture was cooled to −85-−78° C., and i-PrMgCl.LiCl (78.7 mL, 1.3 M in THF, 102 mmol) was added dropwise. Then 2,2,2-trifluoro-N-methoxy-N-methylacetamide (20.1 g, 128 mmol) was added in one portion. The mixture was warmed to 20-25° C. and stirred for 4 h. The reaction was quenched with saturated aqueous NH4Cl (120 mL) and diluted with EtOAc (150 mL). The layers were separated and the aqueous phase was further extracted with EtOAc (90 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with water (60 mL) and brine (60 mL) successively, and concentrated under vacuum to give the title compound as a brown solid, which was used in the next step without further purification.

Intermediate 2

2-(4-Bromo-2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

To a solution of 1-(4-bromo-2,3-dichlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone (1.99 g, 6.18 mmol, Intermediate 2, step a) and TMSCF3 (4.38 g, 30.9 mmol) in anhydrous THF (30 mL) was added a solution of TBAF (2.45 g, 9.27 mmol) in anhydrous THF (25 mL) at 0° C., and the solution was stirred at rt overnight. The resulting solution was quenched with 1 N aqueous HCl, diluted with EtOAc and the two layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with water and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness and purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=5/1) to give the title compound as a yellow oil.

Alternate Synthesis of Intermediate 2

To a flask was added 1-(4-bromo-2,3-dichlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone (10.0 g, 31.1 mmol, Intermediate 2, step a), THF (10 mL) and TMSCF3 (22.1 g, 155 mmol). This mixture stirred and was cooled to −15-−10° C., and TBAF (14.3 g, 46.6 mmol) in THF (40 mL) was added dropwise. Then the reaction was quenched with 2 N aqueous HCl (78 mL), diluted with EtOAc (50 mL), and separated. The organic phase was washed with water (40 mL) and brine (40 mL) successively, and concentrated under vacuum. The residue was dissolved with heptane (50 mL), and DABCO (1.7 g, 15.2 mmol) was added in one portion. The mixture was stirred overnight, filtered, and the cake was washed with heptane (10 mL×2). The cake was dissolved with EtOAc (100 mL), washed with 1 N aqueous HCl (30 mL×3), and concentrated under vacuum to give the title compound as a brown liquid.

Intermediate 3: Step a

1-(4-Bromo-3-ethylphenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone

To a solution of methyl 4-bromo-3-ethylbenzoate (1.0 g, 4.11 mmol) and TMSCF3 (901 mg, 6.17 mmol) in anhydrous toluene (15 mL) was slowly added TBAF (65.3 mg, 0.250 mmol) at 0° C., and the solution was stirred at rt for 20 h, and then heated at 50° C. for 1 h. The resulting solution was cooled to rt, quenched with 1 N aqueous HCl and diluted with EtOAc. The organic layer was washed with water and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness to give the crude title compound as a yellow oil.

Intermediate 3

2-(4-Bromo-3-ethylphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

To a solution of 1-(4-bromo-3-ethylphenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone (1.63 g, 4.11 mmol, Intermediate 3, step a) and TMSCF3 (901 mg, 6.17 mmol) in anhydrous THF (10 mL) was slowly added TBAF (65.3 mg, 0.25 mmol) at 0° C., and the solution was stirred at rt for 5 h. The resulting solution was quenched with 1 N aqueous HCl and diluted with EtOAc. The organic layer was washed with water and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness and purified by FCC on silica gel (PE) to give the title compound as a yellow oil.

Alternate Synthesis of Intermediate 3: Step aa

2-Ethyl-4-iodoaniline

Iodine (46.0 g, 181 mmol) was added in portions to a solution of 2-ethylaniline (20.0 g, 165 mmol), NaHCO3 (24.0 g, 286 mmol), MeOH (150 mL) and H2O (150 mL) at 0° C. The resultant mixture was stirred for 16 hours with gradual warming to room temperature before pouring it into water (250 mL) and extracting with EtOAc (300 mL×2). The combined organic extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness to give the crude product, which was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=100/1 to 50/1) to afford the title compound.

Alternate Synthesis of Intermediate 3: Step bb

1-Bromo-2-ethyl-4-iodobenzene

tert-Butyl nitrite (8.0 g, 78 mmol) was added drop wise to a solution consisting of 2-ethyl-4-iodoaniline (16 g, 65 mmol, Intermediate 3, step aa), p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (14.6 g, 77.6 mmol), tetrabutylammonium bromide (41.7 g, 129 mmol), CuBr2 (13 mg, 0.059 mmol) and acetonitrile (150 mL). The resultant mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 h before pouring it into water (250 mL) and extracting with EtOAc (300 mL×3). The combined extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness to give the crude product, which was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=50/1 to 10/1) to afford the title compound.

Alternate Synthesis of Intermediate 3: Step cc

1-(4-Bromo-3-ethylphenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone

i-PrMgCl.LiCl (5.9 mL, 1.3 M in THF, 7.7 mmol) was added drop-wise to a solution of 1-bromo-2-ethyl-4-iodobenzene (2.0 g, 6.4 mmol, Intermediate 3, step bb) and anhydrous THF (30 mL) at −78° C. The resultant mixture was stirred at −78° C. for 10 minutes and then treated with 2,2,2-trifluoro-N-methoxy-N-methylacetamide (2.0 g, 13 mmol). The resultant mixture was stirred for 16 h with gradual warming to room temperature under N2 before pouring it into water (50 mL) and extracting with EtOAc (50 mL×2). The combined organic extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness to give the crude product, which was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=100/1 to 50/1) to afford the title compound.

Alternate Synthesis of Intermediate 3

2-(4-Bromo-3-ethylphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

Tetrabutylammonium fluoride (32 mL, 1 M in THF, 32 mmol) was added drop-wise to a solution of 1-(4-bromo-3-ethylphenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone (6.0 g, 21 mmol, Intermediate 3, step cc), trimethyl(trifluoromethyl)silane (15.2 g, 107 mmol), and anhydrous THF (100 mL) at −15° C. The resultant mixture was stirred for 16 h with gradual warming to room temperature before pouring it into water (100 mL) and extracting with EtOAc (200 mL×2). The combined organic extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness to give the crude product, which was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=100/1 to 50/1) to afford the title compound.

Intermediate 3/1

2-(4-Bromo-3-chloro-2-fluorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

The title compound was prepared as described for Intermediate 3, using in step a methyl 4-bromo-3-chloro-2-fluorobenzoate in place of methyl 4-bromo-3-ethylbenzoate.

Intermediate 3/2

2-(4-Bromo-3-methylphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

The title compound was prepared as described for Intermediate 3, using in step a methyl 4-bromo-3-methylbenzoate in place of methyl 4-bromo-3-ethylbenzoate.

Intermediate 3/3: Step a

Methyl 4-bromo-2,3-difluorobenzoate

To a solution of 4-bromo-2,3-difluorobenzoic acid (10.6 g, 44.7 mmol) in MeOH (80 mL) was added SOCl2 (10 mL, 137 mmol) dropwise. The mixture was stirred at 80° C. for 2 h and then the solvent was removed in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc (200 mL), washed with water (2×200 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (EtOAc/PE, 1/1) to provide the title compound as a white solid.

Intermediate 3/3

2-(4-Bromo-2,3-difluorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

The title compound was prepared as described for Intermediate 3, using in step a methyl 4-bromo-2,3-difluorobenzoate (Intermediate 3/3, step a) in place of methyl 4-bromo-3-ethylbenzoate.

Intermediate 4: Step a

(4-Bromo-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)methanol

To a solution of methyl 4-bromo-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzoate (2.0 g, 7.1 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was added LiAlH4 (403 mg, 10.6 mmol) at 0° C. under N2. After addition, the reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 2 h. The reaction mixture was quenched with water (0.4 mL), 15% aqueous NaOH (0.4 mL) and water (1.2 mL) at 0° C. The mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated to dryness to afford the crude title compound which was used in the next step without further purification.

Intermediate 4: Step b

4-Bromo-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzaldehyde

To a solution of (4-bromo-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)methanol (1.5 g, crude, Intermediate 4, step a) in DCM (10 mL) was added Dess-Martin-periodinane (3.7 g, 8.82 mmol) at 0° C. The mixture was stirred at rt for 3 hours. The reaction mixture was diluted with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (50 mL) and extracted with DCM (10 mL×3). The combined organic phase was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated to dryness to afford the crude title compound which was used in the next step without further purification.

Intermediate 4: Step c

1-(4-Bromo-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanol

To a solution of 4-bromo-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzaldehyde (1.5 g, crude, Intermediate 4, step b) in THF (15 mL) was added TMSCF3 (1.30 g, 9.15 mmol) and CsF (90 mg, 0.59 mmol) at 0° C. After addition, the reaction was stirred at rt overnight. To the reaction mixture was added 1 N aqueous HCl (10 mL) and the resulting mixture was stirred at rt for 30 minutes. The mixture was poured into water (30 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (10 mL×3). The combined organic phase was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=10/1) to afford the title compound as a yellow oil.

Intermediate 4: Step d

1-(4-Bromo-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone

To a solution of 1-(4-bromo-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (900 mg, 2.78 mmol, Intermediate 4, step c) in DCM (20 mL) was added Dess-Martin periodinane (1.8 g, 4.17 mmol) at 0° C. The mixture was stirred at rt for 2 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (50 mL) and extracted with DCM (15 mL×3). The combined organic phase was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=50/1) to afford the title compound as a yellow oil.

Intermediate 4

2-(4-Bromo-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

To a solution of 1-(4-bromo-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone (800 mg, 2.49 mmol, Intermediate 4, step d) in THF (6 mL) were added TMSCF3 (723 mg, 4.98 mmol) and CsF (38 mg, 0.25 mmol) at 0° C. After addition, the reaction was stirred at rt overnight. To the reaction mixture was added 1 N aqueous HCl (10 mL) and the resulting mixture was stirred for 30 minutes. The mixture was poured into water (30 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (10 mL×3). The combined organic phase was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated to dryness to afford the title compound as a yellow oil.

Intermediate 4/1

2-(4-Bromo-3-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

The title compound was prepared as described for Intermediate 4, using in step a methyl 4-bromo-3-(trifluoromethoxy)benzoate in place of methyl 4-bromo-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzoate.

Intermediate 4/2

2-(4-Bromo-3-isopropoxyphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

The title compound was prepared as described for Intermediate 4, using in step a methyl 4-bromo-3-(isopropoxy)benzoate in place of methyl 4-bromo-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzoate.

Intermediate 4/3

2-(4-Bromo-3-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

The title compound was prepared as described for Intermediate 4, starting in step c with 4-bromo-3-chlorobenzaldehyde in place of 4-bromo-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzaldehyde.

Intermediate 4/4

2-(4-Bromo-3-fluorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

The title compound was prepared as described for Intermediate 4, starting in step c with 4-bromo-3-fluorobenzaldehyde in place of 4-bromo-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzaldehyde.

Intermediate 5: Step a

1-(3-Bromo-5-(tert-butyl)phenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone

To a solution of 1,3-dibromo-5-(tert-butyl)benzene (5.84 g, 20.0 mmol) in anhydrous THF (60 mL) was added n-BuLi (2.5 M in THF, 10.0 mL, 25.0 mmol) at −78° C. under nitrogen and the solution was stirred for 40 minutes. Then, 2,2,2-trifluoro-N-methoxy-N-methyl-acetamide (3.93 g, 25.0 mmol) was added slowly at this temperature and the solution was warmed to rt and stirred overnight. The resulting mixture was quenched with aqueous NH4Cl and extracted with EtOAc (×2). The combined organic layers were washed with water and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by FCC (PE) and then prep-HPLC to give the title compound as a yellow oil.

Intermediate 5

2-(3-Bromo-5-(tert-butyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

To a solution of 1-(3-bromo-5-(tert-butyl)phenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone (3.77 g, 12.2 mmol; Intermediate 5, step a) and (trifluoromethyl)trimethylsilane (2.33 mL, 15.0 mmol) in dry DME (50 mL) was added anhydrous CsF (60.8 mg, 0.40 mmol) at rt under nitrogen and the mixture was stirred for 3 h at rt. Then an additional portion of TMSCF3 (1.00 mL, 6.44 mmol) was added and the mixture stirred for another 2 h, diluted with 2 N aqueous HCl, stirred for 18 h at rt and extracted with EtOAc (×2). The combined organic layers were washed with water and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by FCC (PE/EtOAc=10/1) and then preparative-HPLC to give the title compound as a colorless oil.

Intermediate 6: Step a

Ethyl 4-(diethylcarbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

A solution of 2-(ethoxycarbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid (3.60 g, 1.79 mmol), diethylamine (5.6 mL, 54.0 mmol) and HATU (8.17 g, 2.15 mmol) in DMF (20.0 mL) was stirred overnight at rt. The resulting solution was concentrated to dryness and purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=10/1) to give the title compound as a brown oil.

Intermediate 6: Step b

Potassium 4-(diethylcarbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

To a solution of ethyl 4-(diethylcarbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (2.56 g, 10.0 mmol, Intermediate 6, step a) in a mixture of EtOH (25 mL) and H2O (5 mL) was added KOH (1.12 g, 20.0 mmol), and the mixture was stirred for 3 h at rt. The solution was concentrated to dryness, and the residue was triturated with Et2O, filtered and dried under vacuum to give the crude title compound as a yellow solid.

Intermediate 6

N4,N4-Diethyl-N2-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide

A mixture of potassium 4-(diethylcarbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (2.71 g, 10.0 mmol, Intermediate 6, step b), 1-amino-2-methyl-propan-2-ol (981 mg, 11.0 mmol), HATU (4.20 g, 11.0 mmol) and DIPEA (2.58 g, 20.0 mmol) in DCM (50 mL) was stirred at rt for 3 h. The mixture was poured into water and extracted with DCM. The organic layer was washed with water and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=3/1) to give the title compound as a white solid.

Intermediate 6/1

4-(4-Fluoropiperidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described for Intermediate 6, using in step a 4-fluoropiperidine in place of diethylamine.

Intermediate 7: Step a

Ethyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(diethylcarbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

A solution of ethyl 4-(diethylcarbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (720 mg, 2.80 mmol, Intermediate 6, step a), 2-(4-bromo-2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (1.0 g, 2.6 mmol, Intermediate 2), KOAc (501 mg, 5.10 mmol), Pd(OAc)2 (115 mg, 0.512 mmol) and PPh3 (267 mg, 1.02 mmol) in DMF (10.0 mL) was heated under argon at 115° C. (internal temperature) overnight and then cooled to rt. The solution was partitioned between EtOAc and H2O, and the layers were separated. The organic phase was washed with H2O and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness and purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=4/1) to give the title compound as a light yellow oil.

Intermediate 7

Lithium 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(diethylcarbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

To a solution of ethyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(diethylcarbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (1.14 g, 2.01 mmol, Intermediate 7, step a) in a mixture of MeOH (2 mL), THF (10 mL) and H2O (2 mL) was added LiOH-H2O (186 mg, 4.42 mmol), and the mixture was stirred at rt for 16 h. The resulting solution was concentrated to dryness, triturated with Et2O and dried under vacuum to give the title compound as a yellow solid.

Intermediate 8: Step a

Ethyl 4-(4-fluoropiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

A solution of 2-(ethoxycarbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid (2.01 g, 10.0 mmol), 4-fluoropiperidine hydrochloride (1.54 g, 11.0 mmol), HATU (4.18 g, 11.0 mmol) and DIPEA (3.87 g, 30.0 mmol) in DMF (30 mL) was stirred at rt overnight. The resulting solution was diluted with H2O and extracted with EtOAc (×3). The combined organic layer was washed with H2O (×3) and brine consecutively, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=8/1) to give the title compound as a white solid.

Intermediate 8: Step b

Ethyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(4-fluoropiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

A solution of ethyl 4-(4-fluoropiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (286 mg, 1.00 mmol, Intermediate 8, step a), 2-(4-bromo-2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (392 mg, 1.00 mmol, Intermediate 2), PPh3 (300 mg, 1.14 mmol) and Pd(dppf)Cl2 (30 mg, 0.041 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) was heated at 90° C. overnight before cooling to rt. The resulting solution was partitioned between EtOAc and H2O, and the layers were separated. The organic phase was washed with H2O and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=5/1) to give the title compound as a white solid.

Intermediate 8

Lithium 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(4-fluoropiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

To a solution of ethyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(4-fluoropiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (1.2 g, 2.0 mmol, Intermediate 8, step b) in MeOH/H2O (10 mL/1 mL) was added LiOH (169 mg, 4.02 mmol) at 0° C. The resulting solution was stirred at rt for 3 h, concentrated to dryness and suspended in Et2O. The mixture was stirred at rt for 1 h, filtered, washed with Et2O and dried under vacuum to give the title compound as a brown solid.

Intermediate 9: Step a

4-Bromo-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

To a solution of 4-bromothiazole-2-carboxylic acid (50 g, 240 mmol) in DMF (350 mL) was added HOBt (38.9 g, 288 mmol) at rt followed by the addition of 1-amino-2-methyl-propan-2-ol (23.5 g, 270 mmol). The mixture was cooled to 0° C. and EDCI (69.0 g, 360 mmol) and TEA (72.8 g, 720 mmol) were added. The mixture was stirred at rt for 15 h, and then concentrated to dryness. The residue was diluted with EtOAc and washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3 followed by brine. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness and purified by FCC over silica gel (PE/EtOAc=4/1) to give the title compound as a pale yellow solid.

Intermediate 9: Step b

Methyl 2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate

To a solution of 4-bromo-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (46.0 g, 165 mmol, Intermediate 9, step a) and TEA (49.9 g, 494 mmol) in MeOH (1000 mL) was added Pd(dppf)Cl2 (5.0 g, 6.8 mmol). The mixture was heated at reflux under an atmosphere of carbon monoxide (5 MPa) overnight. After cooling to rt, the mixture was partitioned between DCM and saturated aqueous NaHCO3. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness and purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=4/1) to give the title compound as a white solid.

Intermediate 9: Step c

Methyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate

A solution of 2-(4-bromo-2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (2.71 g, 6.96 mmol, Intermediate 2), methyl 2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate (1.0 g, 3.9 mmol, Intermediate 9, step b), KOAc (760 mg, 7.74 mmol), Pd(OAc)2 (87 mg, 0.39 mmol) and PPh3 (1.11 g, 4.26 mmol) in DMF (15 mL) was purged with nitrogen for 5 minutes and then stirred at 115° C. overnight. The resulting solution was cooled to rt, concentrated to dryness and purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=10/1 to 4/1) to give the title compound as a yellow solid.

Intermediate 9

5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid

To a solution of methyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate (31.0 g, 54.7 mmol, Intermediate 9, step c) in MeOH/H2O (300 mL/30 mL) was added KOH (6.10 g, 109 mmol) at 0° C. The resulting solution was stirred at rt overnight and concentrated to dryness. Water (100 mL) was added, the pH was adjusted to 1-2 with 1 N aqueous HCl at 0° C., and the mixture extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC to give the title compound as a white solid.

Intermediate 10: Step a

4-Tert-butyl 2-ethyl thiazole-2,4-dicarboxylate

A solution of 2-(ethoxycarbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid (14.4 g, 70.0 mmol) in tert-butyl alcohol (127 mL, 1.33 mol) and pyridine (38.9 mL, 481 mmol) was cooled to 0° C. in an ice-water bath. p-Toluenesulfonyl chloride (31.3 g, 164 mmol) was added in one portion, and the reaction was stirred for about 7 days at it. The resulting solution was diluted with water and saturated aqueous K2CO3 solution and stirred for 30 minutes, resulting in a dark brown biphasic mixture. The aqueous layer was extracted with Et2O (×3). The combined organic layers were washed with saturated aqueous K2CO3 (×2) and brine consecutively, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness and purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc==10/1 to 4/1) to give the title compound as a light brown solid.

Intermediate 10: Step b

Sodium 4-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

A solution of 4-tert-butyl 2-ethyl thiazole-2,4-dicarboxylate (13.7 g, 53.2 mmol, Intermediate 10, step a) in tetrahydrofuran (200 mL) was treated with 2 M aqueous sodium hydroxide (50 mL), and the resulting dark red-brown solution was heated at 50° C. for 2 h. The resulting mixture was cooled to rt and concentrated to dryness to give the crude title compound as an off-white solid.

Intermediate 10

tert-Butyl 2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate

A solution of sodium 4-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (13.7 g, 53.2 mmol, Intermediate 10, step b), 1-amino-2-methyl-propan-2-ol (6.24 g, 70.0 mmol), DIPEA (20.6 g, 160 mmol) and HATU (28.0 g, 76.0 mmol) in DMF (500 mL) was stirred overnight at rt. The resulting solution was concentrated to dryness and purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=6/1) to give the title compound as a yellow solid.

Intermediate 11: Step a

1-Benzhydryl-3-hydroxyazetidine-3-carbonitrile

To a solution of 1-benzhydrylazetidin-3-one (1.2 g, 5.0 mmol) in a mixture of THF (10 mL) and water (10 mL) were added NaHCO3 (0.84 g, 10.0 mmol) and KCN (0.4 g, 5 mmol) at rt. The mixture was stirred at rt for 2 h, then poured into water (30 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (30 mL×2). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (20 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=20/1) to afford the title compound as a colorless oil.

Intermediate 11: Step b

Methyl 1-benzhydryl-3-hydroxyazetidine-3-carboxylate

To a solution of 1-benzhydryl-3-hydroxyazetidine-3-carbonitrile (1.0 g, 4.2 mmol, Intermediate 11, step a) in MeOH (25 mL) was added conc. HCl (10 mL) dropwise at 0° C. The mixture was stirred at 80° C. for 3 h and concentrated to dryness to afford the title compound as a white solid.

Intermediate 11: Step c

1-Benzhydryl-3-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)azetidin-3-ol

To a solution of methyl 1-benzhydryl-3-hydroxyazetidine-3-carboxylate (0.80 g, 2.7 mmol, Intermediate 11, step b) in THF (8 mL) was added CH3MgCl (3.6 mL, 11 mmol, 3 M in ether) dropwise at 0° C. After addition, the reaction mixture was stirred at rt overnight. The mixture was quenched with saturated aqueous NH4Cl (30 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (30 mL×2). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=1/1) to afford the title compound as a yellow solid.

Intermediate 11

3-(2-Hydroxypropan-2-yl)azetidin-3-ol

To a solution of 1-benzhydryl-3-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)azetidin-3-ol (0.3 g, 1 mmol, Intermediate 11, step c) in MeOH (30 mL) was added Pd/C (0.2 g, 0.19 mmol). The resulting mixture was stirred under 50 Psi of hydrogen at rt overnight. The mixture was filtered through a Celite® pad and the solids were washed with methanol. The combined filtrates were concentrated to dryness to provide the title compound as a yellow oil.

Intermediate 12: Step a

(S)-tert-Butyl 4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carboxylate

Under a nitrogen atmosphere, DAST (0.60 mL, 4.4 mmol) was added to a stirred solution of (S)-tert-butyl 2-methyl-4-oxopyrrolidine-1-carboxylate (420 mg, 2.10 mmol) in DCM (5.0 mL) under ice cooling. The resultant mixture was stirred for 16 h at rt and quenched with saturated aqueous NaHCO3. The separated organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=70/1) to give the title compound as a yellow oil.

Intermediate 12

(S)-4,4-Difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine hydrochloride

To a solution of (S)-tert-butyl 4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carboxylate (250 mg, 1.13 mmol, Intermediate 12, step a) in 1,4-dioxane (2 mL) was added a solution of HCl in 1,4-dioxane (4 M, 5.0 mL, 20.0 mmol) at 0° C. and the mixture was stirred at rt for 1 h and concentrated to dryness to give the title compound as a red solid.

Intermediate 13: Step a

(2S,4S)-tert-Butyl 4-hydroxy-2-methylpiperidine-1-carboxylate and (2S,4R)-tert-butyl 4-hydroxy-2-methylpiperidine-1-carboxylate

To a solution of (S)-tert-butyl 2-methyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-carboxylate (4.0 g, 19 mmol) in EtOH (40 mL) was added NaBH4 (1.04 g, 28.1 mmol) at 0° C. and the mixture was stirred at rt for 1.5 h, concentrated to dryness and purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=4/1) to give the (2S,4S) isomer as a colorless oil and the (2S,4R) isomer as a colorless oil.

Intermediate 13: Step b

(2S,4S)-tert-Butyl 4-fluoro-2-methylpiperidine-1-carboxylate

To a solution of (2S,4R)-tert-butyl 4-hydroxy-2-methylpiperidine-1-carboxylate (200 mg, 0.930 mmol, Intermediate 13, step a) in DCM (5 mL) was slowly added DAST (225 mg, 1.40 mmol) at −78° C. and the solution was stirred at −78° C. for 1 h, then slowly warmed to rt and stirred at rt overnight, quenched with saturated aqueous NaHCO3 at 0° C., and extracted with DCM. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=20/1) to give the title compound as a colorless oil.

Intermediate 13

(2S,4S)-4-Fluoro-2-methylpiperidine hydrochloride

To a solution of (2S,4S)-tert-butyl 4-fluoro-2-methylpiperidine-1-carboxylate (70 mg, 0.32 mmol, Intermediate 13, step b) in Et2O (5 mL) was added HCl/Et2O (15 mL, 2 M) at 0° C. The mixture was stirred at rt for 3 h and concentrated to dryness to give the title compound as an off-white solid.

Intermediate 14: Step a

Ethyl 4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

A mixture of 1-bromo-3-hydroxypropan-2-one (3.0 g, 20 mmol) in anhydrous dioxane (100 mL) was treated with ethyl 2-amino-2-thioxoacetate (2.7 g, 20 mmol) for 2 h at 50° C., and then concentrated to dryness at 50° C. to yield a dry yellow solid. The crude product was dissolved in saturated aqueous Na2CO3 (150 mL) and water (150 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (6×50 mL). The aqueous layer was then acidified to pH=2 with concentrated aqueous HCl, resulting in the formation of a precipitate. This suspension was extracted with EtOAc (3×50 mL). The extracts were pooled, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness to give the title compound as a red-brown solid.

Intermediate 14: Step b

Ethyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

To a solution of ethyl 4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (200 mg, 0.78 mmol, Intermediate 14, step a) in DMF (10 mL) were added 2-(4-bromo-2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (335 mg, 0.86 mmol, Intermediate 2), KOAc (153 mg, 1.56 mmol), PPh3 (225 mg, 0.86 mmol) and Pd(OAc)2 (35 mg, 0.16 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at 110° C. under N2 overnight. Once cooled to rt, the mixture was poured into water (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (20 mL×3). The combined organic layers were washed with water and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=5/1) to give the title compound as a white solid.

Intermediate 14: Step c

5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(ethoxycarbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid

To a solution of ethyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (150 mg, 0.30 mmol; Intermediate 14, step b) in CH3CN (3 mL) and H2O (1.5 mL) were added iodobenzene diacetate (339 mg, 1.05 mmol) and TEMPO (47 mg, 0.30 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at rt for 5 h, concentrated to dryness and extracted with EtOAc (10 mL×2). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (DCM/MeOH=20/1) to give the title compound as a white solid.

Intermediate 14

(S)-Ethyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

To a solution of 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(ethoxycarbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid (100 mg, 0.19 mmol; Intermediate 14, step c) in DMF (5 mL) were added (S)-4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine hydrochloride (31 mg, 0.19 mmol; Intermediate 12), TEA (30 mg, 0.29 mmol) and HATU (148 mg, 0.473 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at rt overnight. The mixture was poured into water (25 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (10 mL×3). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=5/1) to give the title compound as a white solid.

Intermediate 15: Step a

(S)-Ethyl 4-(4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

To a solution of 2-(ethoxycarbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid (689 mg, 3.43 mmol) and (S)-4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine hydrochloride (540 mg, 3.43 mmol, Intermediate 12) in DMF (10 mL) were added TEA (693 mg, 6.86 mmol) and HATU (2.6 g, 6.9 mmol). The mixture was stirred at rt overnight. The reaction mixture was poured into water (60 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (20 mL×3). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=5/1) to afford the title compound as a yellow oil.

Intermediate 15: Step b

Lithium (S)-4-(4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

To a solution of (S)-ethyl 4-(4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (500 mg, 1.6 mmol, Intermediate 15, step a) in MeOH (4 mL) and water (2 mL) was added LiOH-H2O (36 mg, 0.86 mmol). The mixture was stirred at rt for 3 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness to give the title compound, which was used directly in the next step without further purification.

Intermediate 15

((S)-4,4-Difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)(2-((3R,5 S)-3,5-dihydroxypiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazol-4-yl)methanone

To a solution of lithium (S)-4-(4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (400 mg, crude Intermediate 15, step b) and (3R,5S)-piperidine-3,5-diol hydrochloride (215 mg, 1.4 mmol) in DMF (6 mL) were added TEA (212 mg, 2.10 mmol) and HATU (1.0 g, 2.8 mmol). The mixture was stirred at rt overnight. The reaction mixture was poured into water (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (20 mL×3). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=50/1) to afford the title compound as a yellow oil.

Intermediate 15/1

(S)—N-(2-Hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described for Intermediate 15 using in step a (S)-2-methylpyrrolidine in place of (S)-4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine hydrochloride and in the final step 1-amino-2-methylpropan-2-ol in place of (3R,5S)-piperidine-3,5-diol hydrochloride.

Alternate Synthesis of Intermediate 15/1: Step a

(S)-Ethyl 4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

(S)-2-Methylpyrrolidine (14.0 g, 164 mmol) in 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran (10 mL) was added to a mixture of 2-(ethoxycarbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid (38.7 g, 192 mmol) in 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran (320 mL) at 0° C. Then, 2,4,6-tripropyl-1,3,5,2,4,6-trioxatriphosphinane 2,4,6-trioxide (140 mL, 220 mmol) was added followed by addition of DIPEA (57.0 mL, 331 mmol). After 2 h of stirring, the mixture was poured into 300 mL of aqueous saturated sodium bicarbonate solution. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous MgSO4 and concentrated to provide the title compound as a brownish yellow solid.

Alternate Synthesis of Intermediate 15/1: Step b

(S)—N-(2-Hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

EtOH (440 mL) was added to a mixture of (S)-ethyl 4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (40.0 g, 149 mmol, Intermediate 15/1, step a) and 1-amino-2-methyl-propan-2-ol (42.4 g, 475 mmol). The mixture was stirred at rt for 16 h, and then concentrated to dryness. The residue was diluted with EtOAc and washed with water. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (5×) and the combined organics were washed with aqueous saturated NaCl solution, dried over anhydrous MgSO4, filtered through Celite®, concentrated to dryness and purified by FCC on silica gel (0 to 10% MeOH in DCM) to give the title compound as a pale yellow oil. Trituration of the product with diethyl ether furnished the title compound as a white solid.

Intermediate 15/2

(R)—N-(2-Hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in the alternate synthesis of Intermediate 15/1, using in step a (R)-2-methylpyrrolidine in place of (S)-2-methylpyrrolidine.

Intermediate 15/3

(S)—N-(2-Hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in the alternate synthesis of Intermediate 15/1, using in step a (S)-2-methylpiperidine in place of (S)-2-methylpyrrolidine. Trituration of the product with diethyl ether furnished the title compound as a white solid.

Intermediate 15/4

4-(7-Azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-7-carbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in the alternate synthesis of Intermediate 15/1, using in step a 7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane in place of (S)-2-methylpyrrolidine.

Intermediate 15/5

(S)-4-(4,4-Difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in the alternate synthesis of Intermediate 15/1, using in step a (S)-4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine hydrochloride (Intermediate 12) in place of (S)-2-methylpyrrolidine.

Intermediate 16: Step a

Ethyl 4-(7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-7-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

To a solution of 2-(ethoxycarbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid (500 mg, 2.48 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) were added 7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride (365 mg, 4.73 mmol), TEA (376 mg, 3.73 mmol) and HATU (1.9 g, 4.97 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at rt overnight, poured into water (25 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (10 mL×3). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=5/1) to give the title compound as a pale yellow solid.

Intermediate 16

Ethyl 4-(7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-7-carbonyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

To a solution of ethyl 4-(7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-7-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (500 mg, 1.78 mmol; Intermediate 16, step a) in DMF (10 mL) were added 2-(4-bromo-2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (770 mg, 1.96 mmol; Intermediate 2), KOAc (350 mg, 3.57 mmol), PPh3 (510 mg, 1.96 mmol), and Pd(OAc)2 (80 mg, 0.36 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at 110° C. under N2 overnight. After cooling to rt, the mixture was poured into water (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (20 mL×3). The combined organic layers were washed with water and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, concentrated to dryness, and purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=5/1) and then by prep-HPLC to give the title compound as a yellow oil.

Intermediate 16/1

(S)-Ethyl 5-(2-chloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

The title compound was prepared as described for Intermediate 16 using in step a (S)-2-methylpyrrolidine in place of 7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride and in the final step 2-(4-bromo-3-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 4/3) in place of 2-(4-bromo-2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol.

Intermediate 16/2

(S)-Ethyl 5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

The title compound was prepared as described for Intermediate 16 using in step a (S)-2-methylpyrrolidine in place of 7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride and in the final step 2-(4-bromo-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 4) in place of 2-(4-bromo-2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol.

Intermediate 17

2-(5-Bromoquinolin-8-yl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

To a mixture of methyl 8-bromoquinoline-5-carboxylate (212 mg, 0.800 mmol) and trimethyl(trifluoromethyl)silane (0.35 mL, 2.4 mmol) in THF (4 mL) at 4° C. was added CsF (28 mg, 0.18 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 4° C. and allowed to warm to room temperature. After stirring for 2.5 days, 1.0 N HCl aqueous solution was added and the aqueous layer was extracted with dichloromethane. The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by flash column chromatography (silica gel, 10-40% EtOAc in heptanes) to give the title compound.

Intermediate 18: Step a

1-Bromo-2-(difluoromethyl)-4-iodobenzene

DAST (77.8 g, 482 mmol) was added to a solution of 2-bromo-5-iodobenzaldehyde (100 g, 322 mmol) and DCM (1 L) at 0° C. The resultant mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 h before quenching with ice/water (1 L) and extracting with DCM (800 mL×3). The combined organic extracts were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness to give the crude product, which was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=50/1) to afford the title compound.

Intermediate 18: Step b

1-(4-Bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone

i-PrMgCl.LiCl (194 mL, 1.3 M in THF, 252 mmol) was added drop-wise to a solution of 1-bromo-2-(difluoromethyl)-4-iodobenzene (70.0 g, 210 mmol, Intermediate 18, step a) and anhydrous THF (200 mL) at −78° C. The resultant mixture was stirred at −78° C. for 30 minutes and then treated with 2,2,2-trifluoro-N-methoxy-N-methylacetamide (49.5 g, 315 mmol). The resultant mixture was stirred at −78° C. under N2 for 1 h before quenching with saturated aqueous NH4Cl (600 mL) solution and extracting with EtOAc (800 mL×3). The combined organic extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness to give the crude product, which was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=10/1 to 4/1) to afford the title compound.

Intermediate 18

2-(4-Bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

Tetrabutylammonium fluoride (470 mL, 1 M in THF, 470 mmol) was added drop-wise to a solution of 1-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone (95.0 g, 313 mmol, Intermediate 18, step b), trimethyl(trifluoromethyl)silane (223 g, 1.6 mol), and anhydrous THF (100 mL) at −15° C. The resultant mixture was stirred at −15° C. to −10° C. for 30 minutes and for 2 h with gradual warming to room temperature before quenching with 2 N aqueous HCl (400 mL) and extracting with EtOAc (800 mL×3). The combined organic extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness to give the crude product, which was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=100/1 to 20/1) to afford the title compound.

Intermediate 19

Lithium 4-(7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-7-carbonyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

To a solution of ethyl 4-(7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-7-carbonyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (100 mg, 0.17 mmol, Intermediate 16) in MeOH (2 mL) was added LiOH.H2O (11 mg, 0.26 mmol) and H2O (2 mL). After addition, the reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 2 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated to afford the title compound as a yellow solid which was used in the next step without further purification.

Intermediate 20: Step a

4-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylic acid

To a solution of 4-tert-butyl 2-ethyl thiazole-2,4-dicarboxylate (165 mg, 0.64 mmol, Intermediate 10, step a) in EtOH (5 mL) was added aqueous LiOH (1 mL, 0.5 N) and the solution was stirred at rt overnight. Then the solvent was removed, the residue adjusted to pH<2 with 2 N aqueous HCl and extracted with EtOAc (3×). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness to give the title compound as a yellow solid.

Intermediate 20: Step b

tert-Butyl 2-(thiomorpholine-4-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate

A solution of 4-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylic acid (127 mg, 0.55 mmol, Intermediate 20, step a), HATU (314 mg, 0.83 mmol) and DIPEA (177 mg, 1.38 mmol) in DMF (8 mL) was stirred at rt for 1 h, then thiomorpholine (68 mg, 0.66 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred overnight, diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc (×3). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=7/1) to give the title compound as a yellow solid.

Intermediate 20: Step c

tert-Butyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(thiomorpholine-4-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate

To a solution of tert-butyl 2-(thiomorpholine-4-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate (139 mg, 0.44 mmol, Intermediate 20, step b), 2-(4-bromo-2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1, 1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (189 mg, 0.48 mmol, Intermediate 2) and Na2CO3 (117 mg, 1.10 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) were added PPh3 (115 mg, 0.438 mmol) and Pd(OAc)2 (14 mg, 0.06 mmol) under Ar and the solution was stirred at 120° C. overnight. After cooling to rt the mixture was diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were washed with water and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=8/1) to give the title compound as a white solid.

Intermediate 20

5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(thiomorpholine-4-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid

A solution of tert-butyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(thiomorpholine-4-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate (185 mg, 0.296 mmol, Intermediate 20, step c) in HCl (3 mL, 4 N in 1,4-dioxane) was stirred at rt for 1 h and concentrated to dryness to give the title compound as a brown solid.

Intermediate 20/1: Step a

tert-Butyl 2-(2-thia-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptane-6-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate

The title compound was prepared as described for Intermediate 20, steps a and b, using in step b 2-thia-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptane in place of thiomorpholine.

Intermediate 20/1: Step b

tert-Butyl 2-(2-oxido-2-thia-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptane-6-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate

To a solution of tert-butyl 2-(2-thia-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptane-6-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate (471 mg, 1.45 mmol, Intermediate 20/1, step a) in DCM (20 mL) was added m-CPBA (249 mg, 1.45 mmol, 85%) at 0° C. and the mixture was stirred at rt overnight. The mixture was quenched with NaHSO3, washed with aqueous NaHCO3 and extracted with EtOAc three times. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness to give the title compound as a yellow solid.

Intermediate 20/1

5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(2-oxido-2-thia-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptane-6-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid

The title compound was prepared as described for Intermediate 20, steps c and final step, using in step c tert-butyl 2-(2-oxido-2-thia-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptane-6-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate (Intermediate 20/1, step b) in place of tert-butyl 2-(thiomorpholine-4-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate.

Intermediate 21: Step a

N-(2-Hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described for Intermediate 10, step b and the final step, using ethyl 4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate in place of 4-tert-butyl 2-ethyl thiazole-2,4-dicarboxylate.

Intermediate 21: Step b

5-(2-(Difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

A solution of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (373 mg, 1.00 mmol, Intermediate 18), N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (401 mg, 1.00 mmol, Intermediate 21, step a), K2CO3 (276 mg, 2.00 mmol), Pd(OAc)2 (45 mg, 0.20 mmol), PCy3.HBF4 (73 mg, 0.20 mmol) and PivOH (13 mg, 0.13 mmol) in DMA (5.0 mL) was heated under argon at 105° C. overnight. The mixture was cooled to rt, partitioned between EtOAc and water, and the layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with water and brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=2/1) followed by prep-HPLC to give the title compound as a white solid.

Intermediate 21

5-(2-(Difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid

The title compound was prepared as described for Intermediate 14, step c using 5-(2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Intermediate 21, step b) in place of ethyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate.

Intermediate 22: Step a

tert-Butyl 2-((3-amino-2,2-dimethyl-3-oxopropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate

The title compound was prepared as described for Intermediate 20 step b, using 3-amino-2,2-dimethylpropanamide in place of thiomorpholine.

Intermediate 22: Step b

tert-Butyl 2-((3-amino-2,2-dimethyl-3-oxopropyl)carbamoyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate

The title compound was prepared as described for Intermediate 20, step c using tert-butyl 2-((3-amino-2,2-dimethyl-3-oxopropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate (Intermediate 22, step a) in place of tert-butyl 2-(thiomorpholine-4-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate.

Intermediate 22

2-((3-Amino-2,2-dimethyl-3-oxopropyl)carbamoyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid

The title compound was prepared as described for the synthesis of Intermediate 20 using tert-butyl 2-((3-amino-2,2-dimethyl-3-oxopropyl)carbamoyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate (Intermediate 22, step b) in place of tert-butyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(thiomorpholine-4-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate.

Intermediate 23: Step a

1-(5-Bromo-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone

A solution of 5-bromo-2-iodo-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine (3.5 g, 9.95 mmol) in toluene (30 mL) was cooled to −78° C. Then, n-BuLi (4.14 mL, 9.95 mmol, 2.5 M in THF) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred at −78° C. for 30 minutes. Then ethyl 2,2,2-trifluoroacetate (1.7 g, 11.94 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred at −78° C. for 1 h. The mixture was quenched by the addition of saturated aqueous NH4Cl (5 mL), diluted with brine and extracted with EtOAc (2×30 mL). The organic layers were combined, washed with brine, dried over anhydrous MgSO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (EtOAc/PE=1/50 to 1/20) to provide the title compound as a yellow oil.

Intermediate 23

2-(5-Bromo-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

A solution of 1-(5-bromo-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone (1.2 g, 3.73 mmol, Intermediate 23, step a) and TMSCF3 (2.65 g, 18.64 mmol) in anhydrous THF (20 mL) was cooled to −10° C. Then, a solution of TBAF (974 mg, 3.73 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was added followed immediately by the addition of 1 N aqueous HCl (6 mL). The resulting mixture was stirred at rt for 10 minutes. The mixture was then partitioned between saturated aqueous NaHCO3 (10 mL) and EtOAc (20 mL). The aqueous layer was further extracted with EtOAc (20 mL), then the organic layers were combined, washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE) to afford the title compound as a white solid.

Intermediate 23/1

2-(5-Bromo-4-methylpyridin-2-yl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

The title compound was prepared as described for Intermediate 23, using in step a 5-bromo-2-iodo-4-methylpyridine in place of 5-bromo-2-iodo-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine.

Intermediate 24: Step a 2-Bromo-5-iodophenol

A solution consisting of tribromoborane (52.8 g, 211 mmol) and DCM (200 mL) was added drop-wise to a solution of 1-bromo-4-iodo-2-methoxybenzene (33.0 g, 105 mmol) and DCM (200 mL) at 0° C. The resultant mixture was stirred with gradual warming to rt for 16 h before pouring it into water (500 mL) and extracting with DCM (450 mL×3). The combined organic extracts were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness to afford the crude title product, which was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=10/1 to 2/1) to afford the title compound.

Intermediate 24: Step b

1-Bromo-2-(difluoromethoxy)-4-iodobenzene

Difluoromethyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (40 g, 200 mmol) was added drop-wise to a solution of 2-bromo-5-iodophenol (29.0 g, 97.0 mmol, Intermediate 24, step a), aqueous KOH (228 mL, 8 M, 1.82 mol), and MeCN (250 mL). The resultant mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h before pouring it into water (1 L) and extracting with DCM (800 mL×3). The combined organic extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness to afford the title compound.

Intermediate 24: Step c

1-(4-Bromo-3-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone

i-PrMgCl.LiCl (62 mL, 1.3 M in THF, 81 mmol) was added drop-wise to a solution of 1-bromo-2-(difluoromethoxy)-4-iodobenzene (24 g, 67 mmol, Intermediate 24, step b) and anhydrous THF (200 mL) at −78° C. The resultant mixture was stirred at −78° C. for 10 minutes and then was treated with 2,2,2-trifluoro-N-methoxy-N-methylacetamide (13 g, 81 mmol). The resultant mixture was stirred at −78° C. for 4 h before quenching with MeOH (5 mL) at −10° C. to 5° C. Then the resultant mixture was stirred at 20° C. for 5 minutes before pouring it into saturated aqueous NH4Cl (200 mL) solution and extracting with EtOAc (250 mL×3). The combined organic extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness to afford the crude product, which was used in the next step without further purification.

Intermediate 24

2-(4-Bromo-3-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

Tetrabutylammonium fluoride (94 mL, 1 M in THF, 94 mmol) was added drop-wise to a solution of 1-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone (20 g, 63 mmol, Intermediate 24, step c), trimethyl(trifluoromethyl)silane (44.6 g, 314 mmol), and anhydrous THF (100 mL) at −15° C. The resultant mixture was stirred at −15° C. to −10° C. for 30 minutes and for 1 h with gradual warming to room temperature before quenching with 2 N aqueous HCl (160 mL) and extracting with EtOAc (250 mL×3). The combined organic extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness to give the crude product, which was purified by preparative HPLC with a Phenomenex Synergi Max-RP 250×50 mm×10 μm column (eluent: CH3CN and H2O with 0.05% NH3 from 40% to 80%, v/v). The pure fractions were collected and the volatiles were removed under vacuum. The residue was suspended in water (10 mL), the mixture frozen, and then lyophilized to dryness to afford the title compound.

Intermediate 25: Step a

1-(4-Bromo-3-methoxyphenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone

i-PrMgCl.LiCl (74 mL, 1.3 M in THF, 96 mmol) was added drop-wise to a solution of 1-bromo-4-iodo-2-methoxybenzene (25 g, 80 mmol) and anhydrous THF (200 mL) at −65° C. The resultant mixture was stirred at −65° C. for 30 minutes and then treated with 2,2,2-trifluoro-N-methoxy-N-methylacetamide (25.1 g, 160 mmol). The resultant mixture was stirred for 18 h with gradual warming to room temperature under N2 before pouring into saturated aqueous NH4Cl (200 mL) solution and extracting with EtOAc (100 mL×3). The combined organic extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness to give the crude product, which was triturated with PE (50 mL). The suspension was isolated via vacuum filtration and the filter cake washed with PE (10 mL). Further drying of the solid under reduced pressure afforded the title compound.

Intermediate 25

2-(4-Bromo-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

Tetrabutylammonium fluoride (37 mL, 1 M in THF, 37 mmol) was added drop-wise to a solution of 1-(4-bromo-3-methoxyphenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone (7.0 g, 25 mmol, Intermediate 25, step a), trimethyl(trifluoromethyl)silane (17.6 g, 124 mmol), and anhydrous THF (100 mL) at −15° C.

The resultant mixture was stirred for 1.5 h with gradual warming to room temperature before quenching with 2 N aqueous HCl (150 mL) and extracting with EtOAc (150 mL×3). The combined organic extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness to give the crude product, which was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=10/1 to 2/1) to afford the title compound.

Intermediate 26: Step a

4-Bromo-2-chloro-3-fluoroaniline

NBS (42.8 g, 240 mmol) was added to a solution of 2-chloro-3-fluoroaniline (35.0 g, 240 mmol) in DMF (200 mL). The resultant mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 h before pouring it into water (300 mL) and extracting with EtOAc (500 mL×3). The combined organic extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness to give the crude product, which was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=10/1 to 5/1) to afford the title compound.

Intermediate 26: Step b

1-Bromo-3-chloro-2-fluoro-4-iodobenzene

A solution consisting of NaNO2 (24.6 g, 357 mmol), KI (71.0 g, 428 mmol), and H2O (300 mL) was added drop-wise to a solution of 4-bromo-2-chloro-3-fluoroaniline (32.0 g, 143 mmol, Intermediate 26, step a), p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (86.0 g, 499 mmol), and acetonitrile (400 mL) at 0° C. The resultant mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 h before pouring it into water (500 mL) and extracting with EtOAc (500 mL×3). The combined extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness to give the crude product, which was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=10/1 to 5/1) to afford the title compound.

Intermediate 26: Step c

1-(4-Bromo-2-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone

i-PrMgCl.LiCl (41 mL, 1.3 M in THF, 45 mmol) was added drop-wise to a solution of 1-bromo-3-chloro-2-fluoro-4-iodobenzene (15 g, 45 mmol, Intermediate 26, step b) and anhydrous THF (150 mL) at −78° C. The resultant mixture was stirred at −78° C. for 10 minutes and then treated with 2,2,2-trifluoro-N-methoxy-N-methylacetamide (14 g, 89 mmol). The resultant mixture was stirred for 4 h with gradual warming to room temperature under N2 before pouring it into water (250 mL) and extracting with EtOAc (300 mL×2). The combined organic extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness to give the crude product, which was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=50/1 to 5/1) to afford the title compound.

Intermediate 26

2-(4-Bromo-2-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

Tetrabutylammonium fluoride (83.5 mL, 1 M in THF, 83.5 mmol) was added drop-wise to a solution of 1-(4-bromo-2-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone (17 g, 56 mmol, Intermediate 26, step c), trimethyl(trifluoromethyl)silane (39.6 g, 278 mmol), and anhydrous THF (100 mL) at −15° C. The resultant mixture was stirred at −15° C. for 0.5 h and for 16 h with gradual warming to room temperature before pouring it into water (150 mL) and extracting with EtOAc (200 mL×2). The combined organic extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness to give the crude product, which was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=100/1 to 50/1) to give impure product that was further purified by preparative HPLC with a Phenomenex Synergi Max-RP 250×80 mm×10 m column (eluent: 44% to 74% (v/v) CH3CN and H2O with 0.1% TFA). The pure fractions were combined and the volatiles were removed under vacuum. The residue was re-dissolved in H2O (100 mL), the resultant solution was adjusted to pH=8 using solid NaHCO3 and extracted with DCM (100 mL×3). The combined organic extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness to afford the title compound.

Intermediate 27: Step a

1-(Difluoromethyl)-2-fluoro-3-nitrobenzene

DAST (40.0 g, 248 mmol) was added to a solution of 2-fluoro-3-nitrobenzaldehyde (30.0 g, 177 mmol) and DCM (300 mL) at 0° C. The resultant mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 h before quenching with ice/water (500 mL) and extracting with DCM (500 mL×3). The combined organic extracts were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness to afford the title product.

Intermediate 27: Step b

3-(Difluoromethyl)-2-fluoroaniline

Fe (62 g, 1.1 mol) was added to a solution of 1-(difluoromethyl)-2-fluoro-3-nitrobenzene (33.0 g, 105 mmol, Intermediate 27, step a), NH4Cl (5.90 g, 110 mmol), EtOH (400 mL), and H2O (100 mL). The resultant mixture was stirred at room temperature for 6 h. The suspension was filtered through a pad of Celite® and the pad washed with EtOH (50 mL). The filtrate was concentrated to dryness to afford the title compound.

Intermediate 27: Step c

4-Bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)-2-fluoroaniline

NBS (32.0 g, 180 mmol) was added to a solution of 3-(difluoromethyl)-2-fluoroaniline (30.5 g, 155 mmol, Intermediate 27, step b) and DMF (150 mL) at 0° C. The resultant mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 h before pouring it into water (300 mL) and extracting with DCM (300 mL×4). The combined organic extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness to afford the crude product, which was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=10/1 to 5/1) to afford the title compound.

Intermediate 27: Step d

1-Bromo-2-(difluoromethyl)-3-fluoro-4-iodobenzene

A solution of NaNO2 (8.60 g, 125 mmol), KI (20.8 g, 125 mmol), and H2O (75 mL) was added drop-wise to a solution of 4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)-2-fluoroaniline (10 g, 42 mmol, Intermediate 27, step c), p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (18.0 g, 105 mmol), and acetonitrile (200 mL) at 0° C. The resultant mixture was stirred at room temperature for 4 h before pouring it into water (100 mL) and extracting with EtOAc (200 mL×3). The combined extracts were washed with saturated aqueous Na2S2O3 solution (200 mL×3) and brine (200 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness to give the crude product, which was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=10/1 to 5/1) to afford the title compound.

Intermediate 27: Step e

1-(4-Bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)-2-fluorophenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone

i-PrMgCl.LiCl (6.0 mL, 1.3 M in THF, 7.8 mmol) was added drop-wise to a solution of 1-bromo-2-(difluoromethyl)-3-fluoro-4-iodobenzene (2.0 g, 5.7 mmol, Intermediate 27, step d) and anhydrous THF (20 mL) −78° C. The resultant mixture was stirred at −78° C. for 10 minutes and then treated with 2,2,2-trifluoro-N-methoxy-N-methylacetamide (1.4 g, 8.9 mmol). The resultant mixture was stirred at −78° C. for 1 h and for 2 h with gradual warming to room temperature under N2 before quenching with saturated aqueous NH4Cl solution (50 mL) and extracting with EtOAc (60 mL×3). The combined organic extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness to give the crude product, which was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=10/1 to 4/1) to afford the title compound.

Intermediate 27

2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)-2-fluorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

Tetrabutylammonium fluoride (7 mL, 1 M in THF, 7 mmol) was added drop-wise to a solution of 1-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)-2-fluorophenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone (1.5 g, 4.7 mmol, Intermediate 27, step e), trimethyl(trifluoromethyl)silane (3.4 g, 24 mmol), and anhydrous THF (20 mL) at −15° C. The resultant mixture was stirred at −15° C. to −10° C. for 30 minutes and for 1 h with gradual warming to room temperature before quenching with 2 N aqueous HCl (16 mL) and extracting with EtOAc (50 mL×3). The combined organic extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness to give the crude product, which was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=10/1 to 6/1) to afford the title compound.

Intermediate 28: Step a

Potassium (S)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

t-BuOK (13.8 g, 123 mmol) was added to a solution consisting of (S)-ethyl 4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (30.0 g, 112 mmol, Intermediate 15/1, step a), THF (160 mL) and H2O (40 mL). The resultant mixture was stirred at 60° C. for 2 h. THF was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was diluted with H2O (100 mL) and extracted with dichloromethane (50 mL×2). The aqueous layer was frozen using dry ice/acetone and then lyophilized to dryness to afford the title compound.

Intermediate 28

(S)—N-((1-Hydroxycyclobutyl)methyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

EDCI (4.9 g, 26 mmol) was added to a solution consisting of 1-(aminomethyl)cyclobutanol (1.3 g, 13 mmol), potassium (S)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (3.6 g, 13 mmol, Intermediate 28, step a), HOBt (3.5 g, 26 mmol), DIPEA (6.9 mL, 39 mmol), and THF (100 mL). The resultant mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 h before diluting with ethyl acetate (200 mL). The mixture was washed with H2O (50 mL) and brine (30 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC with a Phenomenex Synergi Max-RP 250 mm×50 mm×10 μm column (eluent: 5% to 45% (v/v) CH3CN and H2O with 0.225% HCOOH) and the pure fractions were collected and concentrated to dryness. The residue was suspended in water (10 mL), the mixture frozen using dry ice/acetone, and then lyophilized to dryness to afford the title compound as a white solid.

Example 1: Step a

tert-Butyl 5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)naphthalen-1-yl)-2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate

A solution of 2-(4-bromonaphthalen-1-yl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (600 mg, 2.00 mmol, Intermediate 1), tert-butyl 2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate (746 g, 2.00 mmol, Intermediate 10), KOAc (392 mg, 4.00 mmol), Pd(OAc)2 (100 mg, 0.445 mmol) and PPh3 (524 mg, 2.00 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) was purged with nitrogen for 5 minutes and then stirred at 120° C. overnight. The resulting solution was cooled to rt, concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by prep-HPLC to give the title compound as a yellow solid.

Example 1: Step b

5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)naphthalen-1-yl)-2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid

To a solution of tert-butyl 5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)naphthalen-1-yl)-2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate (200 mg, 0.338 mmol, Example 1, step a) in MeOH (2 mL) was added a solution of HCl in MeOH (3 M, 2 mL, 6.00 mmol), and the solution was stirred at rt for 1 h. The resulting solution was concentrated to dryness. The residue was triturated with hexane and dried under vacuum to give the title compound as a white solid.

Example 1

5-(4-(1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)naphthalen-1-yl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(4-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

A solution of 5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)naphthalen-1-yl)-2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid (179 mg, 0.337 mmol, Example 1, step b), 4-methyl-piperidine (45 mg, 0.45 mmol), DIPEA (129 mg, 1.00 mmol) and HATU (122 mg, 0.321 mmol) in DMF (3.0 mL) was stirred overnight at rt. The resulting solution was diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc (×3). The combined organic layers were washed with water (×3) and brine consecutively, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC to give the title compound as a white solid.

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): δ ppm 9.13-9.10 (m, 1H), 7.92-7.85 (m, 2H), 7.75-7.71 (m, 1H), 7.60-7.49 (m, 3H), 5.25 (s, 1H), 4.33 (d, J=13.2 Hz, 1H), 3.47 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 2H), 3.39 (d, J=12.3 Hz, 1H), 2.64-2.57 (m, 1H), 2.45-2.37 (m, 1H), 2.13 (br s, 1H), 1.44-1.40 (m, 1H), 1.32 (s, 6H), 1.29-1.28 (m, 1H), 1.01-0.97 (m, 1H), 0.60 (d, J=6.9 Hz, 3H), 0.47-0.44 (m, 1H), −0.22-0.26 (m, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 618.1 [M+H]+.

Example 2

4-(7-Azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-7-carbonyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

A solution of 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid (200 mg, 0.36 mmol, Intermediate 9), 7-aza-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride (54 mg, 0.40 mmol), DIPEA (139 mg, 1.08 mmol) and HATU (164 mg, 0.43 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) was stirred overnight at rt and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC to give the title compound as a white solid. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.80-7.64 (m, 1H), 7.50 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 4.67 (br s, 1H), 4.13 (s, 1H), 3.48 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 2H), 1.97-1.40 (m, 8H), 1.32 (s, 6H). MS(ESI): m/z 634.1 [M+H]+.

Example 2/1: 5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-((2S,4S)-4-fluoro-2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 2 using (2S,4S)-4-fluoro-2-methylpiperidine hydrochloride (Intermediate 13) in place of 7-aza-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz, mixture of rotamers): δ ppm 7.73-7.52 (m, 2H), 5.34-3.94 (m, 2H), 3.48 (d, J=6.6 Hz, 2H), 3.38-3.21 (m, 1H), 2.22-1.42 (m, 4H), 1.32 (s, 6H), 1.29-0.88 (m, 5H). MS (ESI): m/z 654.1 [M+H]+.

Example 2/2: (S)-5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 2 using (S)-4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine hydrochloride (Intermediate 12) in place of 7-aza-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz, mixture of rotamers): δ ppm 7.73 (br s, 1H), 7.56-7.45 (m, 2H), 5.49-3.42 (m, 5H), 2.63-1.93 (m, 3H), 1.38-1.25 (m, 10H). MS (ESI): m/z 658.0 [M+H]+.

Example 2/3a, Example 2/3b and Example 2/3c: 5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(3-fluoro-3-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound, Example 2/3a, was prepared as described in Example 2 using 3-fluoro-3-methylpyrrolidine in place of 7-aza-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride. The racemate Example 2/3a was separated by chiral HPLC (Chiralpak ID 4.6×150 mm column; phase: hexane/IPA=9:1; flow: 1.0 mL/minute; w=254 nM; T=35° C.) to give the two enantiomers. The first eluting isomer was Example 2/3b: 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz, mixture of rotamers): δ ppm 7.74-7.47 (m, 3H), 3.82-3.41 (m, 6H), 2.33-2.21 (m, 1H), 2.05-1.51 (m, 5H), 1.32 (s, 6H). MS: m/z 640.1 [M+H]+. The second eluting isomer was Example 2/3c: 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz, mixture of rotamers): δ ppm 7.74-7.47 (m, 3H), 3.82-3.41 (m, 6H), 2.33-2.21 (m, 1H), 2.05-1.51 (m, 5H), 1.32 (s, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 640.0 [M+H]+.

Example 2/4: 4-(2-Azabicyclo[2.1.1]hexane-2-carbonyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 2 using 2-azabicyclo[2.1.1]hexane in place of 7-aza-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz, mixture of rotamers): δ ppm 7.76 (br s, 1H), 7.65-7.51 (m, 1H), 7.49 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 5.52-3.45 (m, 6H), 2.93-2.85 (m, 1H), 2.03-1.84 (m, 3H), 1.38-1.31 (m, 7H), 1.08-1.06 (m, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 620.0 [M+H]+.

Example 2/5: 5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N4-ethyl-N2-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-N4-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)thiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 2 using N-ethyl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanamine in place of 7-aza-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.74-7.47 (m, 3H), 5.51 (br s, 1H), 4.24-3.38 (m, 6H), 1.89 (br s, 1H), 1.32 (s, 6H), 1.18-1.13 (m, 3H). MS (ESI): m/z 664.0 [M+H]+.

Example 2/6: 5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N2-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-N4-methyl-N4-propylthiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 2 using N-methylpropan-1-amine in place of 7-aza-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.62-7.51 (m, 3H), 5.53 (br s, 1H), 3.48 (d, J=6.6 Hz, 2H), 3.42-3.36 (m, 1H), 3.18-3.12 (m, 1H), 2.97-2.85 (m, 3H), 2.01-1.94 (m, 1H), 1.52-1.46 (m, 2H), 1.32 (s, 6H), 0.83-0.74 (m, 3H). MS (ESI): m/z 610.1 [M+H]+.

Example 2/7: 5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N2-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-N4-isobutyl-N4-methylthiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 2 using N,2-dimethylpropan-1-amine in place of 7-aza-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.78-7.53 (m, 3H), 5.70 (br s, 1H), 3.48 (d, J=6.6 Hz, 2H), 3.25 (d, J=7.5 Hz, 1.3H), 2.96 (d, J=6.9 Hz, 0.7H), 2.93 (s, 1H), 2.84 (s, 2H), 1.93-1.65 (m, 1H), 1.31 (s, 6H), 0.77-0.71 (m, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 624.1 [M+H]+.

Example 2/8: (S)-5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 2 using (S)-2-methylpyrrolidine in place of 7-aza-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.73-7.50 (m, 3H), 5.49 (br s, 1H), 4.29-4.20 (m, 1H), 3.60-3.39 (m, 5H), 2.10-1.50 (m, 4H), 1.32 (s, 6H), 1.20 (d, J=6.6 Hz, 2H), 1.09 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 622.1 [M+H]+.

Alternative Synthesis of Example 2/8

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 15 using 2-(4-bromo-2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 2) in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol.

Example 2/9: 5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(3-(trifluoromethyl)azetidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 2 using 3-(trifluoromethyl)azetidine in place of 7-aza-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.85-7.60 (m, 1H), 7.51-7.45 (m, 1H), 7.40 (d, J=8.7 Hz, 1H), 5.56 (br s, 1H), 4.80-4.70 (m, 1H), 4.67-4.59 (m, 1H), 4.27-4.19 (m, 2H), 3.50-3.47 (m, 2H), 3.38-3.29 (m, 1H), 1.84 (s, 1H), 1.32 (s, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 662.0 [M+H]+.

Example 2/10: 5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(4-fluoropiperidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 2 using 4-fluoropiperidine in place of 7-aza-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 300 MHz): δ ppm 9.17 (s, 1H), 8.46-8.42 (m, 1H), 7.89 (br s, 1H), 7.66 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 4.93-4.76 (m, 1H), 4.68 (s, 1H), 3.70-3.40 (m, 4H), 3.33-3.30 (m, 2H), 1.74-1.40 (m, 4H), 1.13 (s, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 640.0 [M+H]+.

Example 2/11: 5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N2-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-N4-isopropyl-N4-methylthiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 2 using N-methylpropan-2-amine in place of 7-aza-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.80-7.50 (m, 3H), 5.49 (br s, 1H), 4.80-4.65 (m, 0.46H), 3.90-3.80 (m, 0.54H), 3.48-3.46 (m, 2H), 2.84 (s, 1.62H), 2.65 (s, 1.38H), 1.31 (s, 6H), 1.06-1.04 (d, J=6.6 Hz, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 610.1 [M+H]+.

Example 2/12: 5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(3,3-difluoropyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 2 using 3,3-difluoropyrrolidine in place of 7-aza-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.79-7.61 (m, 1H), 7.60-7.56 (m, 1H), 7.48-7.44 (m, 1H), 5.92 (br s, 1H), 4.14-4.04 (m, 1H), 3.95-3.78 (m, 2H), 3.49 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 2H), 2.47-2.40 (m, 2H), 1.32 (s, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 644.0 [M+H]+.

Example 2/13: N4—Cyclobutyl-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-NZ-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-N4-methylthiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 2 using N-methylcyclobutanamine in place of 7-aza-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.72-7.63 (m, 2H), 7.52-7.49 (m, 1H), 5.60 (br s, 1H), 4.84-4.75 (m, 0.25H), 4.21-4.15 (m, 0.75H), 3.48-3.46 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 2H), 2.97 (s, 2.25H), 2.79 (s, 0.75H), 2.20-1.98 (m, 3H), 1.89-1.81 (m, 1H), 1.70-1.49 (m, 3H), 1.31 (s, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 622.0 [M+H]+.

Example 2/14: 5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N4-ethyl-N2-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-N4-(2-methoxyethyl)thiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 2 using N-ethyl-2-methoxyethanamine in place of 7-aza-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.74-7.54 (m, 3H), 5.40 (br s, 1H), 3.60-3.45 (m, 7H), 3.37-3.35 (m, 1H), 3.25 (s, 3H), 1.32 (s, 6H), 1.23-1.06 (m, 3H). MS (ESI): m/z 640.1 [M+H]+.

Example 2/15: N4—Cyclobutyl-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N4-ethyl-N2-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 2 using N-ethylcyclobutanamine in place of 7-aza-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.66-7.50 (m, 3H), 4.07-3.21 (m, 4H), 2.09-1.48 (m, 7H), 1.34 (s, 6H), 1.26-1.15 (m, 1H), 1.08-1.01 (m, 3H). MS (ESI): m/z 636.1 [M+H]+.

Example 2/16: (R)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 2 using (R)-2-methylpyrrolidine in place of 7-aza-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane hydrochloride. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ ppm 7.74-7.50 (m, 3H), 5.51 (br s, 1H), 4.29-4.20 (m, 1H), 3.60-3.38 (m, 5H), 2.11-1.50 (m, 4H), 1.32 (s, 6H), 1.20 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 2H), 1.09 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 622.1 [M+H]+.

Example 3

5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N4N4-diethyl-N2-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide

A solution of lithium 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(diethylcarbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (142 mg, 0.26 mmol, Intermediate 7), 1-amino-2-methyl-propan-2-ol (27.6 mg, 0.310 mmol), DIPEA (101 mg, 0.783 mmol) and HATU (118 mg, 0.310 mmol) in DMF (5.0 mL) was stirred overnight at rt. The resulting solution was concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by prep-HPLC to give the title compound as a white solid. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.75 (br s, 1H), 7.60-7.55 (m, 2H), 3.50-3.41 (m, 4H), 3.25-3.22 (m, 2H), 1.32 (s, 6H), 1.12-1.05 (m, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 610.0 [M+H]+.

Example 3/1: N2-(2-Cyano-2-methylpropyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N4,N4-diethylthiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 3 using 3-amino-2,2-dimethylpropanenitrile in place of 1-amino-2-methyl-propan-2-ol. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 300 MHz): δ ppm 9.23-9.15 (m, 2H), 7.84 (br s, 1H), 7.63 (d, J=8.1 Hz, 1H), 3.48 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 2H), 3.35-3.18 (m, 4H), 1.33 (s, 6H), 1.03 (t, J=7.2 Hz, 3H), 0.94 (t, J=7.2 Hz, 3H). MS (ESI): m/z 619.0 [M+H]+.

Example 3/2: N2-(3-Amino-2,2-dimethyl-3-oxopropyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N,N4-diethylthiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 3 using 3-amino-2,2-dimethylpropanamide in place of 1-amino-2-methyl-propan-2-ol. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.91-7.90 (m, 1H), 7.76-7.65 (m, 1H), 7.56-7.26 (m, 1H), 5.80 (br s, 1H), 5.32 (br s, 1H), 3.63-3.56 (m, 2H), 3.49-3.38 (m, 2H), 3.32-3.24 (m, 2H), 1.31 (s, 6H), 1.18-1.07 (m, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 637.0 [M+H]+[M+H]+.

Example 3/3a and Example 3/3b: 5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N4,N4-diethyl-N2-(6-oxaspiro[2.5]octan-1-yl)thiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide

The racemic title compound was prepared as described in Example 3 using 6-oxaspiro[2.5]octan-1-amine in place of 1-amino-2-methyl-propan-2-ol. The racemate was separated by chiral HPLC (Chiralpak AD-H column, hexane:EtOH:diethylamine=90/10/0.2) to give the two separated enantiomers. The first eluting enantiomer was Example 3/3a: 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): δ ppm 7.75-7.65 (m, 1H), 7.56 (d, J=8.7 Hz, 1H), 7.19-7.18 (m, 1H), 3.88-3.69 (m, 4H), 3.46-3.39 (m, 2H), 3.22-3.15 (m, 2H), 2.85-2.81 (m, 1H), 1.62-1.42 (m, 3H), 1.08-0.95 (m, 6H), 0.88-0.82 (m, 2H), 0.64-0.60 (m, 1H). MS (ESI): 648.0 [M+H]+. The second eluting enantiomer was Example 3/3b: 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): δ ppm 7.80-7.62 (m, 1H), 7.56 (d, J=8.7 Hz, 1H), 7.19-7.18 (m, 1H), 3.88-3.69 (m, 4H), 3.46-3.39 (m, 2H), 3.22-3.15 (m, 2H), 2.85-2.81 (m, 1H), 1.62-1.42 (m, 3H), 1.08-0.95 (m, 6H), 0.88-0.82 (m, 2H), 0.64-0.60 (m, 1H). MS (ESI): 648.0 m/z [M+H]+.

Example 3/4: 5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-((3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxypiperidine-1-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 3 using (3R,5S)-piperidine-3,5-diol in place of 1-amino-2-methyl-propan-2-ol. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.74 (m, 1H), 7.55 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 5.52 (br s, 1H), 5.26-5.22 (m, 1H), 4.80-4.76 (m, 1H), 4.18 (m, 3H), 3.66-3.63 (m, 1H), 3.50-3.39 (m, 3H), 3.29-3.22 (m, 2H), 3.17-3.13 (m, 1H), 2.28-2.23 (m, 1H), 1.89-1.85 (m, 1H), 1.12-1.05 (m, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 638.0 [M+H]+[M+H].

Example 3/5: 5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N4,N4-diethyl-N2-((3-hydroxyoxetan-3-yl)methyl)thiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 3 using 3-(aminomethyl)oxetan-3-ol in place of 1-amino-2-methyl-propan-2-ol. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.80-7.74 (m, 2H), 7.53 (d, J=8.7 Hz, 1H), 5.52 (br s, 1H), 4.60-4.58 (m, 2H), 4.51-4.48 (m, 2H), 3.92-3.90 (m, 2H), 3.45-3.41 (m, 2H), 3.21-3.19 (m, 2H), 1.08-1.04 (m, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 624.0 [M+H]+.

Example 3/6: (S)-5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N4,N4-diethyl-N2-(2-hydroxypropyl)thiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 3 using (S)-1-aminopropan-2-ol in place of 1-amino-2-methyl-propan-2-ol. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.76-7.54 (m, 3H), 5.49 (br s, 1H), 4.08-4.02 (m, 1H), 3.70-3.62 (m, 1H), 3.46-3.18 (m, 5H), 2.20 (br s, 1H), 1.28 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 3H), 1.10-1.04 (m, 6H). MS (ESI): 596.1 m/z [M+H]+.

Example 3/7: (R)-5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N4,N4-diethyl-N2-(2-hydroxypropyl)thiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 3 using (R)-1-aminopropan-2-ol in place of 1-amino-2-methyl-propan-2-ol. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.76-7.54 (m, 3H), 5.49 (br s, 1H), 4.08-4.02 (m, 1H), 3.70-3.62 (m, 1H), 3.46-3.18 (m, 5H), 2.20 (br s, 1H), 1.28 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 3H), 1.10-1.04 (m, 6H). MS (ESI): 596.0 m/z [M+H]+.

Example 3/8: 5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N4,N4-diethyl-N2-(oxetan-3-yl)thiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 3 using oxetan-3-amine in place of 1-amino-2-methyl-propan-2-ol. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.75-7.72 (m, 2H), 7.57 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 5.32 (t, J=6.9 Hz, 2H), 5.30-5.22 (m, 1H), 4.66 (t, J=6.9 Hz, 2H), 3.49-3.42 (m, 2H), 3.24-3.17 (m, 2H), 1.09-1.03 (m, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 594.0 [M+H]+.

Example 3/9: 5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N4,N4-diethyl-N2-((1-hydroxycyclopropyl)methyl)thiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 3 using 1-(aminomethyl)cyclopropanol in place of 1-amino-2-methyl-propan-2-ol. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.75-7.66 (m, 2H), 7.56 (d, J=8.7 Hz, 1H), 3.60 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 2H), 3.43 (q, J=7.2 Hz, 2H), 3.20 (q, J=7.2 Hz, 2H), 1.60 (br s, 1H), 1.06 (m, 6H), 0.91-0.87 (m, 2H), 0.72-0.68 (m, 2H). MS (ESI): m/z 608.1 [M+H]+.

Example 3/10

4-(4-(7-Azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-7-carbonyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)thiazole-2-carbonyl)piperazin-2-one

The title compound was prepared from lithium 4-(7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-7-carbonyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (Intermediate 19) using a procedure as described for Example 3, using piperazin-2-one in place of 1-amino-2-methyl-propan-2-ol. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ ppm 9.18 (br s, 1H), 8.25-8.19 (m, 1H), 8.00-7.71 (m, 1H), 7.65 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 4.89 (s, 1H), 4.61-4.40 (m, 3H), 4.17 (s, 1H), 3.85 (t, J=4.8 Hz, 1H), 3.41-3.38 (m, 1H), 3.29 (s, 1H), 1.67-1.40 (m, 8H). MS (ESI): m/z 645.5 [M+H]+.

Example 3/11

4-(4-(7-Azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-7-carbonyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)thiazole-2-carbonyl)piperazine-2,6-dione

The title compound was prepared from lithium 4-(7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-7-carbonyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (Intermediate 19) using a procedure as described for Example 3, using piperazine-2,6-dione in place of 1-amino-2-methyl-propan-2-ol. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ ppm 11.52 (br s, 1H), 9.18 (br s, 1H), 7.91-7.60 (m, 2H), 5.27 (s, 2H), 4.51 (s, 4H), 1.69-1.55 (m, 4H), 1.55-1.42 (m, 4H). MS (ESI): m/z 658.9 [M+H]+.

Example 4

5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N,N4-diethylthiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide

A mixture of ethyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(diethylcarbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (200 mg, 0.35 mmol, Intermediate 7, step a) in a solution of NH3 in ethanol (4 M, 5.0 mL, 20.0 mmol) was stirred overnight at 80° C. in an autoclave. The resulting solution was cooled to rt, concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by prep-HPLC to give the title compound as a white solid. 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz): δ ppm 8.20-7.65 (br s, 1H), 7.57 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 3.31-3.47 (m, 4H), 1.04-1.17 (m, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 538.0 [M+H]+.

Example 5

5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N,N-diethyl-2-(3-hydroxy-3-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)azetidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxamide

To a solution of 3-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)azetidin-3-ol (50 mg, 0.38 mmol, Intermediate 11) in MeOH (10 mL) were added ethyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(diethylcarbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (216 mg, 0.381 mmol, Intermediate 7, step a) and K2CO3 (105 mg, 0.761 mmol). After addition, the mixture was stirred at rt for 12 h.

The mixture was poured into water (30 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (20 mL×3). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (20 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=5/1) followed by prep-HPLC (0.05% TFA as additive) to afford the title compound as a white solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): δ ppm 8.11-7.49 (m, 2H), 5.02-4.98 (m, 1H), 4.54-4.50 (m, 1H), 4.44-4.40 (m, 1H), 3.93-3.89 (m, 1H), 3.56-3.38 (m, 4H), 1.30-1.18 (m, 9H), 1.09 (m, 3H). MS (ESI): m/z 651.7 [M+H]+.

Example 6

(5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(2,2-dioxido-2-thia-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptane-6-carbonyl)thiazol-4-yl)(4-fluoropiperidin-1-yl)methanone

To a solution of lithium 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(4-fluoropiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (339 mg, 0.61 mmol, Intermediate 8) in DCM (10 mL) were added DIPEA (314 mg, 2.44 mmol) and HOAt (331 mg, 2.44 mmol). The mixture was stirred at rt for 30 minutes, then 2-thia-6-aza-spiro[3.3]heptane 2,2-dioxide oxalate (117 mg, 0.61 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred at rt for 30 minutes. Then HATU (466 mg, 1.22 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred at rt overnight, diluted with H2O and extracted with DCM. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=5/1) and then prep-HPLC to give the title compound as a white solid. 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.93 (br s, 1H), 7.57-7.54 (m, 1H), 4.97-4.75 (m, 1H), 4.47-4.45 (m, 6H), 3.84-3.79 (m, 1H), 3.60-3.55 (m, 3H), 3.34 (s, 2H), 1.86-1.74 (m, 4H). MS (ESI): m/z 698.0 [M+H]+.

Example 6/1: 5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(1,1-dioxidothietan-3-yl)-4-(4-fluoropiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 6 using 3-aminothietane 1,1-dioxide in place of 2-thia-6-aza-spiro[3.3]heptane 2,2-dioxide oxalate. 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.91 (s, 1H), 7.59-7.56 (m, 1H), 4.74-4.71 (m, 1H), 4.60-4.52 (m, 2H), 4.41-4.34 (m, 2H), 3.82-3.77 (m, 1H), 3.58-3.44 (m, 3H), 3.34 (s, 2H), 1.83-1.63 (m, 4H). MS (ESI): m/z 672.0 [M+H]+.

Example 6/2: 5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(4-fluoropiperidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 6 using 4-amino-2-methylbutan-2-ol in place of 2-thia-6-aza-spiro[3.3]heptane 2,2-dioxide oxalate. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 8.08-8.03 (m, 1H), 7.76 (br s, 1H), 7.50 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 5.99-5.70 (br s, 1H), 4.81 (d, J=47.4 Hz, 1H), 3.97-3.91 (m, 1H), 3.64 (q, J=6.3 Hz, 2H), 3.51-3.43 (m, 4H), 1.83-1.64 (m, 6H), 1.33 (s, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 654.0 [M+H]+.

Example 7

5-(3-(tert-Butyl)-5-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(4-fluoropiperidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

To a solution of 4-(4-fluoropiperidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (263 mg, 0.8 mmol, Intermediate 6/1), 2-(3-bromo-5-(tert-butyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (335 mg, 0.87 mmol; Intermediate 5), PPh3 (230 mg, 0.87 mmol) and KOAc (157 mg, 1.6 mmol) in DMF (15 mL) was added Pd(OAc)2 (37 mg, 0.16 mmol) at rt under nitrogen. Then the mixture was heated at 110° C. overnight, cooled to rt and filtered. The filter cake was washed with EtOAc. The organic layer was washed with water, brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by prep-HPLC and then by prep-TLC (DCM/MeOH=1/1) to give the title compound as a white solid. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.85-7.81 (m, 1H), 7.75 (s, 1H), 7.71 (s, 1H), 7.61 (s, 1H), 5.80 (br s, 1H), 4.84-4.67 (m, 1H), 4.13-4.08 (m, 1H), 3.52-3.42 (m, 3H), 3.27-3.12 (m, 2H), 2.94-2.90 (m, 1H), 1.92-1.54 (m, 4H), 1.34 (s, 9H), 1.29-1.25 (m, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 628.2 [M+H]+.

Example 8

(5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-((3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxypiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazol-4-yl)((S)-4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)methanone

A solution of (S)-ethyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (100 mg, 0.16 mmol, Intermediate 14), (3R,5S)-piperidine-3,5-diol hydrochloride (25 mg, 0.16 mmol) and K2CO3 (49 mg, 0.36 mmol) in MeOH (5 mL) was stirred at rt overnight, poured into water (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (20 mL×3). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by prep-HPLC to give the title compound as a white solid. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ ppm 9.17 (br s, 1H), 7.87-7.65 (m, 2H), 5.19-4.87 (m, 3H), 4.40-3.54 (m, 6H), 3.01-2.96 (m, 1H), 2.73-2.45 (m, 2H), 2.23-2.15 (m, 2H), 1.35 (q, J=10.8 Hz, 1H), 1.29-1.21 (m, 3H). MS (ESI): m/z 685.7 [M+H]+.

Example 9

((S)-4,4-Difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)(2-((3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxypiperidine-1-carbonyl)-5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)thiazol-4-yl)methanone

To a solution of 2-(4-bromo-3-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (200 mg, 0.49 mmol, Intermediate 4/1) and ((S)-4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)(2-((3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxypiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazol-4-yl)methanone (148 mg, 0.38 mmol, Intermediate 15) in DMF (6 mL) were added KOAc (74 mg, 0.76 mmol), PPh3 (199 mg, 0.759 mmol) and Pd(OAc)2 (85 mg, 0.38 mmol). After addition, the reaction mixture was stirred at 110° C. under N2 overnight. The reaction mixture was poured into water (20 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (10 mL×3). The combined organic phase was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC to afford the title compound as a white solid. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ ppm 9.29 (s, 1H), 7.88-7.76 (m, 2H), 7.71-7.69 (m, 1H), 5.21-5.18 (m, 1H), 5.13-4.89 (m, 2H), 4.46-4.31 (m, 2H), 4.12-3.84 (m, 2H), 3.68-3.48 (m, 2H), 3.04-2.92 (m, 1H), 2.72-2.57 (m, 2H), 2.30-2.11 (m, 2H), 1.41-1.14 (m, 4H). MS (ESI): m/z 701.7 [M+H]+.

Example 9/1

((S)-4,4-Difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)(2-((3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxypiperidine-1-carbonyl)-5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)thiazol-4-yl)methanone

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 9, using 2-(4-bromo-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 4) in place of of 2-(4-bromo-3-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ ppm 9.33 (s, 1H), 8.10-7.98 (m, 2H), 7.80-7.77 (m, 1H), 5.23-5.16 (m, 1H), 5.15-4.91 (m, 2H), 4.44-4.34 (m, 1H), 4.30-4.02 (m, 2H), 3.68-3.48 (m, 2H), 3.06-2.94 (m, 1H), 2.70-2.57 (m, 2H), 2.35-2.05 (m, 3H), 1.41-1.30 (m, 1H), 1.26-1.15 (m, 3H). MS (ESI): m/z 685.7 [M+H]+.

Example 9/2

((S)-4,4-Difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)(2-((3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxypiperidine-1-carbonyl)-5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-isopropoxyphenyl)thiazol-4-yl)methanone

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 9, using 2-(4-bromo-3-isopropoxyphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 4/2) in place of of 2-(4-bromo-3-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ ppm 8.92 (s, 1H), 7.52-7.44 (m, 1H), 7.41-7.34 (m, 1H), 7.29-7.27 (m, 1H), 5.21-5.13 (m, 1H), 5.12-4.93 (m, 2H), 4.79-4.64 (m, 1H), 4.45-4.34 (m, 2H), 3.95-3.75 (m, 2H), 3.64-3.48 (m, 2H), 2.99-2.87 (m, 1H), 2.36-2.05 (m, 3H), 1.46-1.17 (m, 10H), 1.06-1.04 (m, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 675.8 [M+H]+.

Example 9/3

N4,N4-Diethyl-5-(2-ethyl-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N2-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 9, starting from N4,N4-diethyl-N2-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide (Intermediate 6) and 2-(4-bromo-3-ethylphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 3). 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.69-7.64 (m, 2H), 7.57-7.54 (m, 1H), 7.41-7.38 (m, 1H), 4.58 (s, 1H), 3.48-3.46 (m, 2H), 3.43-3.35 (m, 2H), 3.12-3.05 (m, 2H), 2.72-2.65 (m, 2H), 2.20 (s, 1H), 1.31 (s, 6H), 1.21-1.16 (m, 3H), 0.99-0.91 (m, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 570.1 [M+H]+.

Example 9/4

N4,N4-Diethyl-5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-N2-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 9, starting from N4,N4-diethyl-N2-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide (Intermediate 6) and 2-(4-bromo-3-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-1, 1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 4/1). 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.76-7.58 (m, 4H), 4.66 (s, 1H), 3.55-3.44 (m, 4H), 3.22-3.11 (m, 2H), 1.97 (s, 1H), 1.60 (s, 6H), 1.18-1.03 (m, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 626.1 [M+H]+.

Example 9/5

5-(2-Chloro-3-fluoro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N,N4-diethyl-N2-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 9, starting from N4,N4-diethyl-N2-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide (Intermediate 6) and 2-(4-bromo-3-chloro-2-fluorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 3/1). 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.76-7.72 (m, 1H), 7.65-7.61 (m, 1H), 7.46-7.40 (m, 1H), 5.39 (s, 1H), 3.50-3.38 (m, 4H), 3.23-3.17 (m, 2H), 2.10 (s, 1H), 1.31 (s, 6H), 1.11-1.00 (m, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 594.1 [M+H]+.

Example 10

(4-(7-Azabicyclo[2.2.11]heptane-7-carbonyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)thiazol-2-yl)((3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxypiperidin-1-yl)methanone

A solution of ethyl 4-(7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-7-carbonyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (200 mg, 338 μmol; Intermediate 16), (3R,5S)-piperidine-3,5-diol hydrochloride (50 mg, 0.33 mmol) and K2CO3 (102 mg, 744 μmol) in MeOH (10 mL) was stirred at rt overnight, poured into water (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (20 mL×3). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, concentrated to dryness and purified by prep-HPLC to give the title compound as a yellow solid. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ ppm 9.18 (br s, 1H), 8.02-7.70 (m, 1H), 7.65 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 5.25-5.14 (m, 2H), 5.07 (d, J=5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.54-4.39 (m, 3H), 3.62-3.53 (m, 2H), 2.98 (t, J=11.2 Hz, 1H), 2.60 (t, J=11.2 Hz, 1H), 2.27-2.20 (m, 1H), 1.61-1.45 (m, 8H), 1.39-1.31 (m, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 661.7 [M+H]+.

Example 10/1

(4-(7-Azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-7-carbonyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)thiazol-2-yl)((3S,4R)-3,4-dihydroxypyrrolidin-1-yl)methanone

The title compound was prepared using a procedure as described for Example 10, using (3S,4R)-pyrrolidine-3,4-diol hydrochloride in place of (3R,5S)-piperidine-3,5-diol hydrochloride. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ ppm 9.20 (br s, 1H), 8.03-7.83 (m, 1H), 7.65 (d, J=8.0 Hz, 1H), 5.12-5.04 (m, 2H), 4.57-4.48 (m, 2H), 4.25-4.10 (m, 3H), 3.91-3.87 (m, 1H), 3.68-3.64 (m, 1H), 3.48-3.41 (m, 1H), 1.67-1.43 (m, 8H). MS (ESI): m/z 647.7 [M+H]+.

Example 10/2

4-(7-Azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-7-carbonyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared using a procedure as described for Example 10, using 1-amino-3-methylbutane-2,3-diol in place of (3R,5S)-piperidine-3,5-diol hydrochloride. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ ppm 9.18 (br s, 1H), 8.59-8.56 (m, 1H), 7.98-7.62 (m, 2H), 4.95 (d, J=5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.47-4.34 (m, 3H), 3.66-3.61 (m, 1H), 3.45-3.40 (m, 1H), 3.30-3.19 (m, 1H), 1.52-1.36 (m, 8H), 1.13 (s, 3H), 1.09 (s, 3H). MS (ESI): m/z 663.7 [M+H]+.

Example 10/3

(S)-(5-(2-Chloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(3-hydroxy-3-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)azetidine-1-carbonyl)thiazol-4-yl)(2-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)methanone

The title compound was prepared using a procedure as described for Example 10, starting from (S)-ethyl 5-(2-chloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (Intermediate 16/1), using 3-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)azetidin-3-ol (Intermediate 11) in place of (3R,5S)-piperidine-3,5-diol hydrochloride. 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.88 (s, 1H), 7.76-7.73 (m, 1H), 7.63-7.59 (m, 1H), 4.99-4.86 (m, 1H), 4.51-4.38 (m, 2H), 4.18-4.16 (m, 1H), 3.90-3.87 (m, 1H), 3.59-3.51 (m, 2H), 2.14-1.57 (m, 4H), 1.23-1.09 (m, 9H). MS (ESI): m/z 630.1 [M+H]+.

Example 10/4

(S)-5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared using a procedure as described for Example 10, starting from (S)-ethyl 5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (Intermediate 16/2), using 1-amino-2-methylpropan-2-ol in place of (3R,5S)-piperidine-3,5-diol hydrochloride. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ ppm 8.11 (s, 1H), 7.92-7.90 (m, 1H), 7.65-7.59 (m, 2H), 4.44-4.12 (m, 1H), 3.55-3.48 (m, 4H), 2.08-1.53 (m, 4H), 1.32 (s, 6H), 1.19-1.15 (m, 3H). MS (ESI): m/z 622.2 [M+H]+.

Example 10/5

((3R,5S)-3,5-Dihydroxypiperidin-1-yl)(5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4-((S)-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazol-2-yl)methanone

The title compound was prepared using a procedure as described for Example 10, starting from (S)-ethyl 5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (Intermediate 16/2). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ ppm 8.09-8.04 (m, 1H), 7.98-7.89 (m, 1H), 7.59-7.46 (m, 1H), 5.53-5.17 (m, 1H), 4.82-4.72 (m, 1H), 4.17-4.15 (m, 2H), 3.69-3.45 (m, 3H), 3.15-3.12 (m, 2H), 2.20-1.74 (m, 4H), 1.53-1.43 (m, 3H), 1.15-1.12 (m, 2H). MS (ESI): m/z 650.1 [M+H]+.

Example 10/6

(S)-(5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2-(3-hydroxy-3-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)azetidine-1-carbonyl)thiazol-4-yl)(2-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)methanone

The title compound was prepared using a procedure as described for Example 10, starting from (S)-ethyl 5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (Intermediate 16/2), using 3-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)azetidin-3-ol (Intermediate 11) in place of (3R,5S)-piperidine-3,5-diol hydrochloride. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ ppm 8.06-8.00 (m, 2H), 7.77-7.31 (m, 1H), 5.94-5.89 (m, 1H), 4.86-4.78 (m, 2H), 4.39-4.35 (m, 1H), 4.31-4.26 (m, 1H), 3.98-3.97 (m, 1H), 3.77-3.58 (m, 3H), 2.00-1.88 (m, 2H), 1.76-1.74 (m, 1H), 1.51-1.49 (m, 1H), 1.11-1.04 (m, 9H).

MS (ESI): m/z 664.2 [M+H]+.

Example 11: Step a

2-(4-Bromo-2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trifluorobutan-2-ol

To a solution of 1-(4-bromo-2,3-dichlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone (2.0 g, 6.2 mmol, Intermediate 2, step a) in THF (20 mL) was added ethylmagnesium chloride (4.50 mL, 2.8 M in THF, 12.6 mmol) dropwise at −30° C. under a N2 atmosphere and the mixture was stirred at rt for 5 h. The solution was diluted with aqueous NH4Cl at 0° C. and extracted with EtOAc (×2). The combined organic layers were washed with 1-120 and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=30/1) to give the title compound as a yellow solid.

Example 11: Step b

Ethyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1-trifluoro-2-hydroxybutan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(diethylcarbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

A solution of 2-(4-bromo-2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trifluorobutan-2-ol (2.0 g, 5.7 mmol, Example 11, step a), ethyl 4-(diethylcarbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (1.4 g, 5.7 mmol, Intermediate 6, step a), KOAc (1.1 g, 11.4 mmol), Pd(OAc)2 (650 mg, 2.9 mmol), and PPh3 (760 mg, 2.9 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) was purged with N2 for 5 minutes and then stirred at 110° C. overnight. The resulting solution was cooled to rt, diluted with H2O, and extracted with EtOAc (×3). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=5/1) to give the title compound as a white solid.

Example 11: Step c

5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1-trifluoro-2-hydroxybutan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(diethylcarbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxylic acid

To a solution of ethyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1-trifluoro-2-hydroxybutan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(diethylcarbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (1.0 g, 2.0 mmol, Example 11, step b) in a mixture of EtOH (5 mL) and H2O (1 mL) was added KOH (213 mg, 3.80 mmol) and the mixture was stirred for 3 h at rt. The solution was concentrated to dryness and the residue was dissolved in H2O. The pH was adjusted to −5 with 2 N aqueous HCl under cooling with an ice bath. The mixture was then extracted with EtOAc (2×20 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with H2O and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness to give the title compound as a yellow solid.

Example 11a

5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1-trifluoro-2-hydroxybutan-2-yl)phenyl)-N,N-diethyl-N2-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide (Racemate)

A mixture of 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1-trifluoro-2-hydroxybutan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(diethylcarbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxylic acid (600 mg, 1.2 mmol, Example 11, step c), 1-amino-2-methyl-propan-2-ol (118 mg, 1.33 mmol), HATU (916 mg, 2.41 mmol) and DIPEA (311 mg, 2.41 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) was stirred at rt for 3 h. The mixture was poured into H2O and extracted with DCM (2×20 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with water and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=3/1) to give the title compound as a white solid.

Example 11b and Example 11c

5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1-trifluoro-2-hydroxybutan-2-yl)phenyl)-N,N-diethyl-N2-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide (separated single enantiomers)

5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1-trifluoro-2-hydroxybutan-2-yl)phenyl)-N4,N-diethyl-N2-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2,4-dicarboxamide (racemate, Example 11a) was separated by chiral SFC (column: Chiralpak IE, 5 μM 4.6×250 mm, Eluent: CO2/MeOH 80:20, (0.2% DEA), column temperature 40.1° C.) to give two separated enantiomers. The first eluting enantiomer was Example 11b: 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.78 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.64-7.60 (m, 1H), 7.51 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 3.50-3.39 (m, 4H), 3.22-3.13 (m, 2H), 2.96-2.84 (m, 1H), 2.09-2.01 (m, 1H), 1.31 (s, 6H), 1.07-1.00 (m, 6H), 0.92-0.87 (m, 3H). MS (ESI): m/z 570.1 [M+H]+. The second eluting enantiomer was Example 11c: 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.78 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.64-7.60 (m, 1H), 7.51 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 3.50-3.39 (m, 4H), 3.22-3.13 (m, 2H), 2.96-2.84 (m, 1H), 2.09-2.01 (m, 1H), 1.31 (s, 6H), 1.07-1.00 (m, 6H), 0.92-0.87 (m, 3H). MS (ESI): m/z 570.1 [M+H]+.

Example 12: Step a

Potassium 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

A solution of ethyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (2.08 g, 4.17 mmol, Intermediate 14, step b) and KOH (468 mg, 8.35 mmol) in a mixture of MeOH (25 mL) and H2O (5.0 mL) was stirred at rt overnight, concentrated to dryness, suspended in Et2O, filtered, and dried under vacuum to give the title compound as a white solid.

Example 12: Step b

trans-Methyl 3-(5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)cyclobutanecarboxylate

A solution of potassium 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (1.16 g, 2.00 mmol, Example 12, step a), trans-methyl 3-amino-cyclobutane carboxylate hydrochloride (398 mg, 2.40 mmol), DIPEA (645 mg, 5.00 mmol) and HATU (736 mg, 2.00 mmol) in DMF (15 mL) was stirred overnight at rt, concentrated to dryness, diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc three times. The combined organic layers were washed with water three times and brine consecutively, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness and purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=2/1 to 1/2) to give the title compound as a white solid.

Example 12: Step c

5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-((trans-3-(methoxycarbonyl)cyclobutyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid

To a solution of trans-methyl 3-(5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)cyclobutanecarboxylate (558 mg, 0.960 mmol, Example 12, step b) in MeCN (10 mL) and H2O (5.0 mL) were added iodobenzene diacetate (1.28 g, 4.0 mmol) and TEMPO (151 mg, 0.966 mmol) and the mixture was stirred for 5 h at rt, concentrated to dryness, and extracted with EtOAc (×3). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness, and purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=1/2) to give the title compound as a white solid.

Example 12: Step d

trans-Methyl 3-(5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(ethyl(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)cyclobutanecarboxylate

A solution of 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-((trans-3-(methoxycarbonyl)cyclobutyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid (249 mg, 0.418 mmol, Example 12, step c), ethyl-(2,2,2-trifluoro-ethyl)-amine hydrochloride (81.8 mg, 0.500 mmol), DIPEA (258 mg, 2.00 mmol) and HATU (160 mg, 0.42 mmol) in DMF (3.0 mL) was stirred overnight at rt, concentrated to dryness and purified by prep-HPLC to give the title compound as a white solid.

Example 12

trans-3-(5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(ethyl(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)cyclobutanecarboxylic acid

To a solution of trans-methyl 3-(5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(ethyl(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)cyclobutanecarboxylate (141 mg, 0.200 mmol, Example 12, step d) in mixed solvents (THF/MeOH/H2O, 1/1/1, 10 mL) was added LiOH.H2O (33.6 mg, 0.802 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at rt overnight, adjusted to pH=2 with 1 N aqueous HCl and then diluted with EtOAc. The resulting mixture was washed with water and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness, and purified by prep-HPLC to give the title compound as a white solid. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 7.70 (br s, 1H), 7.51-7.36 (m, 2H), 4.84-4.76 (m, 1H), 4.15-4.03 (m, 2H), 3.61-3.37 (m, 2H), 3.21-3.16 (m, 1H), 2.87-2.78 (m, 2H), 2.53-2.42 (m, 2H), 1.33-1.24 (m, 2H), 1.18-1.09 (m, 3H). MS (ESI): m/z 690.0 [M+H]+.

Example 13

4-(4-Fluoropiperidine-1-carbonyl)-5-(8-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)quinolin-5-yl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

A mixture of 2-(5-bromoquinolin-8-yl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (30 mg, 0.080 mmol, Intermediate 17), 4-(4-fluoropiperidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (26 mg, 0.079 mmol, Intermediate 6/1), Pd(OAc)2 (6.0 mg, 0.027 mmol), RuPhos (14 mg, 0.030 mmol), KOAc (16 mg, 0.16 mmol), and pivalic acid (3.0 mg, 0.029 mmol) in butyronitrile (1 mL) was degassed by bubbling N2 through the solution for 5 minutes. The container was then sealed and heated at 115° C. for 15 h. After cooling the reaction to room temperature, the mixture was concentrated and purified by FCC on silica gel (0-100% EtOAc in heptanes) and then prep-HPLC (10-95% CH3CN in H2O, 0.1% TFA) to give the title compound.

1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) δ ppm 8.90 (d, J=3.0 Hz, 1H), 8.43 (d, J=7.6 Hz, 1H), 8.16 (d, J=7.6 Hz, 1H), 7.75 (d, J=8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.73 (br s, 1H), 7.63 (dd, J=4.6, 8.6 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (d, J=47.5 Hz, 1H), 3.84-3.95 (m, 1H), 3.53 (d, J=5.1 Hz, 2H), 3.19-3.33 (m, 3H), 1.68-1.80 (m, 1H), 1.37-1.57 (m, 2H), 1.35 (s, 6H), 0.84-1.08 (m, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 623.2 [M+H]+.

Example 14: Step a

5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N,N-diethyl-2-(thiomorpholine-4-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxamide

A solution of 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(thiomorpholine-4-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid (147 mg, 0.258 mmol, Intermediate 20), HATU (148 mg, 0.389 mmol), and DIPEA (84 mg, 0.65 mmol) in DMF (3 mL) was stirred at rt for 1 h, then diethylamine (23 mg, 0.31 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred overnight. The mixture was diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc (×3). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=3/1) to give the title compound as a white solid.

Example 14: Step b

5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N,N-diethyl-2-(1-oxidothiomorpholine-4-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxamide

To a solution of 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N,N-diethyl-2-(thiomorpholine-4-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxamide (122 mg, 0.195 mmol, Example 14, step a) in DCM (10 mL) was added m-CPBA (39 mg, 0.20 mmol, 85%) at 0° C. and the mixture was stirred at rt overnight. The mixture was quenched with aqueous NaHSO3, diluted with an aqueous NaHCO3 solution and extracted with EtOAc (×3). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to dryness to give the title compound as a yellow solid.

Example 14: Step c

5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N,N-diethyl-2-(1-oxido-1-((2,2,2-trifluoroacetyl)imino)thiomorpholine-4-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxamide

To a solution of 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N,N-diethyl-2-(1-oxidothiomorpholine-4-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxamide (108 mg, 0.169 mmol, Example 14, step b), 2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide (38 mg, 0.34 mmol), MgO (27 mg, 0.68 mmol) and Rh2(OAc)4 (8 mg, 20 μmol) in DCM (8 mL) was added PhI(OAc)2 (82 mg, 0.26 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at 40° C. for 6 h. The resulting mixture was diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc three times. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (PE/EtOAc=5/1) to give the title compound as a white solid.

Example 14

5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N,N-diethyl-2-(1-imino-1-oxidothiomorpholine-4-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxamide

To a solution of 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N,N-diethyl-2-(1-oxido-1-((2,2,2-trifluoroacetyl)imino)thiomorpholine-4-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxamide (82 mg, 0.11 mmol, Example 14, step c) in MeOH (4 mL) was added K2CO3 (38 mg, 0.28 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at rt for 2 h, diluted with water, and extracted with EtOAc (×3). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by prep-HPLC to give the title compound as a white solid. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ ppm 7.71 (br s, 1H), 7.55 (d, J=8.8 Hz, 1H), 5.02-4.99 (m, 1H), 4.80-4.77 (m, 1H), 4.40-4.36 (m, 1H), 4.23-4.22 (m, 1H), 3.47-3.42 (m, 2H), 3.25-3.21 (m, 6H), 3.70 (s, 1H), 1.12-1.04 (m, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 655.0 [M+H]+.

Example 14/1

(S)-(5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(2-imino-2-oxido-2-thia-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptane-6-carbonyl)thiazol-4-yl)(4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)methanone

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 14, steps a, c and final step using in step a 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(2-oxido-2-thia-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptane-6-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid (Intermediate 20/1) in place of 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(thiomorpholine-4-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid and (S)-4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine hydrochloride (Intermediate 12) in place of diethylamine. 1H NMR (CD3OD, 500 MHz): δ ppm 7.95-7.87 (m, 1H), 7.59-7.55 (m, 1H), 5.06-5.00 (m, 2H), 4.51-4.31 (m, 8H), 4.22-4.12 (m, 1H), 2.71-2.66 (m, 1H), 2.22-2.18 (m, 1H), 1.38-1.28 (m, 3H). MS (ESI): m/z 715.0 [M+H]+.

Example 14/2

(S)-(5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(2-(methylimino)-2-oxido-2-thia-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptane-6-carbonyl)thiazol-4-yl)(4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)methanone

To a solution of (S)-(5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(2-imino-2-oxido-2-thia-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptane-6-carbonyl)thiazol-4-yl)(4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)methanone (81 mg, 0.11 mmol, Example 14/1) in DMF (4 mL) was added K2CO3 (23 mg, 0.17 mmol) and MeI (26 mg, 0.17 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at rt overnight, then diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc three times. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC to give the title compound as white solid. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz): δ ppm 7.62 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.45 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 1H), 5.01-4.90 (m, 2H), 4.54-4.27 (m, 6H), 4.04-3.95 (m, 2H), 3.54 (s, 3H), 3.25-3.17 (m, 1H), 2.65-2.57 (m, 1H), 2.18-2.11 (m, 1H), 1.39-1.22 (m, 3H). MS (ESI): m/z 729.0 [M+H]+.

Example 15

(S)-5-(2-(Difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

A flask under nitrogen, was charged with (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (2.0 g, 6.42 mmol, Intermediate 15/1), 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (2.63 g, 7.06 mmol, Intermediate 18), K2CO3 (1.78 g, 12.84 mmol), pivalic acid (0.26 g, 2.57 mmol), Pd2(dba)3.CHCl3 (0.50 g, 0.48 mmol), cataCXium® A (0.35 g, 0.96 mmol) and n-butyronitrile (30 mL). The resulting solution was stirred for 16.5 h at 100-105° C. The reaction mixture was then cooled to room temperature, diluted with H2O (30 mL), and the aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (30 mL). The combined organic layers were concentrated under vacuum, and the crude product was purified by FCC on silica gel (EtOAc/heptane=1/2 to 2/1) to give the title compound as an off-white solid. 1H NMR (CD3OD, 400 MHz) δ 8.14 (d, J=1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.97 (d, J=7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.63 (dd, J=14.4, 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.07-6.76 (m, 1H), 4.55-4.11 (m, 1H), 3.70-3.41 (m, 4H), 2.16-1.89 (m, 2H), 1.87-1.78 (m, 1H), 1.63-1.55 (m, 1H), 1.28 (s, 6H), 1.18-1.12 (dd, J=16.1, 6.4 Hz, 3H). MS (ESI): m/z 604.1 [M+H]+.

Example 15/1

(R)-5-(2-(Difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

n-Butyronitrile (2 mL) that had been sparged with argon for 45 minutes was added to a mixture of (R)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (150 mg, 0.482 mmol, Intermediate 15/2), 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (0.17 g, 0.46 mmol, Intermediate 18), K2CO3 (0.27 g, 1.95 mmol) and pivalic acid (0.025 g, 0.241 mmol). The resulting mixture was further sparged with nitrogen for 25 minutes. Then Pd((t-Bu)3P)2 (0.025 g, 0.048 mmol) was added at rt under nitrogen and the mixture was sparged with nitrogen for 2 minutes. The mixture was then heated at 100° C. for 19 h, cooled to rt and filtered through Celite®. The filter cake was washed with EtOAc and the organic layer was washed with aqueous saturated NaHCO3 solution, water and brine. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous MgSO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness, and the residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (0 to 60% EtOAc in DCM) to afford the title compound. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ ppm 8.08 (s, 1H), 7.83 (t, J=9.1 Hz, 1H), 7.64-7.43 (m, 2H), 6.97-6.64 (m, 1H), 4.93 (s, 0.3H), 4.89 (s, 0.7H), 4.31-4.1 (m, 1H), 3.58-3.33 (m, 4H), 2.07-1.49 (m, 5H), 1.32 (s, 6H), 1.15 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 2H), 1.07 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 604.1 [M+H]+.

Example 15/2

(S)-5-(2-(Difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

n-Butyronitrile (2 mL) that had been sparged with argon for 1 h was added to a mixture of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (63 mg, 0.19 mmol, Intermediate 15/3), 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (100 mg, 0.268 mmol, Intermediate 18), K2CO3 (0.12 g, 0.87 mmol) and pivalic acid (0.009 g, 0.088 mmol). The mixture was sparged with nitrogen for 20 minutes. Then Pd(OAc)2 (9.7 mg, 0.04 mmol) and di-(1-adamantyl)-N-butyphosphine (14.8 mg, 0.041 mmol) were added at rt under nitrogen and the mixture was sparged with nitrogen for 1 minute. The mixture was heated at 100° C. for 3 days, cooled to rt and filtered through Celite®. The filter cake was washed with EtOAc and the organic layer was washed with aqueous saturated NaHCO3 solution and brine, dried over anhydrous MgSO4, filtered, concentrated to dryness and the residue was purified by FCC on silica gel (0 to 60% EtOAc in DCM) to provide the title compound. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 600 MHz): δ ppm 8.13 (s, 1H), 7.88 (d, J=8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.64 (s, 1H), 7.56 (d, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 6.95-6.73 (m, 1H), 4.82 (s, 0.5H), 4.54 (s, 1H), 4.39 (d, J=13.5 Hz, 0.5H), 3.83 (s, 0.5H), 3.48 (dd, J=6.4, 1.7 Hz, 2H), 3.28 (d, J=13.4 Hz, 0.5H), 2.88 (t, J=13.3 Hz, 0.5H), 2.77 (d, J=13.5 Hz, 0.5H), 2.04-1.98 (m, 1H), 1.49-1.41 (m, 4H), 1.32 (s, 6H), 1.28-1.18 (m, 1H), 1.11 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 1.5H), 1.01 (d, J=7.0 Hz, 1.5H) 0.86-0.78 (m, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 617.7 [M+H]+.

Example 15/3

4-(7-Azabicyclo[2.2.11]heptane-7-carbonyl)-5-(2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 15/1, using 4-(7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-7-carbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Intermediate 15/4) in place of (R)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 600 MHz): δ ppm 8.13-8.07 (m, 1H), 7.88-7.82 (d, J=8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.62 (t, J=6.3 Hz, 1H), 7.51 (d, J=8.2 Hz, 1H), 6.81 (t, J=54.9 Hz, 1H), 4.72 (s, 1H), 4.66 (s, 1H), 4.20 (s, 1H), 3.49 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 2H), 1.97 (s, 1H), 1.73-1.66 (m, 2H), 1.46-1.36 (m, 6H), 1.33 (s, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 615.6 [M+H]+.

Example 15/4

(S)-5-(2-(Difluoromethyl)-3-fluoro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 15/1, using (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Intermediate 15/1) in place of (R)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide and 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)-2-fluorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 27) in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz): δ ppm 8.00-7.91 (m, 1H), 7.60-7.55 (m, 1H), 7.38 (dd, J=18.2, 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.97-6.74 (m, 1H), 4.86 (s, 1H), 4.41-4.32 (m, 0.3H), 4.24-4.15 (m, 0.7H), 3.62-3.41 (m, 4H), 2.12-1.84 (m, 4H), 1.78-1.75 (m, 1H), 1.33 (s, 6H), 1.20 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 2H), 1.13 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 621.6 [M+H]+.

Example 15/5

(S)-5-(3-Chloro-2-fluoro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 15/1, using (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Intermediate 15/1) in place of (R)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide and 2-(4-bromo-2-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-1,1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 26) in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz): δ ppm 7.60-7.56 (m, 3H), 4.37-4.27 (m, 0.8H), 4.17-4.11 (m, 0.2H), 3.74-3.35 (m, 4H), 2.16-1.89 (m, 4H), 1.88-1.75 (m, 1H), 1.32 (s, 6H), 1.29 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 2H), 1.03 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 605.5 [M+H]+.

Example 15/6

(S)-5-(2-(Difluoromethoxy)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 15/2, using (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Intermediate 15/1) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide and 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 24) in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 600 MHz): δ ppm 7.64-7.53 (m, 4H), 6.70-6.42 (m, 1H), 4.76-4.74 (m, 1H), 4.29-4.25 (m, 0.7H), 4.12-4.09 (m, 0.3H), 3.64-3.58 (m, 0.7H), 3.55-3.35 (m, 3.3H), 2.12-2.05 (m, 0.7H), 2.04 (s, 0.7H), 1.99-1.92 (m, 0.6H), 1.94-1.81 (m, 2H), 1.80-1.74 (m, 1H), 1.31 (s, 6H), 1.26 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 2H), 1.01 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 619.6 [M+H]+.

Example 15/7

(S)-5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methoxyphenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 15/2, using (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Intermediate 15/1) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide and 2-(4-bromo-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 25) in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz): δ ppm 7.69-7.65 (m, 1H), 7.54 (d, J=8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.36 (s, 1H), 7.32-7.28 (m, 1H), 4.49 (br s, 1H), 4.35-4.26 (m, 1H), 3.91 (s, 1H), 3.90 (s, 2H), 3.76-3.71 (m, 0.3H), 3.65-3.45 (m, 0.7H), 3.52-3.41 (m, 2H), 3.17-3.12 (m, 0.5H), 3.05-3.00 (m, 0.5H), 2.26 (s, 0.7H), 2.21 (s, 0.3H), 2.03-1.97 (m, 1H), 1.85-1.62 (m, 2H), 1.52-1.49 (m, 1H), 1.30 (s, 6H), 1.24 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 2H), 0.87 (d, J=6.5 Hz, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 583.6 [M+H]+.

Example 15/8

(S)-4-(4,4-Difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-5-(2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 15/1, using (S)-4-(4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Intermediate 15/5) in place of (R)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 600 MHz): δ ppm 8.12-8.04 (m, 1H), 7.91-7.83 (m, 1H), 7.54-7.46 (m, 2H), 6.87-6.63 (m, 1H), 4.71-4.66 (m, 0.3H), 4.5-4.47 (m, 0.7H), 4.27 (s, 1H), 4.05 (q, J=12.7 Hz, 1H), 3.93 (q, J=12.0 Hz, 0.7H), 3.84-3.77 (m, 0.3H), 3.57-3.42 (m, 2H), 2.58-2.50 (m, 1H), 2.21-2.01 (m, 1H), 1.87 (s, 0.7H), 1.78 (s, 0.3H), 1.34 (s, 6H), 1.33-1.29 (m, 2H), 1.28-1.26 (m, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 639.6 [M+H]+.

Example 15/9

(S)-5-(2-Ethyl-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 15/2, using (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Intermediate 15/1) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide and 2-(4-bromo-3-ethylphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 3) in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 600 MHz): δ ppm 7.69 (s, 1H), 7.65 (t, J=6.4 Hz, 0.7H), 7.61 (t, J=6.4 Hz, 0.3H), 7.58-7.55 (m, 1H), 7.42-7.39 (m, 1H), 4.22-4.19 (m, 0.7H), 4.06 (s, 0.3H), 4.02 (s, 0.7H), 3.94-3.92 (m, 0.3H), 3.56-3.42 (m, 3H), 3.24-3.21 (m, 0.5H), 3.11-3.06 (m, 0.5H), 2.76-2.62 (m, 2H), 2.09 (s, 0.7H), 2.02 (s, 0.3H), 2.01-1.95 (m, 0.7H), 1.92-1.86 (m, 0.3H), 1.80-1.61 (m, 2H), 1.46 1.40 (m, 1H), 1.32 (s, 6H), 1.21-1.17 (m, 3H), 1.11 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 2H), 0.98 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 1H).

MS (ESI): m/z 581.7 [M+H]+.

Example 15/10

(S)-5-(2-Chloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 15/2, using (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Intermediate 15/1) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide and 2-(4-bromo-3-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 4/3) in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 600 MHz): δ ppm 7.88-7.85 (m, 1H), 7.70-7.58 (m, 2H), 7.56-7.53 (m, 1H), 5.86 (s, 1H), 4.30-4.17 (m, 0.7H), 4.10-4.07 (m, 0.3H), 3.60-3.39 (m, 2.7H), 3.40-3.24 (m, 1.3H), 2.34 (s, 0.7H), 2.27 (s, 0.3H), 2.09-1.65 (m, 3H), 1.62-1.57 (m, 0.3H), 1.53-1.46 (m, 0.7H), 1.31 (s, 6H), 1.17 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 2H), 1.03 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 587.7 [M+H]+.

Example 15/11

(S)-5-(6-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 15, using (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Intermediate 15/3) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide and 2-(5-bromo-4-methylpyridin-2-yl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 23/1) in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ ppm 8.67 (d, J=8.6 Hz, 1H), 7.66-7.60 (m, 1H), 7.42-7.34 (m, 1H), 5.47-5.33 (m, 1H), 5.12-4.65 (m, 1H), 3.69-3.12 (m, 3H), 3.04-2.88 (m, 1H), 2.57 (d, J=7.5 Hz, 3H), 2.19-2.12 (m, 1H), 1.84-1.69 (m, 1H), 1.64-1.55 (m, 2H), 1.50-1.43 (m, 1H), 1.40-1.31 (m, 1H), 1.31-1.28 (m, 8H), 1.10 (d, J=6.9 Hz, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 583.0 [M+H]+.

Example 16

(S)-5-(2-Fluoro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described for Intermediate 21, step b using (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Intermediate 15/1) in place of N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide and 2-(4-bromo-3-fluorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 4/4) in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz, mixture of rotamers): δ ppm 7.94-7.51 (m, 4H), 4.33-3.24 (m, 5H), 1.96-1.78 (m, 4H), 1.31 (m, 6H), 1.28-0.96 (m, 3H). MS (ESI): m/z 572.1 [M+H]+.

Example 17: Step a

(S)—N-(3-amino-2,2-dimethyl-3-oxopropyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described for Example 1 using 2-((3-amino-2,2-dimethyl-3-oxopropyl)carbamoyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid (Intermediate 22) in place of 2-((3-amino-2,2-dimethyl-3-oxopropyl)carbamoyl)-5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)naphthalen-1-yl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid and (S)-2-methylpiperidine in place of 4-methylpiperidine.

Example 17: Step b

(S)—N-(2-Cyano-2-methylpropyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

To a solution of (S)—N-(3-amino-2,2-dimethyl-3-oxopropyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (168 mg, 0.253 mmol, Example 17, step a) in dry DCM (10 mL) was added TFAA (106 mg, 0.505 mmol) at 0° C. and the mixture was stirred at this temperature for 1 h. The mixture was quenched with water and extracted with DCM three times. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness to give the title compound as yellow solid.

Example 17: Step c

(S)—N-(3-Amino-3-(hydroxyimino)-2,2-dimethylpropyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

A solution of (S)—N-(2-cyano-2-methylpropyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (152 mg, 0.24 mmol, Example 17, step b), NaOEt (49 mg, 0.72 mmol) and hydroxylamine hydrochloride (25 mg, 0.36 mmol) in EtOH (5 mL) was stirred at 65° C. overnight. Water was added and the mixture was extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to dryness to give the title compound as a white solid.

Example 17

(S)-5-(2,3-Dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-methyl-2-(5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)propyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

A solution of (S)—N-(3-amino-3-(hydroxyimino)-2,2-dimethylpropyl)-5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (122 mg, 0.18 mmol, Example 17, step c), NaOEt (61 mg, 0.90 mmol), CDI (156 mg, 0.90 mmol) in EtOH (4 mL) was stirred at 70° C. for 72 h. Water was added and the mixture was extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC to give the title compound as white solid. 1H NMR (CD3OD, 400 MHz): δ ppm 8.04-7.84 (m, 1H), 7.60-7.56 (m, 1H), 4.79-3.48 (m, 4H), 3.15-2.88 (m, 1H), 1.70-1.51 (m, 4H), 1.45-1.03 (m, 11H). MS (ESI): m/z 704.0 [M+H]+.

Example 18

(S)-5-(6-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

To an oven-dried vial was added (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (87 mg, 0.28 mmol, Intermediate 15/1), 2-(5-bromo-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (100 mg, 0.26 mmol, Intermediate 23), Pd(OAc)2 (9 mg, 0.038 mmol), 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2′,6′-di-i-propoxy-1,1′-biphenyl (RuPhos, 18 mg, 0.038 mmol), pivalic acid (10.5 mg, 0.1 mmol) and K2CO3 (60 mg, 0.43 mmol). The vial was placed under N2, then butyronitrile (1.6 mL, bubbled with N2 for 1 hour) was added and the resulting mixture stirred at 120° C. for 17 h. The mixture was cooled to rt, filtered through Celite®, washed with EtOAc and the organics were concentrated to dryness.

To the crude residue was added 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2′,6′-di-i-propoxy-1,1′-biphenyl (RuPhos, 18 mg, 0.038 mmol), pivalic acid (10.5 mg, 0.1 mmol), K2CO3 (60 mg, 0.43 mmol) and butyronitrile (1.6 mL). The mixture was sparged with N2 for 30 minutes, then Pd(OAc)2 (9 mg, 0.038 mmol) was added and the mixture sparged with N2 for 2 minutes. The mixture was stirred at 120° C. for 16 h then was cooled to rt, quenched with water (15 mL), then extracted with EtOAc (2×20 mL). The organics were combined, washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC to provide the title compound as a cream-colored solid. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) δ ppm 8.90-8.84 (m, 1H), 8.03 (s, 1H), 7.61-7.51 (m, 1H), 6.71 (br s, 1H), 4.73-4.14 (m, 1H), 3.76-3.46 (m, 4H), 2.10-1.70 (m, 4H), 1.64-1.50 (m, 1H), 1.34 (s, 6H), 1.20 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 3H). MS (ESI): m/z 623.0 [M+H]+.

Example 18/1

(S)-5-(6-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared using the procedure described for Example 18, using (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Intermediate 15/3) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ ppm 8.98-8.91 (m, 1H), 8.05 (s, 1H), 7.63-7.55 (m, 1H), 4.84-4.33 (m, 1H), 4.12-4.04 (m, 0.5H), 3.51-3.48 (m, 2H), 3.09-2.76 (m, 1H), 2.58-2.48 (m, 0.5H), 1.87-1.43 (m, 7H), 1.33 (s, 6H), 1.31-1.24 (m, 2H), 1.11-1.02 (m, 2H). MS (ESI): m/z 636.9 [M+H]+.

Example 18/2

4-(4-Fluoropiperidine-1-carbonyl)-5-(6-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxyprpan-2-yl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared using the procedure described for Example 18, using 4-(4-fluoropiperidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Intermediate 6/1) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ ppm 8.91 (s, 1H), 8.05 (s, 1H), 7.61-7.54 (m, 1H), 6.67 (br s, 1H), 3.9-3.89 (m, 1H), 3.66-3.58 (m, 2H), 3.51 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 2H), 3.50-3.44 (m, 1H), 1.97-1.75 (m, 4H), 1.35 (s, 6H), 4.97-4.82 (m, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 641.0 [M+H]+.

Example 18/3

(S)-5-(6-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared using the procedure described for Example 18, using 2-(5-bromo-4-methylpyridin-2-yl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 23/1) in place of 2-(5-bromo-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 8.70 (s, 1H), 7.66-7.60 (m, 1H), 7.55-7.47 (m, 1H), 4.47-4.40 (m, 1H), 3.83-3.72 (m, 1H), 3.49-3.45 (m, 2H), 3.30-3.12 (m, 2H), 2.61-2.59 (m, 3H), 2.14-2.10 (m, 2H), 1.93-1.88 (m, 1H), 1.85-1.77 (m, 1H), 1.68-1.62 (m, 1H), 1.41-1.39 (m, 2H), 1.31 (s, 6H), 0.90 (d, J=6.5 Hz, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 569.0 [M+H]+.

Example 19

(S)-5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

To an oven-dried vial was added (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (92 mg, 0.3 mmol, Intermediate 15/1), 2-(4-bromo-3-methylphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (100 mg, 0.3 mmol, Intermediate 3/2), pivalic acid (12 mg, 0.12 mmol), K2CO3 (164 mg, 1.19 mmol) and butyronitrile (sparged with N2 for 1 hour). The mixture was sparged with N2 for 30 minutes, then bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium(0) (15 mg, 0.03 mmol) was added and the mixture sparged with N2 for an additional 2 minutes. The resulting mixture was stirred at 100° C. for 16.5 h, cooled to rt and quenched by the addition of water (15 mL). The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2×20 mL) and the combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC and the product fractions concentrated to dryness. The residue was partitioned between saturated aqueous NaHCO3 (15 mL) and DCM (15 mL), and the aqueous further extracted with DCM (15 mL). The organic layers were combined, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness to provide the title compound as a yellow foam. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 7.67-7.60 (m, 2H), 7.59-7.54 (m, 1H), 7.44-7.40 (m, 1H), 4.25-4.18 (m, 1H), 4.14-3.87 (m, 1H), 3.57-3.03 (m, 4H), 2.40-2.36 (m, 3H), 2.16-1.86 (m, 2H), 1.79-1.72 (m, 1H), 1.67-1.62 (m, 1H), 1.47-1.39 (m, 1H), 1.31 (s, 6H), 1.12 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 2H), 0.97 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 568.0 [M+H]+.

Example 19/1

(R)-5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared using the procedure described for Example 19, using (R)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Intermediate 15/2) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 7.67-7.59 (m, 2H), 7.59-7.54 (m, 1H), 7.46-7.42 (m, 1H), 4.24-3.88 (m, 1H), 3.55-3.06 (m, 4H), 2.41-2.37 (m, 3H), 2.02-1.88 (m, 2H), 1.79-1.71 (m, 1H), 1.68-1.60 (m, 1H), 1.48-1.38 (m, 1H), 1.32 (s, 6H), 1.13 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 2H), 0.98 (d, J=6.5 Hz, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 568.0 [M+H]+.

Example 19/2

(S)-5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-N-((1-hydroxycyclobutyl)methyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared using the procedure described for Example 19, using (S)—N-((1-hydroxycyclobutyl)methyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Intermediate 28) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 7.74-7.63 (m, 2H), 7.59-7.53 (m, 1H), 7.42-7.37 (m, 1H), 5.04-4.90 (m, 1H), 4.24-4.16 (m, 1H), 3.92-3.47 (m, 3H), 3.23-3.01 (m, 2H), 2.38-2.35 (m, 3H), 2.18-2.06 (m, 4H), 2.00-1.86 (m, 1H), 1.81-1.72 (m, 2H), 1.66-1.51 (m, 2H), 1.46-1.38 (m, 1H), 1.11 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 2H), 0.96 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 580.0 [M+H]+.

Example 20

(S)-5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

To an oven-dried vial was added (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (82 mg, 0.26 mmol, Intermediate 15/1), 2-(4-bromo-3-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (110 mg, 0.26 mmol, Intermediate 4/1), Pd(OAc)2 (12 mg, 0.052 mmol), tricyclohexylphosphonium tetrafluoroborate (19 mg, 0.052 mmol), pivalic acid (3.5 mg, 0.034 mmol) and K2CO3 (72.5 mg, 0.52 mmol). The vial placed under N2, then DMA (1.6 mL) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred at 100° C. for 14.5 h. The mixture was cooled to rt, filtered through Celite® and washed with EtOAc and the organics were concentrated to dryness. The residue was resubjected to the reaction conditions. To the residue was added tricyclohexylphosphonium tetrafluoroborate (19 mg, 0.052 mmol), pivalic acid (3.5 mg, 0.034 mmol) and K2CO3 (72.5 mg, 0.52 mmol). The vial was placed under N2, then DMA (1.6 mL) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred at 100° C. for 16 h, then cooled to rt, quenched with water (15 mL), then extracted with EtOAc (2×20 mL). The combined organics were washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC followed by FCC on silica gel (0-5% MeOH/DCM) to provide the title compound as a light yellow oil. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ ppm 7.74 (s, 1H), 7.68-7.58 (m, 3H), 5.27-5.19 (m, 1H), 4.32-4.01 (m, 1H), 3.63-3.36 (m, 4H), 2.09-2.01 (m, 2H), 1.93-1.75 (m, 2H), 1.59-1.53 (m, 1H), 1.33-1.30 (m, 6H), 1.26 (d, J=6.2 Hz, 2H), 1.02 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 638.0 [M+H]+.

Example 21

(S)-4-(4,4-Difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

To an oven-dried vial was added (S)-4-(4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (113 mg, 0.33 mmol, Intermediate 15/5), 2-(4-bromo-3-methylphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (100 mg, 0.3 mmol, Intermediate 3/2), Pd(OAc)2 (13 mg, 0.059 mmol), di-(1-adamantyl)-N-butyphosphine (22.4 mg, 0.059 mmol), pivalic acid (12 mg, 0.12 mmol) and K2CO3 (164 mg, 1.19 mmol). The vial was placed under N2, then DMA (1.9 mL) was added and the resulting mixture stirred at 100° C. for 16 h. The mixture was cooled to rt, filtered through Celite® and washed with EtOAc and the organics were concentrated to dryness. The residue was resubjected to the reaction conditions. To the residue was added Pd(OAc)2 (13 mg, 0.059 mmol), di-(1-adamantyl)-N-butyphosphine (22.4 mg, 0.059 mmol), pivalic acid (12 mg, 0.12 mmol) and K2CO3 (164 mg, 1.19 mmol). The vial was placed under N2, then DMA (1.9 mL) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred at 100° C. for 17.5 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to rt, quenched with water, then extracted with EtOAc (15 mL). The aqueous was further extracted with EtOAc (20 mL). The organics were then combined, washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by prep-HPLC followed by FCC on silica gel (EtOAc/DCM 0-70%) to provide the title compound as a clear colorless oil. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 7.68-7.64 (m, 1H), 7.61-7.55 (m, 2H), 7.38 (d, J=8.3 Hz, 1H), 4.55-4.34 (m, 1H), 4.07-3.66 (m, 2H), 3.55-3.42 (m, 2H), 2.60-2.45 (m, 1H), 2.35-2.32 (m, 3H), 1.62-1.59 (m, 3H), 1.34-1.31 (m, 6H), 1.29 (d, J=6.5 Hz, 2H), 1.17 (d, J=6.5 Hz, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 604.0 [M+H]+.

Example 21/1

(S)-5-(2,3-Difluoro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxyprpan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared using the procedure described for Example 21, using (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Intermediate 15/1) in place of (S)-4-(4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide and 2-(4-bromo-2,3-difluorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 3/3) in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-methylphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) δ ppm 7.65-7.52 (m, 2H), 7.41-7.32 (m, 1H), 5.42 (s, 1H), 4.37-4.09 (m, 1H), 3.71-3.34 (m, 4H), 2.14-1.77 (m, 4H), 1.31 (s, 6H), 1.29 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 2H), 1.02 (d, J=6.5 Hz, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 590.1 [M+H]+.

Example 21/2

(S)-5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared using the procedure described for Example 21, using (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Intermediate 15/3) in place of (S)-4-(4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 7.72-7.65 (m, 2H), 7.62-7.57 (m, 1H), 7.46-7.39 (m, 1H), 4.89-4.41 (m, 1H), 4.40 (s, 1H), 3.76-3.15 (m, 3H), 2.82-2.69 (m, 1H), 2.40 (s, 3H), 2.24-2.16 (m, 1H), 1.63-1.61 (m, 3H), 1.49-1.36 (m, 3H), 1.31 (s, 6H), 1.01 (d, J=6.9 Hz, 3H). MS (ESI): m/z 582.0 [M+H]+.

Example 21/3

4-(7-Azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-7-carbonyl)-5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared using the procedure described for Example 21, using 4-(7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-7-carbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Intermediate 15/4) in place of (S)-4-(4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 7.74-7.69 (m, 1H), 7.68-7.65 (m, 1H), 7.62-7.58 (m, 1H), 7.43 (d, J=8.2 Hz, 1H), 4.68-4.61 (m, 2H), 3.81-3.75 (m, 1H), 3.47 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 2H), 2.40 (s, 3H), 2.30 (s, 1H), 1.66-1.65 (m, 3H), 1.40-1.33 (m, 2H), 1.31 (s, 6H), 1.24-1.20 (m, 1H), 1.11-1.00 (m, 2H). MS (ESI): m/z 580.0 [M+H]+.

Example 22

4-(4-Cyanopiperidine-1-carbonyl)-5-(2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(oromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Intermediate 14, final step using 5-(2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid (Intermediate 21) in place of 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(ethoxycarbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid and piperidine-4-carbonitrile in place of (S)-4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine hydrochloride. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz): δ ppm 8.10 (s, 1H), 7.90 (d, J=9.6 Hz, 1H), 7.60-7.54 (m, 2H), 6.79 (t, J=54.9 Hz, 1H), 4.42 (s, 1H), 3.76-3.38 (m, 6H), 2.83 (t, J=5.6 Hz, 1H), 1.82-1.60 (m, 4H), 1.33 (s, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 629.1 [M+H]+.

Example 22/1

(R)-5-(2-(Difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-(hydroxymethyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Intermediate 14, final step using 5-(2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-((2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid (Intermediate 21) in place of 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(ethoxycarbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid and (R)-pyrrolidin-2-ylmethanol in place of (S)-4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine hydrochloride. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz, mixture of rotamers): δ ppm 8.07 (s, 1H), 7.92-7.85 (m, 1H), 7.66-7.62 (m, 1H), 7.51-7.42 (m, 1H), 6.72 (t, J=54.9 Hz, 1H), 5.94 (br s, 1H), 4.59-1.58 (m, 13H), 1.31 (s, 6H). MS (ESI): m/z 620.1 [M+H]+.

Example 23

(S)-5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methoxyphenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 15/2, using 2-(4-bromo-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol and 2-(4-bromo-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.72-7.67 (m, 1H), 7.58-7.53 (m, 1H), 7.41-7.37 (m, 1H), 7.34 (d, J=8.3 Hz, 1H), 4.95 (s, 0.5H), 4.66 (s, 1H), 4.54-4.51 (m, 0.5H), 3.91 (s, 3H), 3.71-3.64 (m, 0.5H), 3.46 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 2H), 3.17 (d, J=13.7 Hz, 0.5H), 2.82-2.75 (m, 1H), 2.35 (s, 0.5H), 2.31 (s, 0.5H), 1.68-1.41 (m, 4H), 1.32-1.18 (m, 7H), 1.13 (d, J=7.0 Hz, 1.5H), 1.04-0.90 (m, 1.5H), 0.86-0.74 (m, 0.5H), 0.65-0.53 (m, 0.5H). MS (ESI): m/z 598.2 [M+H]+.

Example 24

(S)-4-(4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methoxyphenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound was prepared as described in Example 15/2, using (S)-4-(4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpiperidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide and 2-(4-bromo-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.60 (t, J=6.3 Hz, 1H), 7.52-7.47 (m, 1H), 7.39-7.31 (m, 2H), 4.59-4.51 (m, 1H), 4.32 (s, 1H), 3.90-3.88 (m, 3H), 3.77-3.57 (m, 2H), 3.54-3.39 (m, 2H), 2.64-2.47 (m, 1H), 2.14-1.96 (m, 2H), 1.38 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 2H), 1.31 (d, J=2.6 Hz, 6H), 1.07 (d, J=6.6 Hz, 1H). MS (ESI): m/z 620.05 [M+H]+.

The compounds of Example 25-45 can be made according to the procedures described below.

Example 25: Step a

Ethyl 5-(2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

The title compound can be prepared as described in Intermediate 14, step b, using 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1, 1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 18) in place of 2-(4-bromo-2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol.

Example 25

trans-3-(5-(2-(Difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-((S)-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)cyclobutanecarboxylic acid

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 12, using in step a ethyl 5-(2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (Example 25, step a) in place of ethyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate and in step d (S)-2-methylpyrrolidine in place of ethyl-(2,2,2-trifluoro-ethyl)-amine hydrochloride.

Example 26: Step a

N-(trans-3-Hydroxycyclobutyl)-4-((S)-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound can be prepared as described in Intermediate 15, using in step a (S)-2-methylpyrrolidine in place of (S)-4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine hydrochloride and in the final step trans-3-aminocyclobutanol in place of (3R,5S)-piperidine-3,5-diol hydrochloride.

Example 26

5-(2-(Difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(trans-3-hydroxycyclobutyl)-4-((S)-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 15, using N-(trans-3-hydroxycyclobutyl)-4-((S)-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Example 26, step a) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide.

Example 27: Step a

(S)-Methyl 2,2-dimethyl-3-(4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)propanoate

The title compound can be prepared as described in Intermediate 15, using in step a (S)-2-methylpyrrolidine in place of (S)-4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine hydrochloride and in the final step methyl 3-amino-2,2-dimethylpropanoate in place of (3R,5S)-piperidine-3,5-diol hydrochloride.

Example 27: Step b

(S)-Methyl 3-(5-(2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)-2,2-dimethylpropanoate

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 15, using (S)-methyl 2,2-dimethyl-3-(4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)propanoate (Example 27, step a) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide.

Example 27

(S)-3-(5-(2-(Difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)-2,2-dimethylpropanoic acid

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 12, using in the final step (S)-methyl 3-(5-(2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)-2,2-dimethylpropanoate (Example 27, step b) in place of trans-methyl 3-(5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(ethyl(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)cyclobutanecarboxylate.

Example 28: Step a

(S)—N-(1,1-Dioxidothietan-3-yl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound can be prepared as described in Intermediate 15, using in step a (S)-2-methylpyrrolidine in place of (S)-4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine hydrochloride and in the final step 3-aminothietane 1,1-dioxide in place of (3R,5S)-piperidine-3,5-diol hydrochloride.

Example 28

(S)-5-(2-(Difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(1,1-dioxidothietan-3-yl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 15, using (S)—N-(1,1-dioxidothietan-3-yl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Example 28, step a) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide.

Example 29

(S)-5-(2-(Difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-((1-hydroxycyclobutyl)methyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound can be prepared using the procedure described for Example 19, using (S)—N-((1-hydroxycyclobutyl)methyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Intermediate 28) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide and 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 18) in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-methylphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol.

Example 30: Step a

(S)—N-((3-Hydroxyoxetan-3-yl)methyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound can be prepared as described in Intermediate 15, using in step a (S)-2-methylpyrrolidine in place of (S)-4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine hydrochloride and in the final step 3-(aminomethyl)oxetan-3-ol in place of (3R,5S)-piperidine-3,5-diol hydrochloride.

Example 30

(S)-5-(2-(Difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-((3-hydroxyoxetan-3-yl)methyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 15, using (S)—N-((3-hydroxyoxetan-3-yl)methyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Example 30, step a) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide.

Example 31: Step a

(S)-Methyl 1-((4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)methyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate

The title compound can be prepared as described in Intermediate 15, using in step a (S)-2-methylpyrrolidine in place of (S)-4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine hydrochloride and in the final step methyl 1-(aminomethyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate in place of (3R,5S)-piperidine-3,5-diol hydrochloride.

Example 31: Step b

(S)-Methyl 1-((5-(2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)methyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 15, using (S)-methyl 1-((4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)methyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate (Example 31, step a) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide.

Example 31

(S)-1-((5-(2-(Difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)methyl)cyclopropanecarboxylic acid

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 12, using in the final step (S)-methyl 1-((5-(2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)methyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate (Example 31, step b) in place of trans-methyl 3-(5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(ethyl(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)cyclobutane-carboxylate.

Example 32: Step a

(S)—N-((1-Hydroxycyclopropyl)methyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound can be prepared as described in Intermediate 15, using in step a (S)-2-methylpyrrolidine in place of (S)-4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine hydrochloride and in the final step 1-(aminomethyl)cyclopropanol in place of (3R,5S)-piperidine-3,5-diol hydrochloride.

Example 32

(S)-5-(2-(Difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-((1-hydroxycyclopropyl)methyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 15, using (S)—N-((1-hydroxycyclopropyl)methyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Example 32, step a) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide.

Example 33: Step a

4-((S)-2-Methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(trans-3-(methylsulfonyl)cyclobutyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound can be prepared as described in Intermediate 15, using in step a (S)-2-methylpyrrolidine in place of (S)-4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine hydrochloride and in the final step trans-3-(methylsulfonyl)cyclobutanamine in place of (3R,5S)-piperidine-3,5-diol hydrochloride.

Example 33

5-(2-(Difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-((S)-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(trans-3-(methylsulfonyl)cyclobutyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 15, using 4-((S)-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(trans-3-(methyl sulfonyl)cyclobutyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Example 33, step a) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide.

Example 34: Step a

(S)—N-((4-Hydroxy-1,1-dioxidotetrahydro-2H-thiopyran-4-yl)methyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound can be prepared as described in Intermediate 15, using in step a (S)-2-methylpyrrolidine in place of (S)-4,4-difluoro-2-methylpyrrolidine hydrochloride and in the final step 4-(aminomethyl)-4-hydroxytetrahydro-2H-thiopyran 1,1-dioxide in place of (3R,5S)-piperidine-3,5-diol hydrochloride.

Example 34

(S)-5-(2-(Difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-((4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxidotetrahydro-2H-thiopyran-4-yl)methyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 15, using (S)—N-((4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxidotetrahydro-2H-thiopyran-4-yl)methyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Example 34, step a) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide.

Example 35: Step a

Ethyl 5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate

The title compound can be prepared as described in Intermediate 14, step b, using 2-(4-bromo-3-methylphenyl)-1, 1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 3/2) in place of 2-(4-bromo-2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol.

Example 35

trans-3-(5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-4-((S)-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)cyclobutanecarboxylic acid

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 12, using in step a ethyl 5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate (Example 35, step a) in place of ethyl 5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)thiazole-2-carboxylate and in step d (S)-2-methylpyrrolidine in place of ethyl-(2,2,2-trifluoro-ethyl)-amine hydrochloride.

Example 36

5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-N-((1r,3S)-3-hydroxycyclobutyl)-4-((S)-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 26, using 2-(4-bromo-3-methylphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 3/2) in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol.

Example 37: Step a

(S)-Methyl 3-(5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)-2,2-dimethylpropanoate

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 15, using (S)-methyl 2,2-dimethyl-3-(4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)propanoate (Example 27, step a) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide and 2-(4-bromo-3-methylphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 3/2) in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol.

Example 37

(S)-3-(5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)-2,2-dimethylpropanoic acid

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 12, using in the final step (S)-methyl 3-(5-(2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)-2,2-dimethylpropanoate (Example 37, step a) in place of trans-methyl 3-(5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(ethyl(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)cyclobutanecarboxylate.

Example 38

(S)—N-(1,1-Dioxidothietan-3-yl)-5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 15, using (S)—N-(1,1-dioxidothietan-3-yl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Example 28, step a) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide and 2-(4-bromo-3-methylphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 3/2) in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol.

Example 39

(S)-5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-N-((3-hydroxyoxetan-3-yl)methyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 15, using (S)—N-((3-hydroxyoxetan-3-yl)methyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Example 30, step a) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide and 2-(4-bromo-3-methylphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 3/2) in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol.

Example 40: Step a

(S)-Methyl 1-((5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)methyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 15, using (S)-methyl 1-((4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)methyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate (Example 31, step a) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide and 2-(4-bromo-3-methylphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 3/2) in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol.

Example 40

(S)-1-((5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)methyl)cyclopropanecarboxylic acid

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 12, using in the final step (S)-methyl 1-((5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)methyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate (Example 40, step a) in place of trans-methyl 3-(5-(2,3-dichloro-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(ethyl(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)carbamoyl)thiazole-2-carboxamido)cyclobutane-carboxylate.

Example 41

(S)-5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-N-((1-hydroxycyclopropyl)methyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 15, using (S)—N-((1-hydroxycyclopropyl)methyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Example 32, step a) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide and 2-(4-bromo-3-methylphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 3/2) in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol.

Example 42

5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-4-((S)-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(trans-3-(methylsulfonyl)cyclobutyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 15, using 4-((S)-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-N-(trans-3-(methyl sulfonyl)cyclobutyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Example 33, step a) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide and 2-(4-bromo-3-methylphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 3/2) in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol.

Example 43

(S)-5-(4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-N-((4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxidotetrahydro-2H-thiopyran-4-yl)methyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 15, using (S)—N-((4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxidotetrahydro-2H-thiopyran-4-yl)methyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide (Example 34, step a) in place of (S)—N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide and 2-(4-bromo-3-methylphenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Intermediate 3/2) in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol.

Example 44: Step a

2-Bromo-5-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)benzonitrile

The title compound can be prepared as described in Intermediate 18, using in step b 2-bromo-5-iodobenzonitrile in place of 1-bromo-2-(difluoromethyl)-4-iodobenzene.

Example 44

(S)-5-(2-Cyano-4-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 15, using 2-bromo-5-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)benzonitrile (Example 44, step a) in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol.

Example 45: Step a

2-(5-Bromo-4-methoxypyridin-2-yl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol

The title compound can be prepared as described in Intermediate 26, using in step b 5-bromo-4-methoxypyridin-2-amine in place of 4-bromo-2-chloro-3-fluoroaniline.

Example 45

(S)-5-(6-(1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-4-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-4-(2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)thiazole-2-carboxamide

The title compound can be prepared as described in Example 15, using 2-(5-bromo-4-methoxypyridin-2-yl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (Example 45, step a) in place of 2-(4-bromo-3-(difluoromethyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol.

In Vitro Biological Data

ThermoFluor® Assay

ThermoFluor® is a fluorescence based assay that estimates ligand binding affinities by measuring the effect of a ligand on protein thermal stability (Pantoliano, M. W., Petrella, E. C., Kwasnoski, J. D., Lobanov, V. S., Myslik, J., Graf, E., Carver, T., Asel, E., Springer, B. A., Lane, P., and Salemme, F. R. (2001) High-density miniaturized thermal shift assays as a general strategy for drug discovery. J Biomol Screen 6, 429-40, and Matulis, D., Kranz, J. K., Salemme, F. R., and Todd, M. J. (2005) Thermodynamic stability of carbonic anhydrase: measurements of binding affinity and stoichiometry using ThermoFluor. Biochemistry 44, 5258-66). This approach is applicable to a wide variety of systems, and rigorous in theoretical interpretation through quantitation of equilibrium binding constants (KD).

In a ThermoFluor® experiment where protein stability is monitored as the temperature is steadily increased, an equilibrium binding ligand causes the midpoint of an unfolding transition (Tm) to occur at a higher temperature. The shift in the melting point described as a ΔTm is proportional to the concentration and affinity of the ligand. The compound potency may be compared as a rank order of either AT values at a single compound concentration or in terms of KD values, estimated from concentration response curves.

RORγt ThermoFluor® Assay Construct

For the RORγt construct used in the ThermoFluor® assay, numbering for the nucleotide sequences was based on the reference sequence for human RORγt, transcript variant 2, NCBI Accession: NM_001001523.1 (SEQ ID NO:1). Nucleotides 850-1635 (SEQ ID NO:2) coding for the wild type human RORγt ligand binding domain (RORγt LBD) were cloned into the pHIS1 vector, a modified pET E. coli expression vector (Accelagen, San Diego), containing an in-frame N-terminal His-tag and a TurboTEV protease cleavage site (ENLYFQG, SEQ ID NO:3) upstream of the cloned insert sequence. The amino acid sequence for the RORγt construct used in the Thermofluor® assay is shown as SEQ ID NO:4.

ThermoFluor® experiments were carried out using instruments owned by Janssen Research and Discovery, L.L.C. through its acquisition of 3-Dimensional Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 1,8-ANS (Invitrogen) was used as a fluorescent dye. Protein and compound solutions are dispensed into black 384-well polypropylene PCR microplates (Abgene) and overlayed with silicone oil (1 μL, Fluka, type DC 200) to prevent evaporation.

Bar-coded assay plates are robotically loaded onto a thermostatically controlled PCR-type thermal block and then heated at a typical ramp-rate of 1° C./min for all experiments. Fluorescence was measured by continuous illumination with UV light (Hamamatsu LC6) supplied via fiber optic and filtered through a band-pass filter (380-400 nm; >6 OD cutoff). Fluorescence emission of the entire 384-well plate was detected by measuring light intensity using a CCD camera (Sensys, Roper Scientific) filtered to detect 500±25 nm, resulting in simultaneous and independent readings of all 384 wells. Images were collected at each temperature, and the sum of the pixel intensity in a given area of the assay plate was recorded versus temperature. Reference wells contained RORγt without compounds, and the assay conditions were as follows:

    • 0.065 mg/mL RORγt
    • 60 μM 1,8-ANS
    • 100 mM Hepes, pH 7.0
    • 10 mM NaCl
    • 2.5 mM GSH
    • 0.002% Tween-20

Project compounds were arranged in a pre-dosed mother plate (Greiner Bio-one) wherein compounds are serially diluted in 100% DMSO by 1:2 from a high concentration of 10 mM over 12 columns within a series (column 12 is a reference well containing DMSO, no compound). The compounds were robotically dispensed directly into assay plates (1×=46 nL) using a Hummingbird capillary liquid handling instrument (Digilab). Following compound dispense, protein and dye in buffer was added to achieve the final assay volume of 3 μL, followed by 1 μL of silicone oil.

The binding affinity was estimated as described previously (Matulis, D., Kranz, J. K., Salemme, F. R., and Todd, M. J. (2005) Thermodynamic stability of carbonic anhydrase: measurements of binding affinity and stoichiometry using ThermoFluor®. Biochemistry 44, 5258-66) using the following thermodynamic parameters of protein unfolding:

Reference RORγt Tm: 47.8° C.

ΔH(Tm)=115 kcal/mol

ΔCp(Tm)=3 kcal/mol

Cell Based Biological Data

RORγt (full-length human) Reporter Assay:

Three similar reporter assay protocols, shown below, have been used to test the functional activity of RORγt modulatory compounds on transcriptional activation driven by full-length human RORγt. All three provide similar data and can be used interchangeably.

Conditions A

Cells used in this assay were transiently co-transfected with three different plasmids, one expressing the GAL4-DNA binding domain (DBD)-RORγt fusion protein under control of a CMV promoter (NH2-Gal4-DBD:RORC—COOH in pCMV-BD, Stratagene #211342), and two reporter plasmids—the firefly luciferase reporter under control of a GAL4 promoter (pFR-Luc 2×GAL4) and Renilla luciferase reporter under control of CMV promoter (pRL-CMV, Promega #E2261). The full-length coding sequence was used for human RORγt, i.e., nucleotides 142-1635 of human RORγt, transcript variant 2, NCBI Accession: NM_001001523.1 (SEQ ID NO:1). HEK293T cells were plated at 35000 per well in 96-well plate in medium of MEM with 8.6% FBS. After 18-22 hours incubation, the transfection was carried out by using a PEI solution with 170.5 ng total DNA/well (50 ng pCMV-BD-ROR plus 20 ng of pFR-Luc reporter and 0.5 ng of pRL-CMV reporter plus 100 ng Carrier DNA (Clontech #630440) for each well). 4-6 hours after transfection, cells were treated with compounds for overnight in the medium with final concentration of FBS 1.1% and DMSO 0.1%. After overnight (16 to 20 hours) incubation, media were removed and cells were lysed with 20 μL 1× Passive Lysis Buffer (Promega) for 10-15 minutes. Luminescence was measured using a BMG LUMIstar OPTIMA plate reader, after addition of 75 μL/well firefly luciferase buffer, followed by 75 μL/well Renilla luciferase buffer. To calculate the effect of compounds on RORγt activity, firefly values were normalized against values of DMSO only and values of reference compound at saturating concentration, then further normalized against Renilla signals. IC50s were generated by plotting final Renilla normalized data against compound concentration and percent inhibition was calculated against DMSO control.

Conditions B

Cells used in this assay were transiently co-transfected with three different plasmids, one expressing the GAL4-DNA binding domain (DBD)-RORγt fusion protein under control of a CMV promoter (NH2-Gal4-DBD:RORC—COOH in pCMV-BD, Stratagene #211342), and two reporter plasmids—the firefly luciferase reporter under control of a GAL4 promoter (pFR-Luc 2×GAL4) and Renilla luciferase reporter under control of CMV promoter (pRL-CMV, Promega #E2261). The full-length coding sequence was used for human RORγt, i.e., nucleotides 142-1635 of human RORγt, transcript variant 2, NCBI Accession: NM_001001523.1 (SEQ ID NO:1). HEK293T cells were plated at 35,000 per well in 96-well plate in medium of DMEM with 10% FBS. After 18-22 hours incubation, the transfection was carried out by using a PEI solution with 170.5 ng total DNA/well (50 ng pCMV-BD-ROR plus 20 ng of pFR-Luc reporter and 0.5 ng of pRL-CMV reporter plus 100 ng Carrier DNA (Clontech #630440) for each well). 4-6 hours after transfection, cells were treated with compounds for overnight in the medium with final concentration of FBS 1.3% and DMSO 0.1%. After overnight (16 to 20 hours) incubation, media were removed and cells were lysed with 50 μL Glo Lysis Buffer (Promega) for 10-15 minutes followed by 10 minute incubation with 50 μL Dual Glo reagent (Promega) at room temperature. Firefly luciferase luminescence was measured using a BMG Pherastar plate reader. To each well, 50 μL Stop and Glo reagent was added and incubated for 10 minutes at room temperature. Renilla luminescence was measured using a BMG Pherastar plate reader. To calculate the effect of compounds on RORγt activity, firefly values were normalized against values of DMSO only and values of reference compound at saturating concentration, then further normalized against Renilla signals. IC50s were generated by plotting final Renilla normalized data against compound concentration and percent inhibition was calculated against DMSO control.

Conditions C

Cells used in this assay were transiently co-transfected with three different plasmids, one expressing the GAL4-DNA binding domain (DBD)-RORγt fusion protein under control of a CMV promoter (NH2-Gal4-DBD:RORC—COOH in pCMV-BD, Stratagene #211342), and two reporter plasmids—the firefly luciferase reporter under control of a GAL4 promoter (pFR-Luc 2×GAL4) and Renilla luciferase reporter under control of CMV promoter (pRL-CMV, Promega #E2261). The full-length coding sequence was used for human RORγt, i.e., nucleotides 142-1635 of human RORγt, transcript variant 2, NCBI Accession: NM_001001523.1 (SEQ ID NO:1). HEK293T cells were plated at 8750 cells per well in 384-well plate in medium of DMEM with 10% FBS. After 18-22 hours incubation, the transfection was carried out by using a PEI solution with 42.6 ng total DNA/well (12.5 ng pCMV-BD-ROR plus 5 ng of pFR-Luc reporter and 0.125 ng of pRL-CMV reporter plus 25 ng Carrier DNA (Clontech #630440) for each well). 4-6 hours after transfection, cells were treated with compounds for overnight in the medium with final concentration of FBS 1.3% and DMSO 0.1%. After overnight (16 to 20 hours) incubation, media were removed and cells were lysed with 20 μL Glo Lysis Buffer (Promega) for 10-15 minutes followed by 10 minute incubation with 20 μL Dual Glo reagent (Promega) at room temperature. Firefly luciferase luminescence was measured using a BMG Pherastar plate reader. To each well, 20 μL Stop and Glo reagent was added and incubated for 10 minutes at room temperature. Renilla luminescence was measured using a BMG Pherastar plate reader. To calculate the effect of compounds on RORγt activity, firefly values were normalized against values of DMSO only and values of reference compound at saturating concentration, then further normalized against Renilla signals. IC50s were generated by plotting final Renilla normalized data against compound concentration and percent inhibition was calculated against DMSO control.

Human Th17 Assay

The human Th17 assay tests the effect of RORγt modulatory compounds on IL-17 production by CD4 T cells under conditions which favor Th17 differentiation. Total CD4+ T cells were isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy donors using a CD4+ T cell isolation kit II, following the manufacturer's instructions (Miltenyi Biotec). Cells were resuspended in a medium of RPMI-1640 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, penicillin, streptomycin, glutamate, and (3-mercaptoethanol and were added to 96-well plates at 1.5×105 per 100 μL per well. 50 μL of compound at titrated concentrations in DMSO were added into each well at final DMSO concentration at 0.2%. Cells were incubated for 1 hour, then 50 μL of Th17 cell differentiation medium was added to each well. The final concentrations of antibodies and cytokines (R&D Systems) in differentiation medium were: 3×106/mL anti-CD3/CD28 beads (prepared using human T cell activation/expansion kit, Miltenyi Biotec), 10 μg/mL anti-IL4, 10 μg/mL anti-IFNγ, 10 ng/mL IL113, 10 ng/mL IL23, 50 ng/mL IL6, 3 ng/mL TGFβ and 20 U/mL IL2. Cells were cultured at 37° C. and 5% CO2 for 3 days. Supernatants were collected and the accumulated IL-17 in culture was measured by using MULTI-SPOT® Cytokine Plate following manufacture's instruction (Meso Scale Discovery). The plate was read using Sector Imager 6000, and IL-17 concentration was extrapolated from the standard curve. The IC50s were determined by GraphPad.


TABLE 1
RORγt
RORγt
RORγt
(FL)
RORγt
(FL)
(FL)
Reporter
(FL)
Reporter
Human
Reporter
Assay
Reporter
Assay B
Th17
ThermoFluor ®
Assay A,
A, %
Assay B
or C, %
Assay,
Assay, Kd
IC50
inhibition
or C, IC50
inhibition
IC50
Example #
(μM)
(μM)
@ 6 μM
(μM)
@ 6 μM
(μM)
 1
0.0056
0.0070
105**
ND
ND
ND
 2
0.0057
0.014
104**
ND
ND
ND
 2/1
0.00016
0.014
103**
ND
ND
ND
 2/2
0.00022
0.010
101***
ND
ND
ND
 2/3a
0.0049
0.050
104**
ND
ND
ND
 2/3b
0.0071
0.037
 96**
ND
ND
ND
 2/3c
0.0055
0.038
 99**
ND
ND
ND
 2/4
0.0037
0.024
103**
ND
ND
ND
 2/5
0.00067
0.0049
107**
ND
ND
ND
 2/6
0.0031
0.016
104**
ND
ND
ND
 2/7
0.00056
0.0080
104**
ND
ND
ND
 2/8
0.00030
0.012
103**
0.0026
108**
0.017
 2/9
0.027
0.067
103**
ND
ND
ND
 2/10
0.013
0.025
105**
ND
ND
ND
 2/11
0.0061
0.020
100**
ND
ND
ND
 2/12
0.018
0.026
100**
ND
ND
ND
 2/13
0.00043
0.010
103***
ND
ND
ND
 2/14
0.044
0.083
106
ND
ND
ND
 2/15
0.00018
0.0050
106***
ND
ND
ND
 2/16
ND
0.43
 86**
ND
ND
ND
 3
0.0046
0.012
104**
ND
ND
ND
 3/1
0.011
0.016
103***
ND
ND
ND
 3/2
0.0097
0.020
103**
ND
ND
ND
 3/3a
0.017
0.018
100****
ND
ND
ND
 3/3b
0.0036
0.0090
104****
ND
ND
ND
 3/4
0.010
0.014
100**
ND
ND
ND
 3/5
0.050
0.029
100**
ND
ND
ND
 3/6
0.022
0.032
103**
ND
ND
ND
 3/7
0.034
0.052
102**
ND
ND
ND
 3/8
0.038
0.026
100**
ND
ND
ND
 3/9
0.019
0.029
102**
ND
ND
ND
 3/10
0.024
0.13
 97**
ND
ND
ND
 3/11
0.068
2.9
 26
ND
ND
ND
 4
0.41
0.35
 87**
ND
ND
ND
 5
0.0029
0.022
105**
ND
ND
ND
 6
0.0038
0.032
102
ND
ND
ND
 6/1
0.0021
0.010
101**
ND
ND
0.042
 6/2
0.011
0.041
102**
ND
ND
ND
 7
0.0027
0.017
106**
ND
ND
ND
 8
0.00015
0.011
102***
ND
ND
ND
 9
0.000070
0.010
102**
ND
ND
ND
 9/1
0.00011
0.014
103**
ND
ND
0.013
 9/2
0.00011
0.033
106**
ND
ND
ND
 9/3
0.0080
0.019
104**
ND
ND
ND
 9/4
0.0031
0.012
106**
ND
ND
ND
 9/5
0.033
0.078
101**
ND
ND
ND
10
0.0021
0.013
103
ND
ND
ND
10/1
0.026
0.12
107
ND
ND
ND
10/2
0.0032
0.018
103**
ND
ND
ND
10/3
0.0025
0.032
105
ND
ND
ND
10/4
0.0014
0.020
103**
ND
ND
ND
10/5
0.00083
0.014
106**
ND
ND
ND
10/6
0.0028
0.029
102**
ND
ND
ND
11a
0.59
0.55
 78**
ND
ND
ND
11b
0.40
0.33
 89**
ND
ND
ND
12
ND
0.049
104
ND
ND
ND
13
0.42
1.1
 88
ND
ND
ND
14
0.047
0.28
100
ND
ND
ND
14/1
0.00050
0.015
104**
ND
ND
ND
14/2
0.014
0.032
 99**
ND
ND
ND
15
0.0011
0.027
105
0.010
107*
0.047
15/1
0.55
ND
ND
0.35
 96
ND
15/2
0.000060
ND
ND
0.0022
 91*
ND
15/3
0.0014
ND
ND
0.011
 99*
ND
15/4
0.0094
ND
ND
0.054
105
ND
15/5
0.0011
ND
ND
0.015
113
ND
15/6
0.00091
ND
ND
0.024
107*
ND
15/7
0.0017
ND
ND
0.0097
102
ND
15/8
0.00029
ND
ND
0.013
101*
ND
15/9
0.00046
ND
ND
0.0082
 96*
ND
15/10
0.00026
ND
ND
0.0079
 97*
ND
15/11
0.021
ND
ND
0.051
121*
ND
16
0.0088
0.046
101**
ND
ND
ND
17
0.0000090
0.048
105
ND
ND
ND
18
0.0023
ND
ND
0.012
 99
ND
18/1
0.000080
ND
ND
0.014
105
ND
18/2
0.0044
ND
ND
0.076
104
ND
18/3
0.23
ND
ND
0.73
 68*
ND
19
0.0021
ND
ND
0.014
107
0.055
19/1
0.49
ND
ND
0.56
 79*
ND
20
0.00017
ND
ND
0.016
102**
ND
21
0.00035
ND
ND
0.0052
109*
ND
21/1
0.0087
ND
ND
0.053
107
ND
21/2
0.00021
ND
ND
0.0039
101*
ND
21/3
0.0021
ND
ND
0.015
 96*
ND
22
0.11
0.42
 99
ND
ND
ND
22/1
0.14
0.91
102
ND
ND
ND
23
0.00029
ND
ND
0.0022
 99*
ND
24
0.00084
ND
ND
0.0033
103*
ND
All data shown in Table 1 is either the value of one data point or the average of more than one data point.
ND: value not determined.
*% inhibition is shown at 3 μM compound concentration,
**% inhibition is shown at 2 μM compound concentration,
***% inhibition is shown at 0.67 μM compound concentration,
****% inhibition is shown at 0.22 μM compound concentration.

While the foregoing specification teaches the principles of the present invention, with examples provided for the purpose of illustration, it will be understood that the practice of the invention encompasses all of the usual variations, adaptations and/or modifications as come within the scope of the following claims and their equivalents.

All documents cited herein are incorporated by reference.

<160> NUMBER OF SEQ ID NOS: 4

<210> SEQ ID NO: 1

<211> LENGTH: 3054

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Homo sapiens

<400> SEQENCE: 1

agagagctag gtgcagagct tcaggctgag gcgctgctga gagggcctcg ccccgcctct 60

gccgccagct gcaccccact cctggaccac cccctgctga gaaggacagg gagccaaggc 120

cggcagagcc aaggctcagt catgagaaca caaattgaag tgatcccttg caaaatctgt 180

ggggacaagt cgtctgggat ccactacggg gttatcacct gtgaggggtg caagggcttc 240

ttccgccgga gccagcgctg taacgcggcc tactcctgca cccgtcagca gaactgcccc 300

atcgaccgca ccagccgaaa ccgatgccag cactgccgcc tgcagaaatg cctggcgctg 360

ggcatgtccc gagatgctgt caagttcggc cgcatgtcca agaagcagag ggacagcctg 420

catgcagaag tgcagaaaca gctgcagcag cggcaacagc agcaacagga accagtggtc 480

aagacccctc cagcaggggc ccaaggagca gataccctca cctacacctt ggggctccca 540

gacgggcagc tgcccctggg ctcctcgcct gacctgcctg aggcttctgc ctgtccccct 600

ggcctcctga aagcctcagg ctctgggccc tcatattcca acaacttggc caaggcaggg 660

ctcaatgggg cctcatgcca ccttgaatac agccctgagc ggggcaaggc tgagggcaga 720

gagagcttct atagcacagg cagccagctg acccctgacc gatgtggact tcgttttgag 780

gaacacaggc atcctgggct tggggaactg ggacagggcc cagacagcta cggcagcccc 840

agtttccgca gcacaccgga ggcaccctat gcctccctga cagagataga gcacctggtg 900

cagagcgtct gcaagtccta cagggagaca tgccagctgc ggctggagga cctgctgcgg 960

cagcgctcca acatcttctc ccgggaggaa gtgactggct accagaggaa gtccatgtgg 1020

gagatgtggg aacggtgtgc ccaccacctc accgaggcca ttcagtacgt ggtggagttc 1080

gccaagaggc tctcaggctt tatggagctc tgccagaatg accagattgt gcttctcaaa 1140

gcaggagcaa tggaagtggt gctggttagg atgtgccggg cctacaatgc tgacaaccgc 1200

acggtctttt ttgaaggcaa atacggtggc atggagctgt tccgagcctt gggctgcagc 1260

gagctcatca gctccatctt tgacttctcc cactccctaa gtgccttgca cttttccgag 1320

gatgagattg ccctctacac agcccttgtt ctcatcaatg cccatcggcc agggctccaa 1380

gagaaaagga aagtagaaca gctgcagtac aatctggagc tggcctttca tcatcatctc 1440

tgcaagactc atcgccaaag catcctggca aagctgccac ccaaggggaa gcttcggagc 1500

ctgtgtagcc agcatgtgga aaggctgcag atcttccagc acctccaccc catcgtggtc 1560

caagccgctt tccctccact ctacaaggag ctcttcagca ctgaaaccga gtcacctgtg 1620

gggctgtcca agtgacctgg aagagggact ccttgcctct ccctatggcc tgctggccca 1680

cctccctgga ccccgttcca ccctcaccct tttcctttcc catgaaccct ggagggtggt 1740

ccccaccagc tctttggaag tgagcagatg ctgcggctgg ctttctgtca gcaggccggc 1800

ctggcagtgg gacaatcgcc agagggtggg gctggcagaa caccatctcc agcctcagct 1860

ttgacctgtc tcatttccca tattccttca cacccagctt ctggaaggca tggggtggct 1920

gggatttaag gacttctggg ggaccaagac atcctcaaga aaacaggggc atccagggct 1980

ccctggatga atagaatgca attcattcag aagctcagaa gctaagaata agcctttgaa 2040

atacctcatt gcatttccct ttgggcttcg gcttggggag atggatcaag ctcagagact 2100

ggcagtgaga gcccagaagg acctgtataa aatgaatctg gagctttaca ttttctgcct 2160

ctgccttcct cccagctcag caaggaagta tttgggcacc ctacccttta cctggggtct 2220

aaccaaaaat ggatgggatg aggatgagag gctggagata attgttttat gggatttggg 2280

tgtgggacta gggtacaatg aaggccaaga gcatctcaga catagagtta aaactcaaac 2340

ctcttatgtg cactttaaag atagacttta ggggctggca caaatctgat cagagacaca 2400

tatccataca caggtgaaac acatacagac tcaacagcaa tcatgcagtt ccagagacac 2460

atgaacctga cacaatctct cttatccttg aggccacagc ttggaggagc ctagaggcct 2520

caggggaaag tcccaatcct gagggaccct cccaaacatt tccatggtgc tccagtccac 2580

tgatcttggg tctggggtga tccaaatacc accccagctc cagctgtctt ctaccactag 2640

aagacccaag agaagcagaa gtcgctcgca ctggtcagtc ggaaggcaag atcagatcct 2700

ggaggacttt cctggcctgc ccgccagccc tgctcttgtt gtggagaagg aagcagatgt 2760

gatcacatca ccccgtcatt gggcaccgct gactccagca tggaggacac cagggagcag 2820

ggcctgggcc tgtttcccca gctgtgatct tgcccagaac ctctcttggc ttcataaaca 2880

gctgtgaacc ctcccctgag ggattaacag caatgatggg cagtcgtgga gttggggggg 2940

ttgggggtgg gattgtgtcc tctaagggga cgggttcatc tgagtaaaca taaaccccaa 3000

cttgtgccat tctttataaa atgattttaa aggcaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaa 3054

<210> SEQ ID NO: 2

<211> LENGTH: 786

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Homo sapiens

<400> SEQENCE: 2

agcacaccgg aggcacccta tgcctccctg acagagatag agcacctggt gcagagcgtc 60

tgcaagtcct acagggagac atgccagctg cggctggagg acctgctgcg gcagcgctcc 120

aacatcttct cccgggagga agtgactggc taccagagga agtccatgtg ggagatgtgg 180

gaacggtgtg cccaccacct caccgaggcc attcagtacg tggtggagtt cgccaagagg 240

ctctcaggct ttatggagct ctgccagaat gaccagattg tgcttctcaa agcaggagca 300

atggaagtgg tgctggttag gatgtgccgg gcctacaatg ctgacaaccg cacggtcttt 360

tttgaaggca aatacggtgg catggagctg ttccgagcct tgggctgcag cgagctcatc 420

agctccatct ttgacttctc ccactcccta agtgccttgc acttttccga ggatgagatt 480

gccctctaca cagcccttgt tctcatcaat gcccatcggc cagggctcca agagaaaagg 540

aaagtagaac agctgcagta caatctggag ctggcctttc atcatcatct ctgcaagact 600

catcgccaaa gcatcctggc aaagctgcca cccaagggga agcttcggag cctgtgtagc 660

cagcatgtgg aaaggctgca gatcttccag cacctccacc ccatcgtggt ccaagccgct 720

ttccctccac tctacaagga gctcttcagc actgaaaccg agtcacctgt ggggctgtcc 780

aagtga 786

<210> SEQ ID NO: 3

<211> LENGTH: 7

<212> TYPE: PRT

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: TurboTEV protease cleavage site

<400> SEQENCE: 3

Glu Asn Leu Tyr Phe Gln Gly

1 5

<210> SEQ ID NO: 4

<211> LENGTH: 283

<212> TYPE: PRT

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: Construct used in the Thermofluor assay

<400> SEQENCE: 4

Met Ala His His His His His His Ala Gly Gly Ala Glu Asn Leu Tyr

1 5 10 15

Phe Gln Gly Ala Met Asp Ser Thr Pro Glu Ala Pro Tyr Ala Ser Leu

20 25 30

Thr Glu Ile Glu His Leu Val Gln Ser Val Cys Lys Ser Tyr Arg Glu

35 40 45

Thr Cys Gln Leu Arg Leu Glu Asp Leu Leu Arg Gln Arg Ser Asn Ile

50 55 60

Phe Ser Arg Glu Glu Val Thr Gly Tyr Gln Arg Lys Ser Met Trp Glu

65 70 75 80

Met Trp Glu Arg Cys Ala His His Leu Thr Glu Ala Ile Gln Tyr Val

85 90 95

Val Glu Phe Ala Lys Arg Leu Ser Gly Phe Met Glu Leu Cys Gln Asn

100 105 110

Asp Gln Ile Val Leu Leu Lys Ala Gly Ala Met Glu Val Val Leu Val

115 120 125

Arg Met Cys Arg Ala Tyr Asn Ala Asp Asn Arg Thr Val Phe Phe Glu

130 135 140

Gly Lys Tyr Gly Gly Met Glu Leu Phe Arg Ala Leu Gly Cys Ser Glu

145 150 155 160

Leu Ile Ser Ser Ile Phe Asp Phe Ser His Ser Leu Ser Ala Leu His

165 170 175

Phe Ser Glu Asp Glu Ile Ala Leu Tyr Thr Ala Leu Val Leu Ile Asn

180 185 190

Ala His Arg Pro Gly Leu Gln Glu Lys Arg Lys Val Glu Gln Leu Gln

195 200 205

Tyr Asn Leu Glu Leu Ala Phe His His His Leu Cys Lys Thr His Arg

210 215 220

Gln Ser Ile Leu Ala Lys Leu Pro Pro Lys Gly Lys Leu Arg Ser Leu

225 230 235 240

Cys Ser Gln His Val Glu Arg Leu Gln Ile Phe Gln His Leu His Pro

245 250 255

Ile Val Val Gln Ala Ala Phe Pro Pro Leu Tyr Lys Glu Leu Phe Ser

260 265 270

Thr Glu Thr Glu Ser Pro Val Gly Leu Ser Lys

275 280

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Citation

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Title Current Assignee Application Date Publication Date
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