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Patent Analysis of

Spiro-lactam NMDA modulators and methods of using same

Updated Time 12 June 2019

Patent Registration Data

Publication Number

US10150769

Application Number

US16/006125

Application Date

12 June 2018

Publication Date

11 December 2018

Current Assignee

APTINYX INC.

Original Assignee (Applicant)

APTINYX INC.

International Classification

C07D471/10,A61K31/44,A61K9/00

Cooperative Classification

A61K9/0019,C07D471/10,C07D487/10

Inventor

KHAN, M. AMIN

Patent Images

This patent contains figures and images illustrating the invention and its embodiment.

US10150769 Spiro-lactam NMDA modulators 1 US10150769 Spiro-lactam NMDA modulators 2 US10150769 Spiro-lactam NMDA modulators 3
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Abstract

Disclosed are compounds having potency in the modulation of NMDA receptor activity. Such compounds can be used in the treatment of conditions such as depression and related disorders. Orally delivered formulations and other pharmaceutically acceptable delivery forms of the compounds, including intravenous formulations, are also disclosed.

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Claims

1. A compound having the formula: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

2. A pharmaceutical composition comprising the compound of claim 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof; and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

3. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 2, suitable for oral administration, parenteral administration, topical administration, intravaginal administration, intrarectal administration, sublingual administration, ocular administration, transdermal administration, or nasal administration.

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Claim Tree

  • 1
    1. A compound having
    • the formula: or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
  • 2
    2. A pharmaceutical composition comprising
    • the compound of claim 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof
    • and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.
    • 3. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 2, suitable for oral administration, parenteral administration, topical administration, intravaginal administration, intrarectal administration, sublingual administration, ocular administration, transdermal administration, or nasal administration.
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Description

BACKGROUND

An N-methyl-d-aspartate (“NMDA”) receptor is a postsynaptic, ionotropic receptor that is responsive to, inter alia, the excitatory amino acids glutamate and glycine and the synthetic compound NMDA. The NMDA receptor controls the flow of both divalent and monovalent ions into the postsynaptic neural cell through a receptor associated channel (Foster et al., Nature 1987, 329:395-396; Mayer et al., Trends in Pharmacol. Sci. 1990, 11:254-260). The NMDA receptor has been implicated during development in specifying neuronal architecture and synaptic connectivity, and may be involved in experience-dependent synaptic modifications. In addition, NMDA receptors are also thought to be involved in long term potentiation and central nervous system disorders.

The NMDA receptor plays a major role in the synaptic plasticity that underlies many higher cognitive functions, such as memory acquisition, retention and learning, as well as in certain cognitive pathways and in the perception of pain (Collingridge et al., The NMDA Receptor, Oxford University Press, 1994). In addition, certain properties of NMDA receptors suggest that they may be involved in the information-processing in the brain that underlies consciousness itself.

The NMDA receptor has drawn particular interest since it appears to be involved in a broad spectrum of CNS disorders. For instance, during brain ischemia caused by stroke or traumatic injury, excessive amounts of the excitatory amino acid glutamate are released from damaged or oxygen deprived neurons. This excess glutamate binds to the NMDA receptors which opens their ligand-gated ion channels; in turn the calcium influx produces a high level of intracellular calcium which activates a biochemical cascade resulting in protein degradation and cell death. This phenomenon, known as excitotoxicity, is also thought to be responsible for the neurological damage associated with other disorders ranging from hypoglycemia and cardiac arrest to epilepsy. In addition, there are preliminary reports indicating similar involvement in the chronic neurodegeneration of Huntington's, Parkinson's and Parkinson's related conditions such as dyskinesia and L-dopa induced dyskinesia and Alzheimer's diseases. Activation of the NMDA receptor has been shown to be responsible for post-stroke convulsions, and, in certain models of epilepsy, activation of the NMDA receptor has been shown to be necessary for the generation of seizures. Neuropsychiatric involvement of the NMDA receptor has also been recognized since blockage of the NMDA receptor Ca++ channel by the animal anesthetic PCP (phencyclidine) produces a psychotic state in humans similar to schizophrenia (reviewed in Johnson, K. and Jones, S., 1990). Further, NMDA receptors have also been implicated in certain types of spatial learning.

The NMDA receptor is believed to consist of several protein chains embedded in the postsynaptic membrane. The first two types of subunits discovered so far form a large extracellular region, which probably contains most of the allosteric binding sites, several transmembrane regions looped and folded so as to form a pore or channel, which is permeable to Ca++, and a carboxyl terminal region. The opening and closing of the channel is regulated by the binding of various ligands to domains (allosteric sites) of the protein residing on the extracellular surface. The binding of the ligands is thought to affect a conformational change in the overall structure of the protein which is ultimately reflected in the channel opening, partially opening, partially closing, or closing.

A need continues to exist in the art for novel and more specific and/or potent compounds that are capable of modulating NMDA receptors, and provide pharmaceutical benefits. In addition, a need continues to exist in the medical arts for orally deliverable forms of such compounds.

SUMMARY

The present disclosure includes compounds that can be NMDA modulators. More specifically, the present disclosure provides a compound having Formula I:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a stereoisomer, and/or an N-oxide thereof, where:

    • m is 0, 1 or 2;
    • n is 1 or 2;
    • X is O or S;
    • R1 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, —C1-C6alkyl, —C(O)—C1-C6alkyl, —C(O)—O—C1-C6alkyl, —C1-C6alkylene-C1-C6cycloalkyl, and phenyl;
    • R2 is independently selected for each occurrence from the group consisting of hydrogen, cyano, —C1-C6alkyl, and halogen;
    • R3 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, —C1-C6alkyl, —C(O)—R31, —C(O)—O—R32, and phenyl;
    • R31 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, —C1-C6alkyl, —C1-C6haloalkyl, —C3-C6cycloalkyl, and phenyl;
    • R32 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, —C1-C6alkyl, —C1-C6haloalkyl, —C3-C6cycloalkyl, and phenyl;

      • wherein any aforementioned C1-C6alkyl, independently for each occurrence, is optionally substituted by one, two or three substituents each independently selected from —C(O)NRaRb, —NRaRb, hydroxyl, —SH, phenyl, —O—CH2-phenyl, and halogen; and any aforementioned phenyl, independently for each occurrence, is optionally substituted by one, two or three substituents each independently selected from —C(O)NRaRb, NRaRb, —C1-C3alkoxy, hydroxyl, and halogen;
    • R4 is independently selected for each occurrence from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, hydroxyl, cyano, phenyl, —C1-C4alkyl, —C2-4alkenyl, —C1-4alkoxy, —C(O)NRaRb, —NRaRb, —N(Ra)-phenyl, —N(Ra)—C1-C6alkylene-phenyl, —N(Ra)—C(O)—C1-C6alkyl, —N(Ra)—C(O)—C1-C6alkylene-phenyl, —N(Ra)—C(O)—O—C1-C6alkyl, and —N(Ra)—C(O)—O—C1-C6alkylene-phenyl; wherein C1-C4alkyl, C1-C6alkylene, C2-C4alkenyl, C1-C4alkoxy, and phenyl are optionally substituted by one or more substituents selected from RP; or two R4 moieties, when present on adjacent carbons, form a 3-membered carbocyclic ring taken together with the adjacent carbons to which they are attached, optionally substituted by one or two substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, hydroxyl, —C1-C3alkyl, —C1-C3alkoxy, —C(O)NRaRb, and —NRaRb; Ra and Rb are each independently for each occurrence selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, —C1-C4alkyl, and —CH2-phenyl; or Ra and Rb taken together with the nitrogen to which they are attached form a 4-6 membered heterocyclic ring; R5 is independently selected for each occurrence from the group consisting of hydrogen, —C1-C3alkyl, phenyl, and halogen; wherein phenyl is optionally substituted by one or more substituents selected from RP; or two R5 moieties together with the carbon to which they are attached form a carbonyl moiety or thiocarbonyl moiety;
    • R6 is independently selected for each occurrence from the group consisting of hydrogen, —C1-C3alkyl, phenyl and halogen; wherein phenyl is optionally substituted by one or more substituents selected from RP; or two R6 moieties together with the carbon to which they are attached form a carbonyl moiety or thiocarbonyl moiety; and RP is independently selected for each occurrence from the group consisting of carboxy, hydroxyl, halogen, —NRaRb, phenyl, —C1-C6alkoxy, and —C1-C6alkyl; wherein each phenyl, C1-C6alkoxy and C1-C6alkyl is optionally substituted by one or more substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen and hydroxyl.

Also provided herein are pharmaceutically acceptable compositions comprising a disclosed compound, and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient. Such compositions can be suitable for administration to a patient orally, parenterally, topically, intravaginally, intrarectally, sublingually, ocularly, transdermally, or nasally.

In some aspects, compounds described herein bind to NMDA receptors expressing certain NR2 subtypes. In some aspects, the compounds described herein bind to one NR2 subtype and not another. It is appreciated that disclosed compounds may bind to another protein target and/or another NMDA receptor type.

In another aspect, a method of treating a condition selected from the group consisting of autism, anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, attention deficit disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, a psychotic disorder, a psychotic symptom, social withdrawal, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobia, post-traumatic stress syndrome, a behavior disorder, an impulse control disorder, a substance abuse disorder, a sleep disorder, a memory disorder, a learning disorder, urinary incontinence, multiple system atrophy, progressive supra-nuclear palsy, Friedrich's ataxia, Down's syndrome, fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, olivio-ponto-cerebellar atrophy, Rett syndrome, cerebral palsy, drug-induced optic neuritis, ischemic retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, dementia, AIDS dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's chorea, spasticity, myoclonus, muscle spasm, Tourette's syndrome, epilepsy, cerebral ischemia, stroke, a brain tumor, traumatic brain injury, cardiac arrest, myelopathy, spinal cord injury, peripheral neuropathy, fibromyalgia, acute neuropathic pain, and chronic neuropathic pain, in a patient in need thereof is provided. Such methods may comprise administering to the patient a pharmaceutically effective amount of a disclosed compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salts, stereoisomers, N-oxides, and hydrates thereof.

In some embodiments, a method of this disclosure includes treating depression. For example, depression may include one or more of major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, psychotic depression, postpartum depression, seasonal affective disorder, bipolar disorder, mood disorder, or depression caused by a chronic medical condition. In other embodiments, a method of this disclosure may treat schizophrenia. Such schizophrenia may be, for example, paranoid type schizophrenia, disorganized type schizophrenia, catatonic type schizophrenia, undifferentiated type schizophrenia, residual type schizophrenia, post-schizophrenic depression, or simple schizophrenia.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

FIG. 1 consists of crystal data and structure refinement for the single crystal X-ray structure of Compound AA-2.

FIG. 2A shows the animals' total exploration time of a familiar object versus a novel object in a second test session (T2) after administration of a vehicle or Compound AA-2.

FIG. 2B shows the same experiment as in FIG. 2A but the difference in the animals' total exploration time between a familiar and a novel object in T2 after administration of a vehicle or Compound AA-2.

FIG. 2C shows the same experiment as in FIG. 2A but the discrimination index (d2), which is the time spent exploring the novel object in T2 minus the time spent exploring the familiar object in T2, which difference is divided by the total exploration time of both the novel and familiar objects in T2 (after administration of a vehicle or Compound AA-2).

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

This disclosure is generally directed to compounds that are capable of modulating NMDA receptors, for example, NMDA receptor antagonists, agonists, or partial agonists, and compositions and/or methods of using the disclosed compounds. It is appreciated that the disclosed compounds may modulate other protein targets and/or specific NMDA receptor subtype.

The term “alkyl,” as used herein, refers to a saturated straight-chain or branched hydrocarbon, such as a straight-chain or branched group of 1-6, 1-4, or 1-3 carbon atoms, referred to herein as C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C4 alkyl, and C1-C3 alkyl, respectively. Exemplary alkyl groups include, but are not limited to, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, 2-methyl-1-propyl, 2-methyl-2-propyl, 2-methyl-1-butyl, 3-methyl-1-butyl, 3-methyl-2-butyl, 2,2-dimethyl-1-propyl, 2-methyl-1-pentyl, 3-methyl-1-pentyl, 4-methyl-1-pentyl, 2-methyl-2-pentyl, 3-methyl-2-pentyl, 4-methyl-2-pentyl, 2,2-dimethyl-1-butyl, 3,3-dimethyl-1-butyl, 2-ethyl-1-butyl, butyl, isobutyl, t-butyl, pentyl, isopentyl, neopentyl, and hexyl.

The term “alkoxy,” as used herein, refers to an alkyl group attached to an oxygen atom (alkyl-O—). Alkoxy groups can have 1-6 or 2-6 carbon atoms and are referred to herein as C1-C6 alkoxy and C2-C6 alkoxy, respectively. Exemplary alkoxy groups include, but are not limited to, methoxy, ethoxy, and isopropoxy.

The term “haloalkyl,” as used herein, refers to an alkyl group, in which one or more hydrogen atoms of the alkyl group are replaced with one or more independently selected halogens. A haloalkyl group can have 1 to 10 carbon atoms (i.e., C1-C10 haloalkyl group), for example, 1 to 6 carbon atoms (i.e., C1-C6 haloalkyl group). Examples of haloalkyl groups include —CF3, —C2F5, —CHF2, —CH2F, —CCl3, —CHCl2, —CH2Cl, —CH2CH2Cl, —CHFCH2Cl, and —C2Cl5. Perhaloalkyl groups, i.e., alkyl groups where all of the hydrogen atoms are replaced with halogen atoms (e.g., —CF3 and —C2F5), are included within the definition of “haloalkyl.”

The term “alkylene,” as used herein, refers to a divalent alkyl group or a diradical of an alkyl group, which is a linking group capable of forming a covalent bond with two other moieties. Accordingly, it should be understood that a “divalent” group is a linking group capable of linking two other moieties. Exemplary alkylene groups include —CH2—, —CH2CH2—, —C(CH3)2CH2—, and —CH2C(H)(CH3)CH2—.

The term “alkenyl,” as used herein, refers to an unsaturated straight-chain or branched hydrocarbon having at least one carbon-carbon double bond, such as a straight-chain or branched group of 2-12, 2-10, or 2-6 carbon atoms, referred to herein as C2-C12 alkenyl, C2-C10 alkenyl, and C2-C6 alkenyl, respectively. Exemplary alkenyl groups include vinyl, allyl, butenyl, pentenyl, hexenyl, butadienyl, pentadienyl, hexadienyl, 2-ethylhexenyl, 2-propyl-2-butenyl, and 4-(2-methyl-3-butene)-pentenyl.

The term “carbonyl,” as used herein, refers to the radical —C(O)— or C═O.

The term “thiocarbonyl,” as used herein, refers to the radical —C(S)— or C═S.

The term “cyano,” as used herein, refers to the radical —CN.

The term “nitro,” as used herein, refers to the radical —NO2.

The phrase, “carbocyclic ring,” as used herein, refers to a hydrocarbon ring system in which all the ring atoms are carbon. Exemplary carbocyclic rings including cycloalkyls and phenyl.

The term “cycloalkyl,” as used herein, refers to a monocyclic saturated or partially unsaturated hydrocarbon ring system, for example, having 3-6 or 4-6 carbon atoms in its ring system, referred to herein as C3-C6 cycloalkyl or C4-C6 cycloalkyl, respectively. Exemplary cycloalkyl groups include, but are not limited to, cyclohexyl, cyclohexenyl, cyclopentyl, cyclopentenyl, cyclobutyl, and cyclopropyl.

The terms “halo” and “halogen,” as used herein, refer to F, Cl, Br, or I.

The term “heteroatom,” as used herein, refers to an atom of any element other than carbon or hydrogen and includes, for example, nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), silicon (Si), sulfur (S), phosphorus (P), and selenium (Se).

The phrase “heterocyclic ring,” as used herein, is art-recognized and refer to saturated or partially unsaturated 4- to 7-membered ring structures, whose ring system include one, two or three heteroatoms, such as nitrogen, oxygen, and/or sulfur. A heterocyclic ring can be fused to one or more phenyl, partially unsaturated, or saturated rings. Examples of heterocyclic rings include, but are not limited to, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, morpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, and piperazinyl.

The terms “hydroxyl” and “hydroxyl,” as used herein, refer to the radical —OH.

The term “oxo,” as used herein, refers to the radical=O (double bonded oxygen).

The term “amino acid,” as used herein, includes any one of the following alpha amino acids: isoleucine, alanine, leucine, asparagine, lysine, aspartate, methionine, cysteine, phenylalanine, glutamate, threonine, glutamine, tryptophan, glycine, valine, proline, arginine, serine, histidine, and tyrosine. An amino acid also can include other art-recognized amino acids such as beta amino acids.

The term “compound,” as used herein, refers to the compound itself and its pharmaceutically acceptable salts, hydrates, esters and N-oxides including its various stereoisomers and its isotopically-labelled forms, unless otherwise understood from the context of the description or expressly limited to one particular form of the compound, i.e., the compound itself, a specific stereoisomer and/or isotopically-labelled compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a hydrate, an ester, or an N-oxide thereof. It should be understood that a compound can refer to a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, or a hydrate, an ester or an N-oxide of a stereoisomer of the compound and/or an isotopically-labelled compound.

The term “moiety,” as used herein, refers to a portion of a compound or molecule.

The compounds of the disclosure can contain one or more chiral centers and/or double bonds and therefore, can exist as stereoisomers, such as geometric isomers, and enantiomers or diastereomers. The term “stereoisomers,” when used herein, consists of all geometric isomers, enantiomers and/or diastereomers of the compound. For example, when a compound is shown with specific chiral center(s), the compound depicted without such chirality at that and other chiral centers of the compound are within the scope of the present disclosure, i.e., the compound depicted in two-dimensions with “flat” or “straight” bonds rather than in three dimensions, for example, with solid or dashed wedge bonds. Stereospecific compounds may be designated by the symbols “R” or “S,” depending on the configuration of substituents around the stereogenic carbon atom. The present disclosure encompasses all the various stereoisomers of these compounds and mixtures thereof. Mixtures of enantiomers or diastereomers can be designated “(±)” in nomenclature, but a skilled artisan will recognize that a structure can denote a chiral center implicitly. It is understood that graphical depictions of chemical structures, e.g., generic chemical structures, encompass all stereoisomeric forms of the specified compounds, unless indicated otherwise.

Individual enantiomers and diastereomers of compounds of the present disclosure can be prepared synthetically from commercially available starting materials that contain asymmetric or stereogenic centers, or by preparation of racemic mixtures followed by resolution methods well known to those of ordinary skill in the art. These methods of resolution are exemplified by (1) attachment of a mixture of enantiomers to a chiral auxiliary, separation of the resulting mixture of diastereomers by recrystallization or chromatography and liberation of the optically pure product from the auxiliary, (2) salt formation employing an optically active resolving agent, (3) direct separation of the mixture of optical enantiomers on chiral liquid chromatographic columns, or (4) kinetic resolution using stereoselective chemical or enzymatic reagents. Racemic mixtures also can be resolved into their component enantiomers by well-known methods, such as chiral-phase gas chromatography or crystallizing the compound in a chiral solvent. Stereoselective syntheses, a chemical or enzymatic reaction in which a single reactant forms an unequal mixture of stereoisomers during the creation of a new stereocenter or during the transformation of a pre-existing one, are well known in the art. Stereoselective syntheses encompass both enantio- and diastereoselective transformations. See, for example, Carreira and Kvaerno, Classics in Stereoselective Synthesis, Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, 2009.

Geometric isomers, resulting from the arrangement of substituents around a carbon-carbon double bond or arrangement of substituents around a cycloalkyl or heterocyclic ring, can also exist in the compounds of the present disclosure. The symbol denotes a bond that may be a single, double or triple bond as described herein. Substituents around a carbon-carbon double bond are designated as being in the “Z” or “E” configuration, where the terms “Z” and “E” are used in accordance with IUPAC standards. Unless otherwise specified, structures depicting double bonds encompass both the “E” and “Z” isomers.

Substituents around a carbon-carbon double bond alternatively can be referred to as “cis” or “trans,” where “cis” represents substituents on the same side of the double bond and “trans” represents substituents on opposite sides of the double bond. The arrangement of substituents around a carbocyclic ring can also be designated as “cis” or “trans.” The term “cis” represents substituents on the same side of the plane of the ring and the term “trans” represents substituents on opposite sides of the plane of the ring. Mixtures of compounds wherein the substituents are disposed on both the same and opposite sides of plane of the ring are designated “cis/trans.”

The disclosure also embraces isotopically-labeled compounds which are identical to those compounds recited herein, except that one or more atoms are replaced by an atom having an atomic mass or mass number different from the atomic mass or mass number usually found in nature. Examples of isotopes that can be incorporated into compounds described herein include isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, fluorine and chlorine, such as 2H (“D”), 3H, 13C, 14C, 15N, 18O, 17O, 31P, 32P, 35S, 18F, and 36Cl, respectively. For example, a compound described herein can have one or more H atoms replaced with deuterium.

Certain isotopically-labeled compounds (e.g., those labeled with 3H and 14C) can be useful in compound and/or substrate tissue distribution assays. Tritiated (i.e., 3H) and carbon-14 (i.e., 14C) isotopes can be particularly preferred for their ease of preparation and detectability. Further, substitution with heavier isotopes such as deuterium (i.e., 2H) can afford certain therapeutic advantages resulting from greater metabolic stability (e.g., increased in vivo half-life or reduced dosage requirements) and hence can be preferred in some circumstances. Isotopically-labeled compounds can generally be prepared by following procedures analogous to those disclosed herein, for example, in the Examples section, by substituting an isotopically-labeled reagent for a non-isotopically-labeled reagent.

The phrases “pharmaceutically acceptable” and “pharmacologically acceptable,” as used herein, refer to compounds, molecular entities, compositions, materials, and/or dosage forms that do not produce an adverse, allergic or other untoward reaction when administered to an animal, or a human, as appropriate. For human administration, preparations should meet sterility, pyrogenicity, general safety and purity standards as required by FDA Office of Biologics standards.

The phrases “pharmaceutically acceptable carrier” and “pharmaceutically acceptable excipient,” as used herein, refer to any and all solvents, dispersion media, coatings, isotonic and absorption delaying agents, and the like, that are compatible with pharmaceutical administration. Pharmaceutical acceptable carriers can include phosphate buffered saline solution, water, emulsions (e.g., such as an oil/water or water/oil emulsions), and various types of wetting agents. The compositions also can include stabilizers and preservatives.

The phrase “pharmaceutical composition,” as used herein, refers to a composition comprising at least one compound as disclosed herein formulated together with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers. The pharmaceutical compositions can also contain other active compounds providing supplemental, additional, or enhanced therapeutic functions.

The terms “individual,”“patient,” and “subject,” as used herein, are used interchangeably and include any animal, including mammals, preferably mice, rats, other rodents, rabbits, dogs, cats, swine, cattle, sheep, horses, or primates, and more preferably, humans. The compounds described in the disclosure can be administered to a mammal, such as a human, but can also be administered to other mammals such as an animal in need of veterinary treatment, for example, domestic animals (e.g., dogs, cats, and the like), farm animals (e.g., cows, sheep, pigs, horses, and the like) and laboratory animals (e.g., rats, mice, guinea pigs, and the like). The mammal treated in the methods described in the disclosure is preferably a mammal in which treatment, for example, of pain or depression, is desired.

The term “treating,” as used herein, includes any effect, for example, lessening, reducing, modulating, ameliorating, or eliminating, that results in the improvement of the condition, disease, disorder, and the like, including one or more symptoms thereof. Treating can be curing, improving, or at least partially ameliorating the disorder.

The term “disorder” refers to and is used interchangeably with, the terms “disease,”“condition,” or “illness,” unless otherwise indicated.

The term “modulation,” as used herein, refers to and includes antagonism (e.g., inhibition), agonism, partial antagonism, and/or partial agonism.

The phrase “therapeutically effective amount,” as used herein, refers to the amount of a compound (e.g., a disclosed compound) that will elicit the biological or medical response of a tissue, system, animal or human that is being sought by the researcher, veterinarian, medical doctor or other clinician. The compounds described in the disclosure can be administered in therapeutically effective amounts to treat a disease. A therapeutically effective amount of a compound can be the quantity required to achieve a desired therapeutic and/or prophylactic effect, such as an amount which results in lessening of a symptom of a disease such as depression.

As used herein, the term “pharmaceutically acceptable salt” refers to any salt of an acidic or a basic group that may be present in a compound of the present disclosure, which salt is compatible with pharmaceutical administration. As is known to those of skill in the art, “salts” of the compounds of the present disclosure may be derived from inorganic or organic acids and bases.

Examples of salts include, but are not limited to: acetate, adipate, alginate, aspartate, benzoate, benzenesulfonate, bisulfate, butyrate, citrate, camphorate, camphorsulfonate, cyclopentanepropionate, digluconate, dodecylsulfate, ethanesulfonate, fumarate, flucoheptanoate, glycerophosphate, hemisulfate, heptanoate, hexanoate, hydrochloride, hydrobromide, hydroiodide, 2-hydroxyethanesulfonate, lactate, maleate, methanesulfonate, 2-naphthalenesulfonate, nicotinate, oxalate, palmoate, pectinate, persulfate, phenylpropionate, picrate, pivalate, propionate, succinate, tartrate, thiocyanate, tosylate, undecanoate, and the like.

Other examples of salts include anions of the compounds of the present disclosure compounded with a suitable cation such as N+, NH4+, and NW4+ (where W can be a C1-4 alkyl group), and the like. For therapeutic use, salts of the compounds of the present disclosure can be pharmaceutically acceptable. However, salts of acids and bases that are non-pharmaceutically acceptable may also find use, for example, in the preparation or purification of a pharmaceutically acceptable compound.

Compounds included in the present compositions that are basic in nature are capable of forming a wide variety of salts with various inorganic and organic acids. The acids that can be used to prepare pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts of such basic compounds are those that form non-toxic acid addition salts, i.e., salts containing pharmacologically acceptable anions, including but not limited to, malate, oxalate, chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, sulfate, bisulfate, phosphate, acid phosphate, isonicotinate, acetate, lactate, salicylate, citrate, tartrate, oleate, tannate, pantothenate, bitartrate, ascorbate, succinate, maleate, gentisinate, fumarate, gluconate, glucaronate, saccharate, formate, benzoate, glutamate, methanesulfonate, ethanesulfonate, benzenesulfonate, p-toluenesulfonate and pamoate (i.e., 1,1′-methylene-bis-(2-hydroxy-3-naphthoate)) salts.

Compounds included in the present compositions that are acidic in nature are capable of forming base salts with various pharmacologically acceptable cations. Examples of such salts include alkali metal or alkaline earth metal salts and, particularly, calcium, magnesium, sodium, lithium, zinc, potassium, and iron salts.

Compounds included in the present compositions that include a basic or acidic moiety can also form pharmaceutically acceptable salts with various amino acids. The compounds of the disclosure can contain both acidic and basic groups; for example, one amino and one carboxylic acid group. In such a case, the compound can exist as an acid addition salt, a zwitterion, or a base salt.

The compounds disclosed herein can exist in a solvated form as well as an unsolvated form with pharmaceutically acceptable solvents such as water, ethanol, and the like, and it is intended that the disclosure embrace both solvated and unsolvated forms. In some embodiments, the compound is amorphous. In certain embodiments, the compound is a single polymorph. In various embodiments, the compound is a mixture of polymorphs. In particular embodiments, the compound is in a crystalline form.

The term “prodrug,” as used herein, refers to compounds that are transformed in vivo to yield a disclosed compound or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, hydrate or solvate of the compound. The transformation can occur by various mechanisms (such as by esterase, amidase, phosphatase, oxidative and/or reductive metabolism) in various locations (such as in the intestinal lumen or upon transit into the intestine, blood, or liver). Prodrugs are well known in the art (see e.g., see Rautio, Kumpulainen et al., Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 2008, 7, 255). For example, if a compound described herein or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, hydrate or solvate of the compound contains a carboxylic acid functional group, a prodrug can be an ester formed by the replacement of the hydrogen atom of the carboxylic acid group with a group such as (C1-C8)alkyl, (C2-C12)alkanoyloxymethyl, 1-(alkanoyloxy)ethyl having from 4 to 9 carbon atoms, 1-methyl-1-(alkanoyloxy)-ethyl having from 5 to 10 carbon atoms, alkoxycarbonyloxymethyl having from 3 to 6 carbon atoms, 1-(alkoxycarbonyloxy)ethyl having from 4 to 7 carbon atoms, 1-methyl-1-(alkoxycarbonyloxy)ethyl having from 5 to 8 carbon atoms, N-(alkoxycarbonyl)aminomethyl having from 3 to 9 carbon atoms, 1-(N-(alkoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl having from 4 to 10 carbon atoms, 3-phthalidyl, 4-crotonolactonyl, gamma-butyrolacton-4-yl, di-N,N—(C1-C2)alkylamino(C2-C3)alkyl (such as β-dimethylaminoethyl), carbamoyl-(C1-C2)alkyl, N,N-di(C1-C2)alkylcarbamoyl-(C1-C2)alkyl, piperidino-(C2-C3)alkyl, pyrrolidino-(C2-C3)alkyl or morpholino(C2-C3)alkyl.

Similarly, if a compound described herein contains an alcohol functional group, a prodrug can be formed by the replacement of the hydrogen atom of the alcohol group with a group such as (C1-C6)alkanoyloxymethyl, 1-((C1-C6)alkanoyloxy)ethyl, 1-methyl-1-((C1-C6)alkanoyloxy)ethyl (C1-C6)alkoxycarbonyloxymethyl, N—(C1-C6)alkoxycarbonylaminomethyl, succinoyl, (C1-C6)alkanoyl, α-amino(C1-C4)alkanoyl, arylacyl and α-aminoacyl, or α-aminoacyl-α-aminoacyl, where each α-aminoacyl group is independently selected from the naturally occurring L-amino acids, P(O)(OH)2, —P(O)(O(C1-C6)alkyl)2 or glycosyl (the radical resulting from the removal of a hydroxyl group of the hemiacetal form of a carbohydrate).

If a compound described herein incorporates an amine functional group, a prodrug can be formed, for example, by creation of an amide or carbamate, an N-acyloxyalkyl derivative, an (oxodioxolenyl) methyl derivative, an N-Mannich base, imine or enamine. In addition, a secondary amine can be metabolically cleaved to generate a bioactive primary amine, or a tertiary amine can metabolically cleaved to generate a bioactive primary or secondary amine. See, for example, Simplício, et al., Molecules 2008, 13, 519 and references therein.

Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this disclosure pertains.

Throughout the description, where compositions and kits are described as having, including, or comprising specific components, or where processes and methods are described as having, including, or comprising specific steps, it is contemplated that, additionally, there are compositions and kits of the present disclosure that consist essentially of, or consist of, the recited components, and that there are processes and methods according to the present disclosure that consist essentially of, or consist of, the recited processing steps.

In the application, where an element or component is said to be included in and/or selected from a list of recited elements or components, it should be understood that the element or component can be any one of the recited elements or components, or the element or component can be selected from a group consisting of two or more of the recited elements or components.

Further, it should be understood that elements and/or features of a composition or a method described herein can be combined in a variety of ways without departing from the spirit and scope of the present disclosure, whether explicit or implicit herein. For example, where reference is made to a particular compound, that compound can be used in various embodiments of compositions of the present disclosure and/or in methods of the present disclosure, unless otherwise understood from the context. In other words, within this application, embodiments have been described and depicted in a way that enables a clear and concise application to be written and drawn, but it is intended and will be appreciated that embodiments can be variously combined or separated without parting from the present teachings and disclosure(s). For example, it will be appreciated that all features described and depicted herein can be applicable to all aspects of the disclosure(s) described and depicted herein.

The articles “a” and “an” are used in this disclosure to refer to one or more than one (i.e., to at least one) of the grammatical object of the article, unless the context is inappropriate. By way of example, “an element” means one element or more than one element.

The term “and/or” is used in this disclosure to mean either “and” or “or” unless indicated otherwise.

It should be understood that the expression “at least one of” includes individually each of the recited objects after the expression and the various combinations of two or more of the recited objects unless otherwise understood from the context and use. The expression “and/or” in connection with three or more recited objects should be understood to have the same meaning unless otherwise understood from the context.

The use of the term “include,”“includes,”“including,”“have,”“has,”“having,”“contain,”“contains,” or “containing,” including grammatical equivalents thereof, should be understood generally as open-ended and non-limiting, for example, not excluding additional unrecited elements or steps, unless otherwise specifically stated or understood from the context.

Where the use of the term “about” is before a quantitative value, the present disclosure also include the specific quantitative value itself, unless specifically stated otherwise. As used herein, the term “about” refers to a ±10% variation from the nominal value unless otherwise indicated or inferred.

Where a percentage is provided with respect to an amount of a component or material in a composition, the percentage should be understood to be a percentage based on weight, unless otherwise stated or understood from the context.

Where a molecular weight is provided and not an absolute value, for example, of a polymer, then the molecular weight should be understood to be an average molecule weight, unless otherwise stated or understood from the context.

It should be understood that the order of steps or order for performing certain actions is immaterial so long as the present disclosure remain operable. Moreover, two or more steps or actions can be conducted simultaneously.

At various places in the present specification, substituents are disclosed in groups or in ranges. It is specifically intended that the description include each and every individual subcombination of the members of such groups and ranges. For example, the term “C1-6 alkyl” is specifically intended to individually disclose C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C1-C6, C1-C5, C1-C4, C1-C3, C1-C2, C2-C6, C2-C5, C2-C4, C2-C3, C3-C6, C3-C5, C3-C4, C4-C6, C4-C5, and C5-C6 alkyl. By way of other examples, an integer in the range of 0 to 40 is specifically intended to individually disclose 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, and 40, and an integer in the range of 1 to 20 is specifically intended to individually disclose 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20. Additional examples include that the phrase “optionally substituted with 1-5 substituents” is specifically intended to individually disclose a chemical group that can include 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 0-5, 0-4, 0-3, 0-2, 0-1, 1-5, 1-4, 1-3, 1-2, 2-5, 2-4, 2-3, 3-5, 3-4, and 4-5 substituents.

The use of any and all examples, or exemplary language herein, for example, “such as” or “including,” is intended merely to illustrate better the present disclosure and does not pose a limitation on the scope of the disclosure unless claimed. No language in the specification should be construed as indicating any non-claimed element as essential to the practice of the present disclosure.

Further, if a variable is not accompanied by a definition, then the variable is defined as found elsewhere in the disclosure unless understood to be different from the context. In addition, the definition of each variable, substituent, substitution, expression and the like, for example, C1-C6 alkyl, R2, Rb, w and the like, when it occurs more than once in any structure or compound, is intended to be independent of its definition elsewhere in the same structure or compound.

Various aspects of the disclosure are set forth herein under headings and/or in sections for clarity; however, it is understood that all aspects, embodiments, or features of the disclosure described in one particular section are not to be limited to that particular section but rather can apply to any aspect, embodiment, or feature of the present disclosure.

Compounds

Disclosed compounds include a compound having Formula I:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, stereoisomer, and/or N-oxide thereof, wherein:

    • m is 0, 1 or 2;
    • n is 1 or 2;
    • X is O or S;
    • R1 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, —C1-C6alkyl, —C(O)—C1-C6alkyl, —C(O)—O—C1-C6alkyl, —C1-C6alkylene-C1-C6cycloalkyl, and phenyl;
    • R2 is independently selected for each occurrence from the group consisting of hydrogen, cyano, —C1-C6alkyl, and halogen;
    • R3 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, —C1-C6alkyl, —C(O)—R31, —C(O)—O—R32, and phenyl;
    • R31 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, —C1-C6alkyl, —C1-C6haloalkyl, —C3-C6cycloalkyl, and phenyl;
    • R32 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, —C1-C6alkyl, —C1-C6haloalkyl, —C3-C6cycloalkyl, and phenyl;

      • wherein any aforementioned C1-C6alkyl, independently for each occurrence, is optionally substituted by one, two or three substituents each independently selected from —C(O)NRaRb, —NRaRb, hydroxyl, —SH, phenyl, —O—CH2-phenyl, and halogen; and any aforementioned phenyl, independently for each occurrence, is optionally substituted by one, two or three substituents each independently selected from —C(O)NRaRb, NRaRb, —C1-C3alkoxy, hydroxyl, and halogen;
    • R4 is independently selected for each occurrence from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, hydroxyl, cyano, phenyl, —C1-C4alkyl, —C2-4alkenyl, —C1-4alkoxy, —C(O)NRaRb, —NRaRb, —N(Ra)-phenyl, —N(Ra)—C1-C6alkylene-phenyl, —N(Ra)—C(O)—C1-C6alkyl, —N(Ra)—C(O)—C1-C6alkylene-phenyl, —N(Ra)—C(O)—O—C1-C6alkyl, and —N(Ra)—C(O)—O—C1-C6alkylene-phenyl; wherein C1-C4alkyl, C1-C6alkylene, C2-C4alkenyl, C1-C4alkoxy, and phenyl are optionally substituted by one or more substituents selected from RP; or two R4 moieties, when present on adjacent carbons, form a 3-membered carbocyclic ring taken together with the adjacent carbons to which they are attached, optionally substituted by one or two substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, hydroxyl, —C1-C3alkyl, —C1-C3alkoxy, —C(O)NRaRb, and —NRaRb; Ra and Rb are each independently for each occurrence selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, —C1-C4alkyl, and —CH2-phenyl; or Ra and Rb taken together with the nitrogen to which they are attached form a 4-6 membered heterocyclic ring; R5 is independently selected for each occurrence from the group consisting of hydrogen, —C1-C3alkyl, phenyl, and halogen; wherein phenyl is optionally substituted by one or more substituents selected from RP; or two R5 moieties together with the carbon to which they are attached form a carbonyl moiety or thiocarbonyl moiety;
    • R6 is independently selected for each occurrence from the group consisting of hydrogen, —C1-C3alkyl, phenyl and halogen; wherein phenyl is optionally substituted by one or more substituents selected from RP; or two R6 moieties together with the carbon to which they are attached form a carbonyl moiety or thiocarbonyl moiety; and RP is independently selected for each occurrence from the group consisting of carboxy, hydroxyl, halogen, —NRaRb, phenyl, —C1-C6alkoxy, and —C1-C6alkyl; wherein each phenyl, C1-C6alkoxy and C1-C6alkyl is optionally substituted by one or more substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen and hydroxyl.

In certain embodiments, m is 2 and n is 1.

In various embodiments, two R6 moieties together with the carbon to which they are attached form a carbonyl moiety. For example, such embodiments can include a compound having Formula Ia:

where the variables are as defined herein.

In various embodiments, R2 for each occurrence is hydrogen.

In certain embodiments, m is 0 and n is 2.

In some embodiments, two R6 moieties together with the carbon to which they are attached form a carbonyl moiety. For example, such embodiments can include a compound having Formula Ib:

In certain embodiments, R4 is independently selected for each occurrence from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, hydroxyl, —C1-C4alkyl, —NRaRb, —N(Ra)-phenyl, —N(Ra)—C1-C6alkylene-phenyl, —N(Ra)—C(O)—C1-C6alkyl, and —N(Ra)—C(O)—O—C1-C6alkyl; wherein Ra and Rb are each independently for each occurrence selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and —C1-C3alkyl.

For example, R4 can be independently selected for each occurrence from the group consisting of hydrogen, fluoro, hydroxyl, methyl, —NH2,

In some embodiments, R5 may independently selected for each occurrence from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1-C3alkyl, and phenyl.

In certain embodiments, R1 is hydrogen. In some embodiments, R1 is —C1-C6alkyl optionally substituted by phenyl, where phenyl is optionally substituted by one, two or three substituents each independently selected from —C1-C3alkoxy and fluoro. For example, R1 can be selected from the group consisting of methyl, isobutyl, and

In various embodiments, R1 is —C1-C6alkylene-C1-C6cycloalkyl. For example, R1 can be

In some embodiments, R1 is phenyl, where phenyl is optionally substituted by one, two or three substituents each independently selected from —C1-C3alkoxy and fluoro. For example, R1 can be

In certain embodiments, R1 is —C(O)—O—C1-C6alkyl, where C1-C6alkyl is optionally substituted by one, two or three substituents each independently selected from —C(O)NRaRb NRaRb, hydroxyl, —SH, phenyl, —O—CH2-phenyl, and halogen; and wherein each phenyl, independently for each occurrence, is optionally substituted by one, two or three substituents each independently selected from —C(O)NRaRb, —NRaRb, —C1-C3alkoxy, hydroxyl, and halogen. For example, R1 can be —C(O)—O—CH2-phenyl.

In certain embodiments, R3 is hydrogen. In particular embodiments, R3 is —C(O)—O—C1-C6alkyl. For example, R3 can be —C(O)—O-tert-butyl.

In certain embodiments, R3 is —C1-C6alkyl, where C1-C6alkyl is optionally substituted by one, two or three substituents each independently selected from —C(O)NRaRb, —NRaRb, hydroxyl, —SH, phenyl, —O—CH2-phenyl, and halogen; and wherein phenyl, independently for each occurrence, is optionally substituted by one, two or three substituents each independently selected from —C(O)NRaRb, —NRaRb, —C1-C3alkoxy, hydroxyl, and halogen. For example, R3 can be selected from the group consisting of:

where:

R66 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and —C1-C3alkoxy; and Ra and Rb are each independently selected for each occurrence from the group consisting of hydrogen and —C1-C6alkyl.

For example, in some embodiments, R66 is hydrogen or methoxy. In some embodiments, Ra and Rb is hydrogen.

In certain embodiments, R1 and/or R3 independently can be an amino acid or a derivative of an amino acid, for example, an alpha “amino amide” represented by H2N—CH(amino acid side chain)-C(O)NH2. In certain embodiments, the nitrogen atom of the amino group of the amino acid or the amino acid derivative is a ring nitrogen in a chemical formula described herein. In such embodiments, the carboxylic acid of the amino acid or the amide group of an amino amide (amino acid derivative) is not within the ring structure, i.e., not a ring atom. In certain embodiments, the carboxylic acid group of the amino acid or the amino acid derivative forms an amide bond with a ring nitrogen in a chemical formula disclosed herein, thereby providing an amino amide, where the amino group of the amino amide is not within the ring structure, i.e., not a ring atom. In certain embodiments, R1 and/or R5a independently can be an alpha amino acid, an alpha amino acid derivative, and/or another amino acid or amino acid derivative such as a beta amino acid or a beta amino acid derivative, for example, a beta amino amide.

Disclosed compounds can include a compound having Formula II:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a stereoisomer, and/or an N-oxide thereof, wherein:

    • R1 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, —C1-C6alkyl, —C(O)—C1-C6alkyl, —C(O)—O—C1-C6alkyl, and phenyl;
    • R2 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, —C1-C6alkyl, —C(O)—R21, —C(O)—O—R22, and phenyl;
    • R21 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, —C1-C6alkyl, —C1-C6haloalkyl, —C3-C6cycloalkyl, and phenyl;
    • R22 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, —C1-C6alkyl, —C1-C6haloalkyl, —C3-C6cycloalkyl, and phenyl;

      • wherein any aforementioned C1-C6alkyl, independently for each occurrence, is optionally substituted by one, two or three substituents each independently selected from —C(O)NRaRb, —NRaRb, hydroxyl, —SH, phenyl, —O—CH2-phenyl, and halogen; and any aforementioned phenyl, independently for each occurrence, is optionally substituted by one, two or three substituents each independently selected from —C(O)NRaRb, NRaRb, —C1-C3alkoxy, hydroxyl, and halogen;
      • R33 and R4 are independently selected for each occurrence from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, hydroxyl, phenyl, —C1-C4alkyl, —C2-C4alkenyl, —C1-C4alkoxy, —C(O)NRaRb, —NRaRb, —N(Ra)-phenyl, —N(Ra)—C1-C6alkylene-phenyl, —N(Ra)—C(O)—C1-6alkyl, —N(Ra)—C(O)—C1-6alkylene-phenyl, —N(Ra)—C(O)—O—C1-6alkyl, and —N(Ra)—C(O)—O—C1-6alkylene-phenyl; wherein C1-4alkyl, C1-6alkylene, C2-4alkenyl, C1-4alkoxy, and phenyl are optionally substituted by one or more substituents selected from RP; or
    • R33 and R4 together form a 3-membered carbocyclic ring with the adjacent carbons to which they are attached, wherein the 3-membered carbocyclic ring is optionally substituted by one or two substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, hydroxyl, —C1-C3alkyl, —C1-C3alkoxy, —C(O)NRaRb, and —NRaRb;
    • Ra and Rb are each independently for each occurrence selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and —C1-C3alkyl; or Ra and Rb taken together with the nitrogen to which they are attached form a 4-6 membered heterocyclic ring; and
    • RP is independently for each occurrence selected from the group consisting of carboxy, hydroxyl, halogen, —NRaRb, phenyl, C1-6alkoxy, and C1-6alkyl optionally substituted by one or more substituents independently selected from the group consisting of halogen and hydroxyl.

In certain embodiments, R1 is hydrogen.

In certain embodiments, R1 can be an amino acid or a derivative of an amino acid, for example, an alpha “amino amide” represented by H2N—CH(amino acid side chain)-C(O)NH2. In certain embodiments, the nitrogen atom of the amino group of the amino acid or the amino acid derivative is a ring nitrogen in a chemical formula described herein. In such embodiments, the carboxylic acid of the amino acid or the amide group of an amino amide (amino acid derivative) is not within the ring structure, i.e., not a ring atom. In certain embodiments, the carboxylic acid group of the amino acid or the amino acid derivative forms an amide bond with a ring nitrogen in a chemical formula disclosed herein, thereby providing an amino amide, where the amino group of the amino amide is not within the ring structure, i.e., not a ring atom. In certain embodiments, R1 can be an alpha amino acid, an alpha amino acid derivative, and/or another amino acid or amino acid derivative such as a beta amino acid or a beta amino acid derivative, for example, a beta amino amide.

In certain embodiments, R2 is —C(O)—O—R22. For example, R2 can be —C(O)OEt or —C(O)OH.

In certain embodiments, R33 and R4 are independently selected for each occurrence from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, hydroxyl, —C1-C4alkyl, —NRaRb, —N(Ra)-phenyl, —N(Ra)—C1-C6alkylene-phenyl, —N(Ra)—C(O)—C1-6alkyl, and —N(Ra)—C(O)—O—C1-6alkyl; wherein Ra and Rb are each independently for each occurrence selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and —C1-C4alkyl.

For example, R33 and R4 can be independently selected for each occurrence from the group consisting of hydrogen, fluoro, hydroxyl, methyl, —NH2,

In certain embodiments, a disclosed compound is selected from the Examples described herein, for example, Examples AA-1 and AA-2, and Examples AB to BW and/or depicted in Table 1, and includes pharmaceutically acceptable salts, stereoisomers, and/or N-oxides thereof.

The compounds of the present disclosure and formulations thereof may have a plurality of chiral centers. Each chiral center may be independently R, S, or any mixture of R and S. For example, in some embodiments, a chiral center may have an R:S ratio of between about 100:0 and about 50:50 (“racemate”), between about 100:0 and about 75:25, between about 100:0 and about 85:15, between about 100:0 and about 90:10, between about 100:0 and about 95:5, between about 100:0 and about 98:2, between about 100:0 and about 99:1, between about 0:100 and 50:50, between about 0:100 and about 25:75, between about 0:100 and about 15:85, between about 0:100 and about 10:90, between about 0:100 and about 5:95, between about 0:100 and about 2:98, between about 0:100 and about 1:99, between about 75:25 and 25:75, and about 50:50. Formulations of the disclosed compounds comprising a greater ratio of one or more isomers (i.e., R and/or S) may possess enhanced therapeutic characteristic relative to racemic formulations of a disclosed compounds or mixture of compounds. In some instances, chemical formulas contain the descriptor “—(R)—” or “—(S)—” that is further attached to solid wedge or dashed wedge. This descriptor is intended to show a methine carbon (CH) that is attached to three other substituents and has either the indicated R or S configuration.

Disclosed compounds may provide for efficient cation channel opening at the NMDA receptor, e.g. may bind or associate with the glutamate site or glycine site or other modulatory site of the NMDA receptor to assist in opening the cation channel. The disclosed compounds may be used to regulate (turn on or turn off) the NMDA receptor through action as an agonist or antagonist.

The compounds described herein, in some embodiments, may bind to a specific NMDA receptor subtypes. For example, a disclosed compound may bind to one NMDA subtype and not another. In certain embodiments, a disclosed compound may bind to one, or more than one NMDA subtype, and/or may have substantially less (or substantial no) binding activity to certain other NMDA subtypes. For example, in some embodiments, a disclosed compound (e.g., compound A) binds to NR2A with substantially no binding to NR2D. In some embodiments, a disclosed compound (e.g., compound B) binds to NR2B and NR2D with substantially lower binding to NR2A and NR2C.

The compounds as described herein may bind to NMDA receptors. A disclosed compound may bind to the NMDA receptor resulting in agonist-like activity (facilitation) over a certain dosing range and/or may bind to the NMDA receptor resulting in antagonist-like activity (inhibition) over a certain dosing range. In some embodiments, a disclosed compound may possess a potency that is 10-fold or greater than the activity of existing NMDA receptor modulators.

The disclosed compounds may exhibit a high therapeutic index. The therapeutic index, as used herein, refers to the ratio of the dose that produces a toxicity in 50% of the population (i.e., TD50) to the minimum effective dose for 50% of the population (i.e., ED50). Thus, the therapeutic index=(TD50):(ED50). In some embodiments, a disclosed compound may have a therapeutic index of at least about 10:1, at least about 50:1, at least about 100:1, at least about 200:1, at least about 500:1, or at least about 1000:1.

Compositions

In other aspects of the disclosure, a pharmaceutical formulation or a pharmaceutical composition including a disclosed compound and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient is provided. In some embodiments, a pharmaceutical composition comprises a racemic mixture of one or more of the disclosed compounds.

A formulation can be prepared in any of a variety of forms for use such as for administering an active agent to a patient, who may be in need thereof, as are known in the pharmaceutical arts. For example, the pharmaceutical compositions of the present disclosure can be formulated for administration in solid or liquid form, including those adapted for the following: (1) oral administration, for example, drenches (aqueous or non-aqueous solutions or suspensions), tablets (e.g., those targeted for buccal, sublingual, and/or systemic absorption), boluses, powders, granules, and pastes for application to the tongue; (2) parenteral administration by, for example, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intravenous or epidural injection as, for example, a sterile solution or suspension, or sustained-release formulation; (3) topical administration, for example, as a cream, ointment, or a controlled-release patch or spray applied to the skin; (4) intravaginal or intrarectal administration, for example, as a pessary, cream or foam; (5) sublingual administration; (6) ocular administration; (7) transdermal administration; or (8) nasal administration.

For example, pharmaceutical compositions of the disclosure can be suitable for delivery to the eye, i.e., ocularly. Related methods can include administering a pharmaceutically effective amount of a disclosed compound or a pharmaceutical composition including a disclosed compound to a patient in need thereof, for example, to an eye of the patient, where administering can be topically, subconjunctivally, subtenonly, intravitreally, retrobulbarly, peribulbarly, intracomerally, and/or systemically.

Amounts of a disclosed compound as described herein in a formulation may vary according to factors such as the disease state, age, sex, and weight of the individual. Dosage regimens may be adjusted to provide the optimum therapeutic response. For example, a single bolus may be administered, several divided doses may be administered over time or the dose may be proportionally reduced or increased as indicated by the exigencies of the therapeutic situation. It is especially advantageous to formulate parenteral compositions in dosage unit form for ease of administration and uniformity of dosage. Dosage unit form as used herein refers to physically discrete units suited as unitary dosages for the mammalian subjects to be treated; each unit containing a predetermined quantity of active compound calculated to produce the desired therapeutic effect in association with the required pharmaceutical carrier.

The specification for the dosage unit forms are dictated by and directly dependent on (a) the unique characteristics of the compound selected and the particular therapeutic effect to be achieved, and (b) the limitations inherent in the art of compounding such an active compound for the treatment of sensitivity in individuals.

Therapeutic compositions typically must be sterile and stable under the conditions of manufacture and storage. The composition can be formulated as a solution, microemulsion, liposome, or other ordered structure suitable to high drug concentration. The carrier can be a solvent or dispersion medium containing, for example, water, ethanol, polyol (for example, glycerol, propylene glycol, and liquid polyethylene glycol, and the like), and suitable mixtures thereof. The proper fluidity can be maintained, for example, by the use of a coating such as lecithin, by the maintenance of the required particle size in the case of dispersion and by the use of surfactants. In many cases, it will be preferable to include isotonic agents, for example, sugars, polyalcohols such as mannitol, sorbitol, or sodium chloride in the composition. Prolonged absorption of the injectable compositions can be brought about by including in the composition an agent which delays absorption, for example, monostearate salts and gelatin.

The compounds can be administered in a time release formulation, for example in a composition which includes a slow release polymer. The compounds can be prepared with carriers that will protect the compound against rapid release, such as a controlled release formulation, including implants and microencapsulated delivery systems. Biodegradable, biocompatible polymers can be used, such as ethylene vinyl acetate, polyanhydrides, polyglycolic acid, collagen, polyorthoesters, polylactic acid and polylactic, polyglycolic copolymers (PLG). Many methods for the preparation of such formulations are generally known to those skilled in the art.

Sterile injectable solutions can be prepared by incorporating the compound in the required amount in an appropriate solvent with one or a combination of ingredients enumerated above, as required, followed by filtered sterilization. Generally, dispersions are prepared by incorporating the active compound into a sterile vehicle which contains a basic dispersion medium and the required other ingredients from those enumerated above. In the case of sterile powders for the preparation of sterile injectable solutions, the preferred methods of preparation are vacuum drying and freeze-drying which yields a powder of the active ingredient plus any additional desired ingredient from a previously sterile-filtered solution thereof.

In some embodiments, a compound can be formulated with one or more additional compounds that enhance the solubility of the compound.

Methods

Methods of this disclosure for treating a condition in a patient in need thereof generally include administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound described herein or a composition including such a compound are provided. In some embodiments, the condition may be a mental condition. For example, a mental illness may be treated. In another aspect, a nervous system condition may be treated. For example, a condition that affects the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, and/or the eye may be treated. In some embodiments, neurodegenerative diseases may be treated.

In some embodiments, the methods include administering a compound to treat patients suffering from autism, anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, attention deficit disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, a psychotic disorder, a psychotic symptom, social withdrawal, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), phobia, post-traumatic stress syndrome, a behavior disorder, an impulse control disorder, a substance abuse disorder (e.g., a withdrawal symptom, opiate addiction, nicotine addiction, and ethanol addition), a sleep disorder, a memory disorder (e.g., a deficit, loss, or reduced ability to make new memories), a learning disorder, urinary incontinence, multiple system atrophy, progressive supra-nuclear palsy, Friedrich's ataxia, Down's syndrome, fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, olivio-ponto-cerebellar atrophy, cerebral palsy, drug-induced optic neuritis, ischemic retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, dementia, AIDS dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's chorea, spasticity, myoclonus, muscle spasm, infantile spasm, Tourette's syndrome, epilepsy, cerebral ischemia, stroke, a brain tumor, traumatic brain injury, cardiac arrest, myelopathy, spinal cord injury, peripheral neuropathy, acute neuropathic pain, and chronic neuropathic pain.

In some embodiments, methods of treating a memory disorder associated with aging, schizophrenia, special learning disorders, seizures, post-stroke convulsions, brain ischemia, hypoglycemia, cardiac arrest, epilepsy, Lewy body dementia, migraine, AIDS dementia, Huntington's chorea, Parkinson's disease, early stage Alzheimer's disease, and Alzheimer's disease are provided.

In certain embodiments, methods for treating schizophrenia are provided. For example, paranoid type schizophrenia, disorganized type schizophrenia (i.e., hebephrenic schizophrenia), catatonic type schizophrenia, undifferentiated type schizophrenia, residual type schizophrenia, post-schizophrenic depression, and simple schizophrenia may be treated using the methods and compositions disclosed herein. Psychotic disorders such as schizoaffective disorders, delusional disorders, brief psychotic disorders, shared psychotic disorders, and psychotic disorders with delusions or hallucinations may also be treated using the compositions disclosed herein.

Paranoid schizophrenia may be characterized where delusions or auditory hallucinations are present, but thought disorder, disorganized behavior, or affective flattening are not. Delusions may be persecutory and/or grandiose, but in addition to these, other themes such as jealousy, religiosity, or somatization may also be present. Disorganized type schizophrenia may be characterized where thought disorder and flat affect are present together. Catatonic type schizophrenia may be characterized where the patient may be almost immobile or exhibit agitated, purposeless movement. Symptoms can include catatonic stupor and waxy flexibility. Undifferentiated type schizophrenia may be characterized where psychotic symptoms are present but the criteria for paranoid, disorganized, or catatonic types have not been met. Residual type schizophrenia may be characterized where positive symptoms are present at a low intensity only. Post-schizophrenic depression may be characterized where a depressive episode arises in the aftermath of a schizophrenic illness where some low-level schizophrenic symptoms may still be present. Simple schizophrenia may be characterized by insidious and progressive development of prominent negative symptoms with no history of psychotic episodes.

In some embodiments, methods are provided for treating psychotic symptoms that may be present in other mental disorders, including, but not limited to, bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, drug intoxication, and drug-induced psychosis. In certain embodiments, methods for treating delusions (e.g., “non-bizarre”) that may be present in, for example, delusional disorder are provided.

In various embodiments, methods for treating social withdrawal in conditions including, but not limited to, social anxiety disorder, avoidant personality disorder, and schizotypal personality disorder are provided.

In some embodiments, the disclosure provides methods for treating a neurodevelopmental disorder related to synaptic dysfunction in a patient in need thereof, where the methods generally include administering to the patient a therapeutically effective amount of a disclosed compound, or a pharmaceutical composition including a disclosed compound. In certain embodiments, the neurodevelopmental disorder related to synaptic dysfunction can be Rett syndrome also known as cerebroatrophic hyperammonemia, MECP2 duplication syndrome (e.g., a MECP2 disorder), CDKL5 syndrome, fragile X syndrome (e.g., a FMR1 disorder), tuberous sclerosis (e.g., a TSC1 disorder and/or a TSC2 disorder), neurofibromatosis (e.g., a NF1 disorder), Angelman syndrome (e.g., a UBE3A disorder), the PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome, Phelan-McDermid syndrome (e.g., a SHANK3 disorder), or infantile spasms. In particular embodiments, the neurodevelopmental disorder can be caused by mutations in the neuroligin (e.g., a NLGN3 disorder and/or a NLGN2 disorder) and/or the neurexin (e.g., a NRXN1 disorder).

In some embodiments, methods are provided for treating neuropathic pain. The neuropathic pain may be acute or chronic. In some cases, the neuropathic pain may be associated with a condition such as herpes, HIV, traumatic nerve injury, stroke, post-ischemia, chronic back pain, post-herpetic neuralgia, fibromyalgia, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, complex regional pain syndrome, spinal cord injury, sciatica, phantom limb pain, diabetic neuropathy such as diabetic peripheral neuropathy (“DPN”), and cancer chemotherapeutic-induced neuropathic pain. Methods for enhancing pain relief and for providing analgesia to a patient are also provided.

Further methods include a method of treating autism and/or an autism spectrum disorder in a patient need thereof, comprising administering an effective amount of a compound to the patient. In some embodiments, a method for reducing the symptoms of autism in a patient in need thereof comprises administering an effective amount of a disclosed compound to the patient. For example, upon administration, the compound may decrease the incidence of one or more symptoms of autism such as eye contact avoidance, failure to socialize, attention deficit, poor mood, hyperactivity, abnormal sound sensitivity, inappropriate speech, disrupted sleep, and perseveration. Such decreased incidence may be measured relative to the incidence in the untreated individual or an untreated individual(s).

Also provided herein is a method of modulating an autism target gene expression in a cell comprising contacting a cell with an effective amount of a compound described herein. The autism gene expression may be for example, selected from ABAT, APOE, CHRNA4, GABRA5, GFAP, GRIN2A, PDYN, and PENK. In certain embodiments, a method of modulating synaptic plasticity in a patient suffering from a synaptic plasticity related disorder is provided, comprising administering to the patient an effective amount of a compound.

In some embodiments, a method of treating Alzheimer's disease, or e.g., treatment of memory loss that e.g., accompanies early stage Alzheimer's disease, in a patient in need thereof is provided, comprising administering a compound. Also provided herein is a method of modulating an Alzheimer's amyloid protein (e.g., beta amyloid peptide, e.g. the isoform Aβ1-42), in-vitro or in-vivo (e.g. in a cell) comprising contacting the protein with an effective amount of a compound is disclosed. For example, in some embodiments, a compound may block the ability of such amyloid protein to inhibit long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices as well as apoptotic neuronal cell death. In some embodiments, a disclosed compound may provide neuroprotective properties to a Alzheimer's patient in need thereof, for example, may provide a therapeutic effect on later stage Alzheimer's-associated neuronal cell death.

In certain embodiments, the disclosed methods include treating a psychosis or a pseudobulbar affect (“PBA”) that is induced by another condition such as a stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease), multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and/or Parkinson's disease. Such methods, as with other methods of the disclosure, include administration of a pharmaceutically effective amount of a disclosed compound to a patient in need thereof.

In certain embodiments, a method of treating depression includes administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound described herein. In some embodiments, the treatment may relieve depression or a symptom of depression without affecting behavior or motor coordination and without inducing or promoting seizure activity. Exemplary depression conditions that are expected to be treated according to this aspect include, but are not limited to, major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, psychotic depression, postpartum depression, premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, seasonal affective disorder (SAD), bipolar disorder (or manic depressive disorder), mood disorder, and depressions caused by chronic medical conditions such as cancer or chronic pain, chemotherapy, chronic stress, and post traumatic stress disorders. In addition, patients suffering from any form of depression often experience anxiety. Various symptoms associated with anxiety include fear, panic, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, nausea, and headaches among others. Anxiety or any of the symptoms thereof may be treated by administering a compound as described herein.

Also provided herein are methods of treating a condition in treatment-resistant patients, e.g., patients suffering from a mental or central nervous system condition that does not, and/or has not, responded to adequate courses of at least one, or at least two, other compounds or therapeutics. For example, provided herein is a method of treating depression in a treatment resistant patient, comprising a) optionally identifying the patient as treatment resistant and b) administering an effective dose of a compound to said patient.

In some embodiments, a compound described herein may be used for acute care of a patient. For example, a compound may be administered to a patient to treat a particular episode (e.g., a severe episode) of a condition disclosed herein.

Also provided herein are combination therapies comprising a compound of the disclosure in combination with one or more other active agents. For example, a compound may be combined with one or more antidepressants, such as tricyclic antidepressants, MAO-I's, SSRI's, and double and triple uptake inhibitors and/or anxiolytic drugs. Exemplary drugs that may be used in combination with a compound include Anafranil, Adapin, Aventyl, Elavil, Norpramin, Pamelor, Pertofrane, Sinequan, Surmontil, Tofranil, Vivactil, Parnate, Nardil, Marplan, Celexa, Lexapro, Luvox, Paxil, Prozac, Zoloft, Wellbutrin, Effexor, Remeron, Cymbalta, Desyrel (trazodone), and Ludiomill. In another example, a compound may be combined with an antipsychotic medication. Non-limiting examples of antipsychotics include butyrophenones, phenothiazines, thioxanthenes, clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone, amisulpride, asenapine, paliperidone, iloperidone, zotepine, sertindole, lurasidone, and aripiprazole. It should be understood that combinations of a compound and one or more of the above therapeutics may be used for treatment of any suitable condition and are not limited to use as antidepressants or antipsychotics.

EXAMPLES

The following examples are provided for illustrative purposes only, and are not intended to limit the scope of the disclosure.

The following abbreviations may be used herein and have the indicated definitions: Ac is acetyl (—C(O)CH3), AIDS is acquired immune deficiency syndrome, Boc and BOC are tert-butoxycarbonyl, Boc2O is di-tert-butyl dicarbonate, Bn is benzyl, BOM-Cl is benzyloxymethyl chloride, CAN is ceric ammonium nitrate, Cbz is carboxybenzyl, DCC is N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, DCM is dichloromethane, DIAD is diisopropyl azodicarboxylate, DMAP is 4-dimethylaminopyridine, DMS is dimethyl sulfide, DIPEA is N,N-diisopropylethylamine, DMF is N,N-dimethylformamide, DMSO is dimethyl sulfoxide, DTAD is diethyl azodicarboxylate, EDC and EDCI are 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride, ESI is electrospray ionization, EtOAc is ethyl acetate, Gly is glycine, h is hour, HATU is 2-(7-aza-1H-benzotriazole-1-yl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate, HOBt is hydroxybenzotriazole; HIV is human immunodeficiency virus, HPLC is high performance liquid chromatography, LCMS is liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, LiHMDS is lithium hexamethyldisilazane, mCPBA is meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid, MTBE is methyl tert-butyl ether, NMDAR is N-methyl-d-apartate receptor, NMR is nuclear magnetic resonance, Pd/C is palladium on carbon, PMB is para-methoxybenzyl, RT is room temperature (e.g., from about 20° C. to about 25° C.), TBAF is tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride, TBS and TBDMS are tert-butyldimethylsilyl, TEA is triethylamine, TLC is thin layer chromatography, TFA is trifluoroacetic acid, and TPP is triphenylphosphine, THF is tetrahydrofuran.

A. Synthesis of Compounds

Synthesis of AA-rac, AA-1 & AA-2

Synthesis of 2-oxopiperidine-4-carboxylic acid (1)

To a stirred solution of 2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-4-carboxylic acid (SM1) (500 g, 3.59 mol) in methanol (10 L) was added palladium hydroxide (150 g) into a 20 L autoclave under N2 atmosphere. The reaction mixture was stirred under H2 atmosphere (5 kg/cm2) at RT for 18 h. After consumption of the starting material (monitored by LCMS), the reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of celite and concentrated under reduced pressure. Obtained reside was triturated with diethyl ether (2.5 L) and dried under vacuum to afford compound 1 (450 g, 85%) as off white solid. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 12.37 (s, 1H), 7.44 (s, 1H), 3.16-3.12 (m, 2H), 2.78-2.71 (m, 1H), 2.33-2.21 (m, 2H), 1.98-1.92 (m, 1H), 1.74-1.63 (m, 1H) LCMS (m/z): 144.2 [M++1].

Synthesis of methyl 2-oxopiperidine-4-carboxylate (2)

To a stirring solution of compound 1 (250 g, 1.74 mol) in MeOH (2.5 L) was added DCC (540 g, 2.62 mol) under nitrogen atmosphere at RT and stirred for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was diluted with diethyl ether (2.5 L) and allowed to stir for 2 h. The obtained solid (DCU) was filtered off, the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain a solid having desired compound along with some amounts of DCU and other impurities. This solid after another cycle of trituration with Et2O (2 L) was treated with MeOH:EtOAc (1:9, 3 L) for 3 h. The undissolved solid (DCU) was filtered off and the filtrate was evaporated to afford the desired compound (100 g, 36%) as an off white solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.53 (s, 1H), 3.63 (s, 3H), 3.18-3.09 (m, 2H), 2.94-2.82 (m, 1H), 2.86-2.74 (m, 2H), 2.04-1.97 (m, 1H), 1.79-1.69 (m, 1H). LCMS (m/z): 158.2 [M++1].

Synthesis of 2-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonane-1,6-dione (AA-rac, AA-1 & AA-2)

To a stirred solution of compound 2 (150 g, 0.955 mol) in dry THF (1.25 L) was added LiHMDS (1.0 M in THF, 1.9 L, 1.91 mol) slowly at −78° C. under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction temperature was raised to −20° C. and stirred for 1 h. Int-A (167 g, 0.955 mol) in THF (250 mL) was added drop wise at −78° C. The reaction mixture was brought to room temperature and stirred for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction was quenched with aqueous NH4Cl (1 L) at 0° C., added Et2O (1.5 L) and stirred for 10 minutes. Organic layer was separated and aqueous layer was extracted with 10% MeOH/CH2Cl2. The combined organic layer was washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to obtain racemic AA-rac (110 g, 40%) as an off white solid. Two more batches were repeated and obtained 125 g racemic AA-rac. All batches were combined to obtain racemic AA-rac (230 g) as an off white solid. AA-rac (200 g) was purified by chiral HPLC purification to obtain AA-1 (94 g) as a white solid and AA-2 (92 g) as a white solid.

AA-1: 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.56 (br s, 1H), 7.17 (d, J=8.7 Hz, 2H), 6.93 (d, J=8.7 Hz, 2H), 4.32-4.18 (m, 2H), 3.74 (s, 3H), 3.35-3.25 (m, 1H), 3.19-3.10 (m, 1H), 3.07 (d, J=5.2 Hz, 1H), 2.98 (d, J=5.8 Hz, 1H), 2.36 (s, 2H), 1.94-1.80 (m, 2H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 275.2 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.88%. Chiral HPLC: 100.00%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 3.5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: DCM:MeOH (50:50); A:B::60:40; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 13.840.

AA-2: 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.56 (br s, 1H), 7.17 (d, J=8.1 Hz, 2H), 6.93 (d, J=8.7 Hz, 2H), 4.31-4.19 (m, 2H), 3.74 (s, 3H), 3.35-3.26 (m, 1H), 3.18-3.10 (m, 1H), 3.07 (d, J=5.2 Hz, 1H), 2.98 (d, J=5.8 Hz, 1H), 2.36 (s, 2H), 1.96-1.80 (m, 2H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 275.2 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.42%. Chiral HPLC: 100.00%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 3.5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: DCM:MeOH (50:50); A:B::60:40; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 15.543.

Preparation of Int-A: Synthesis of 2-((4-methoxybenzyl)amino)acetonitrile (Int-A)

To a solution of 4-methoxy benzyl amine (750 g, 5.47 mol) in THF (4.5 L) was added TEA (1.1 Kg, 10.9 mol) and 2-bromoacetonitrile (788 g, 6.59 mol) at 0° C. and stirred for 16 h under nitrogen atmosphere. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction was quenched with water (2 L) and extracted with EtOAc (2×1.5 L). The combined organic layer was dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain crude compound which was purified by column chromatography by eluting with 40% EtOAc/n-hexane to afford Int-A (675 g, 70% yield with 96% purity by HPLC) as a liquid. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.21 (d, J=9.0 Hz, 2H), 6.86 (d, J=9.0 Hz, 2H), 3.78 (s, 3H), 3.72 (s, 2H), 3.56 (s, 2H), 2.93 (br s, 2H). LCMS (m/z): 177.1 [M++1].

Synthesis of CI & CJ

Synthesis of 2-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonane-1,6-dione (AA-rac)

The experimental procedure for the synthesis AA-rac has been captured under AA-rac, AA-1 & AA-2.

Synthesis of 2-(4-methoxybenzyl)-7-methyl-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonane-1,6-dione (CI & CJ)

To a suspension of NaH (60% in mineral oil, 262 mg, 10.94 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) was added AA-rac (1.5 g, 5.47 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) at 0° C. under nitrogen atmosphere and stirred for 10 minutes. Methyl iodide (0.45 mL, 7.11 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture and continued stirring at room temperature for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), water (50 mL) was added extracted with CH2Cl2 (2×200 mL). The combined organic layer was dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to obtain crude compound which was purified by column chromatography by eluting 3% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to afford racemic compound 3 (1.2 g, 76%) as pale yellow solid. The racemic compound 3 was resolved by chiral preparative HPLC purification to obtain CI (430 mg) as a white solid and CJ (440 mg) as a white solid.

CI: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.17 (d, J=8.7 Hz, 2H), 6.92 (d, J=8.7 Hz, 2H), 4.32-4.20 (m, 2H), 3.74 (s, 3H), 3.45-3.35 (m, 1H), 3.30-3.22 (m, 1H), 3.08 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 1H), 2.98 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 1H), 2.79 (s, 3H), 2.43 (s, 2H), 2.06-1.89 (m, 2H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 289.1 [M++1]. HPLC: 97.14%. Chiral HPLC: 100.00%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: DCM:MeOH (50:50); A:B::55:45; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 11.685.

CJ: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.17 (d, J=8.8 Hz, 2H), 6.92 (d, J=8.7 Hz, 2H), 4.31-4.19 (m, 2H), 3.74 (s, 3H), 3.44-3.37 (m, 1H), 3.30-3.23 (m, 1H), 3.08 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 1H), 2.98 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 1H), 2.79 (s, 3H), 2.43 (s, 2H), 2.04-1.90 (m, 2H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 289.1 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.91%. Chiral HPLC: 100.00%; Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: DCM:MeOH (50:50); A:B::55:45; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 21.608.

Synthesis of CK & CL

Synthesis of 2-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonane-1,6-dione (AA-rac)

The experimental procedure for the synthesis of AA-rac has been captured under AA-rac, AA-1 & AA-2.

Synthesis of 7-ethyl-2-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonane-1,6-dione (CK & CL)

To a suspension of NaH (60% in mineral oil, 350 mg, 7.28 mmol) in DMF (7 mL) was added AA-rac (1 g, 3.64 mmol) in DMF (3 mL) at 0° C. under nitrogen atmosphere and stirred for at room temperature 10 minutes. Again reaction mixture was cooled to 0° C., ethyl bromide (0.42 mL, 5.83 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture and continued stirring at room temperature for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), water (50 mL) was added extracted with EtOAc (2×200 mL). The combined organic layer was dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to obtain crude compound which was purified by column chromatography by eluting 3% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to afford racemic compound 3 (1.2 g, 91%) as a colorless liquid. The racemic compound 3 was resolved by chiral preparative HPLC to obtain CK (250 mg) as a thick syrup and CL (275 mg) as a thick syrup.

CK: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD-d4) δ 7.19 (d, J=8.8 Hz, 2H), 6.92 (d, J=8.8 Hz, 2H), 4.39-4.25 (m, 2H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 3.62-3.56 (m, 1H), 3.49-3.33 (m, 3H), 3.16 (d, J=5.9 Hz, 1H), 3.07 (d, J=5.9 Hz, 1H), 2.65-2.50 (m, 2H), 2.18-2.09 (m, 1H), 2.08-1.98 (m, 1H), 1.12 (t, J=7.2 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 303.9 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.55%. Chiral HPLC: 100.00%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: DCM:MeOH (50:50); A:B::55:45; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 10.984.

CL: 1H NMR (400 MHz, METHANOL-d4) δ 7.19 (d, J=8.7 Hz, 2H), 6.92 (d, J=8.8 Hz, 2H), 4.38-4.27 (m, 2H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 3.61-3.57 (m, 1H), 3.49-3.34 (m, 3H), 3.16 (d, J=5.9 Hz, 1H), 3.07 (d, J=5.9 Hz, 1H), 2.67-2.49 (m, 2H), 2.18-2.08 (m, 1H), 2.08-1.99 (m, 1H), 1.12 (t, J=7.2 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 303.9 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.20%. Chiral HPLC: 100.00%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: DCM:MeOH (50:50); A:B::55:45; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 14.849.

Synthesis of CS & CT

Synthesis of 2-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonane-1,6-dione (AA-rac)

The experimental procedure for the synthesis AA-rac has been captured under AA-rac, AA-1 & AA-2.

Synthesis of 7-isobutyl-2-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonane-1,6-dione (CS & CT)

To a suspension of NaH (60% in mineral oil, 630 mg, 0.262 mol) in DMF (10 mL) was added AA-rac (1.8 g, 0.006 mol) in DMF (5 mL) at 0° C. under nitrogen atmosphere and stirred for at room temperature 10 minutes. Again reaction mixture was cooled to 0° C., 1-iodo-2-methylpropane (3 g, 0.016 mol) was added to the reaction mixture and continued stirring at room temperature for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), water (50 mL) was added extracted with EtOAc (2×200 mL). The combined organic layer was dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to obtain crude compound which was purified by column chromatography by eluting 3% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to afford racemic compound 3 (725 mg) as pale yellow solid. The racemic compound 3 was separated by chiral preparative HPLC purification to obtain CS (230 mg) as white solid and CT (275 mg) as white solid.

CS: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.23-7.16 (m, 2H), 6.96-6.90 (m, 2H), 4.32 (d, J=2.0 Hz, 2H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 3.66-3.54 (m, 1H), 3.37-3.32 (m, 1H), 3.28-3.24 (m, 1H), 3.22-3.12 (m, 2H), 3.07 (d, J=5.8 Hz, 1H), 2.69-2.51 (m, 2H), 2.20-1.94 (m, 3H), 0.90 (t, J=6.3 Hz, 6H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 331.3 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.16%. Chiral HPLC: 100.00%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: DCM:MeOH (50:50); A:B::55:45; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 8.215.

CT: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.24-7.14 (m, 2H), 6.97-6.85 (m, 2H), 4.32 (d, J=2.3 Hz, 2H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 3.64-3.53 (m, 1H), 3.38-3.33 (m, 1H), 3.28-3.23 (m, 1H), 3.21-3.12 (m, 2H), 3.07 (d, J=5.8 Hz, 1H), 2.70-2.51 (m, 2H), 2.20-1.93 (m, 3H), 0.90 (t, J=6.3 Hz, 6H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 331.2 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.81%. Chiral HPLC: 100.00%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: DCM:MeOH (50:50); A:B::55:45; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 11.578.

Synthesis of CM & CN

Synthesis of methyl 2-oxopiperidine-4-carboxylate (2)

The experimental procedure for the synthesis of compound 2 has been captured under the synthesis of AA-rac, AA-1 & AA-2 (as compound 2).

Synthesis of methyl 2-thioxopiperidine-4-carboxylate (3)

To a stirred solution of compound 2 (6 g, 38.2 mmol) in toluene (60 mL) was added Lawesson's reagent (7.7 g, 19.1 mmol) under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction mixture was stirred at 100° C. for 2 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography by eluting with 40% EtOAc/n-hexane to obtain compound 3 (3.4 g, 51%) as a white solid. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 10.17 (br s, 1H), 3.63 (s, 3H), 3.27-3.21 (m, 2H), 2.95-2.88 (m, 1H), 2.87-2.80 (m, 1H), 2.80-2.72 (m, 1H), 2.05-1.98 (m, 1H), 1.80-1.70 (m, 1H). LCMS (m/z): 174.1 [M++1].

Synthesis of 2-(4-methoxybenzyl)-6-thioxo-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonan-1-one (CM & CN)

To a stirred solution of compound 3 (3.4 g, 19.6 mmol) in dry THF (30 mL) was added LiHMDS (1.0 M in THF, 39.3 mL, 39.3 mmol) slowly at −78° C. under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction temperature was raised to −20° C. and stirred for 1 h. Int-A (3.5 g, 19.6 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was added drop wise at −78° C. The reaction mixture was brought to room temperature and stirred for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction was quenched with ice water (20 mL) and extracted with 10% MeOH/CH2Cl2 (2×50 mL). The combined organic layer was dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography by eluting with 2% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to obtain racemic CM & CN (1.5 g, 26%) as an off white solid. The racemic CM & CN was resolved by chiral preparative HPLC purification to obtain CM (337 mg) as a white solid and CN (327 mg) as a white solid.

CM: 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 10.21 (br s, 1H), 7.17 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 2H), 6.93 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 2H), 4.25 (s, 2H), 3.74 (s, 3H), 3.44-3.35 (m, 1H), 3.31 (s, 2H), 3.29-3.23 (m, 1H), 3.06 (d, J=5.8 Hz, 1H), 2.97 (d, J=5.8 Hz, 1H), 2.89 (d, J=6.2 Hz, 2H), 2.02-1.87 (m, 2H) LCMS (ESI): m/z 290.9 [M++1]. HPLC: 97.58%. Chiral HPLC: 100.00%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 3.5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: DCM:EtOH (60:40); A:B::60:40; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 10.287.

CN: 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ=10.21 (br s, 1H), 7.17 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 2H), 6.93 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 2H), 4.25 (s, 2H), 3.74 (s, 3H), 3.44-3.36 (m, 1H), 3.30-3.23 (m, 1H), 3.06 (d, J=5.7 Hz, 1H), 2.97 (d, J=5.7 Hz, 1H), 2.94-2.83 (m, 2H), 2.02-1.86 (m, 2H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 290.9 [M++1]. HPLC: 97.00%. Chiral HPLC: 99.23%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 3.5 μm); Mobile Phase A:0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: DCM:EtOH (60:40). A:B::60:40; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 12.201.

Preparation of Int-A: Synthesis of 2-((4-methoxybenzyl)amino)acetonitrile (Int-A)

The experimental procedure for the synthesis Int-A has been captured under AA-rac, AA-1 & AA-2 (as Int-A).

Synthesis of CO, CP, CO & CR

Synthesis of 2-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonane-1,6-dione (AA-rac)

The experimental procedure for the synthesis AA-rac has been captured under the synthesis of AA-rac, AA-1 & AA-2.

Synthesis of 2-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonane-1,6-dithione (CO & CP)

To a stirred solution of AA-rac (5 g, 18.2 mmol) in toluene (50 mL) was added Lawesson's reagent (7.3 g, 18.1 mmol) under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 2 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by CombiFlash chromatography to obtain mixture of CO & CP (1.5 g, 27%) as a white solid and CQ & CR (450 mg, 9%) as a white solid. Racemic mixture of CO and CP (1.5 g, 27%) was separated by chiral preparative HPLC purification to obtain CO (183 mg) as a white solid and of CP (166 mg) as a white solid.

CO: 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 10.24 (br s, 1H), 7.24 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 2H), 6.95 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 2H), 4.66-4.52 (m, 2H), 3.75 (s, 3H), 3.64 (d, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 3.58 (d, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 3.56-3.52 (m, 1H), 3.29-3.23 (m, 1H), 2.85 (d, J=1.7 Hz, 2H), 1.96-1.81 (m, 2H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 307.9 [M++1]. HPLC: 97.51%. Chiral HPLC: 100.00%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 3.5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: DCM:IPA (60:40); A:B::65:35; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 12.651.

CP: 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 10.24 (br s, 1H), 7.24 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 2H), 6.95 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 2H), 4.66-4.51 (m, 2H), 3.75 (s, 3H), 3.64 (d, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 3.58 (d, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 3.55-3.51 (m, 1H), 3.29-3.22 (m, 1H), 2.85 (s, 2H), 1.97-1.81 (m, 2H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 307.9 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.25%. Chiral HPLC: 100.00%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 3.5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: DCM:IPA (60:40). A:B::65:35; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 15.825.

Preparation of Int-A: Synthesis of 2-((4-methoxybenzyl)amino)acetonitrile (Int-A)

The experimental procedure for the synthesis Int-A has been captured under AA-rac, AA-1 & AA-2 (as Int-A).

Synthesis of CU & CV

Synthesis of methyl 2-oxopiperidine-4-carboxylate (2)

The experimental procedure for the synthesis of compound 2 has been captured under the synthesis of AA-rac, AA-1 & AA-2 (as compound 2).

Synthesis of 2-benzyl-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonane-1,6-dione (CU & CV)

To a stirred solution of compound 2 (3.5 g, 0.022 mol) in dry THF (40 mL) was added LiHMDS (1.0 M in THF, 44 mL, 0.044 mol) slowly at −78° C. under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction temperature was raised to −20° C. and stirred for 1 h. Int-A (3.2 g, 0.022 mol) in THF (10 mL) was added drop wise at −78° C. The reaction mixture was brought to room temperature and stirred for 5 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was cooled to 0° C. Reaction mixture was quenched with ice water and extracted with EtOAc (2×50 mL). The combined organic layer was dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to obtain crude which was purified by flash chromatography to obtain racemic mixture of CU & CV (1.5 g, 27%) as white solid. Racemic mixture of CU & CV (650 mg) was separated by chiral preparative HPLC purification to afford CU (191 mg) as white solid and CV (191 mg) as white solid.

CU: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.57 (br s, 1H), 7.41-7.34 (m, 2H), 7.33-7.22 (m, 3H), 4.40-4.27 (m, 2H), 3.30-3.27 (m, 1H), 3.20-3.14 (m, 1H), 3.12 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 1H), 3.03 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 1H), 2.38 (s, 2H), 1.98-1.82 (m, 2H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 245.0 [M++1]. HPLC: 97.50%; Chiral HPLC: 100.00%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: DCM:MeOH (10:90); A:B::65:35; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 12.219.

CV: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.57 (br s, 1H), 7.41-7.34 (m, 2H), 7.32-7.22 (m, 3H), 4.40-4.26 (m, 2H), 3.30-3.27 (m, 1H), 3.19-3.14 (m, 1H), 3.12 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 1H), 3.03 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 1H), 2.38 (s, 2H), 1.99-1.81 (m, 2H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 245.0 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.76%. Chiral HPLC: 98.55%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: DCM:MeOH (10:90); A:B::65:35; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 14.153.

Synthesis of 2-(benzylamino)acetonitrile (Int-A)

To a solution of benzyl amine (SM2) (10 g, 0.093 mol) in THF (60 mL) was added triethylamine (26 mL, 0.186 mol) and stirred for 10 minutes under nitrogen atmosphere. 2-bromoacetonitrile (8 mL, 0.112 mol) was added slowly at 0° C. and stirred at room temperature for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction was quenched with ice water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2×500 mL). The combined organic layer was washed brine, dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to obtain crude compound which was purified by column chromatography by eluting 30% EtOAc/n-hexane to afford Int-A (3.5 g, 26%) as a liquid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.36-7.30 (m, 4H), 7.29-7.22 (m, 1H), 3.75 (d, J=5.9 Hz, 2H), 3.57 (d, J=7.3 Hz, 2H), 3.03 (quin, J=6.5 Hz, 1H). LCMS (m/z): 147.1 [M++1].

Synthesis of CW & CX

Synthesis of 2-benzyl-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonane-1,6-dione (CU & CV)

The experimental procedure for the synthesis of a racemic mixture of CU & CV has been captured under CU & CV.

Synthesis of 2-benzyl-7-methyl-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonane-1,6-dione (CW & CX)

To a suspension of NaH (60% in mineral oil, 820 mg, 20.4 mmol) in DMF (12 mL) was added racemic CU & CV (2 g, 8.19 mmol) in DMF (3 mL) at 0° C. under nitrogen atmosphere and stirred for at room temperature 1 h. Again reaction mixture was cooled to 0° C., methyl iodide (1.5 mL, 24.6 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture and continued stirring at room temperature for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), water (12 mL) was added extracted with EtOAc (2×500 mL). The combined organic layer was dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to obtain crude compound which was purified by column chromatography by eluting 5% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to afford mixture of CW & CX (1.5 g) as thick syrup, which was purified by reverse phase preparative HPLC purification to obtain mixture CW & CX (460 mg). This was separated by chiral preparative HPLC purification to obtain CW (137 mg) as semi solid and CX (159 mg) as thick syrup.

CW: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.41-7.22 (m, 5H), 4.40-4.26 (m, 2H), 3.46-3.36 (m, 1H), 3.31-3.25 (m, 1H), 3.13 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 1H), 3.02 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 1H), 2.80 (s, 3H), 2.46 (s, 2H), 2.08-1.91 (m, 2H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 258.9 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.58%. Chiral HPLC: 100.00%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: DCM:MeOH (10:90); A:B::60:40; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 11.305.

CX: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.41-7.21 (m, 5H), 4.39-4.25 (m, 2H), 3.47-3.37 (m, 1H), 3.31-3.25 (m, 1H), 3.13 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 1H), 3.02 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 1H), 2.80 (s, 3H), 2.46 (s, 2H), 2.09-1.91 (m, 2H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 259.1 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.76%. Chiral HPLC: 98.04%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: DCM:MeOH (10:90); A:B::60:40; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 22.235.

Preparation of Int-A

Synthesis of 2-(benzylamino)acetonitrile (Int-A)

The experimental procedure for the synthesis racemic mixture of Int-A has been captured under CU & CV.

Synthesis of CY & CZ

Synthesis of 2-benzyl-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonane-1,6-dione (CU & CV)

The experimental procedure for the synthesis of a racemic mixture of CU & CV has been captured under CU & CV.

Synthesis of 2-benzyl-7-ethyl-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonane-1,6-dione (CY & CZ)

To a suspension of NaH (60% in mineral oil, 820 mg, 20.4 mmol) in DMF (8 mL) was added racemic CU & CV (2 g, 8.19 mmol) in DMF (2 mL) at 0° C. under nitrogen atmosphere and stirred for at room temperature 1 h. Again reaction mixture was cooled to 0° C., ethyl bromide (0.9 mL, 13.1 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture and continued stirring at room temperature for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), water (12 mL) was added extracted with EtOAc (2×500 mL). The combined organic layer was dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to obtain crude compound which was purified by column chromatography by eluting 2% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to afford mixture of CY & CZ (1.5 g, 67%) as off white solid, which was separated by chiral preparative HPLC purification to obtain CY (489 mg) as white solid and CZ (443 mg) as white solid.

CY: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.41-7.34 (m, 2H), 7.32-7.22 (m, 3H), 4.39-4.27 (m, 2H), 3.49-3.39 (m, 1H), 3.31-3.24 (m, 3H), 3.13 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 1H), 3.02 (d, J=5.5 Hz, 1H), 2.45 (s, 2H), 2.07-1.90 (m, 2H), 1.00 (t, J=7.2 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 272.9 [M++1]. HPLC: 95.23%. Chiral HPLC: 98.54%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm). Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: DCM:MeOH (10:90); A:B::65:35; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 13.281.

CZ: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.42-7.34 (m, 2H), 7.33-7.22 (m, 3H), 4.39-4.27 (m, 2H), 3.48-3.39 (m, 1H), 3.30-3.24 (m, 3H), 3.13 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 1H), 3.02 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 1H), 2.45 (s, 2H), 2.08-1.90 (m, 2H), 1.00 (t, J=7.1 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 273.0 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.40%. Chiral HPLC: 99.59%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm). Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: DCM:MeOH (10:90); A:B::65:35; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 21.461.

Preparation of Int-A

Synthesis of 2-(benzylamino)acetonitrile (Int-A)

The experimental procedure for the synthesis racemic mixture of Int-A has been captured under CU & CV.

Synthesis of CA & CB

Synthesis of methyl 2-oxopiperidine-4-carboxylate (2)

The experimental procedure for the synthesis compound 2 has been captured under the synthesis of AA-rac, AA-1 & AA-2 (as compound 2).

Synthesis of methyl 4-((benzyloxy)methyl)-2-oxopiperidine-4-carboxylate (3)

To a stirring solution of compound 2 (30 g, 0.191 mol) in THF (300 mL) was added LiHMDS (1M in THF, 764 mL, 0.764 mol) at −78° C. under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm to −30° C. and stirred for 1 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to −78° C. and BOM-Cl (44.7 g, 0.286 mol) was added. The reaction mixture was allowed to stir at −78° C. for 30 minutes, brought to room temperature and continued stirring for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was cooled to 0° C., quenched with aqueous NH4Cl (200 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2×1 L). The combined organic layer was dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography by eluting 2% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to afford compound 3 (22 g, 42%) as a thick syrup. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.44 (br s, 1H), 7.38-7.33 (m, 2H), 7.32-7.24 (m, 3H), 4.51-4.41 (m, 2H), 3.63 (s, 3H), 3.60 (d, J=8.8 Hz, 1H), 3.46 (d, J=8.8 Hz, 1H), 3.17-3.08 (m, 1H), 3.03-2.93 (m, 1H), 2.56 (br d, J=17.0 Hz, 1H), 2.15 (d, J=17.0 Hz, 1H), 1.92-1.83 (m, 1H), 1.81-1.73 (m, 1H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 277.9 [M++1].

Synthesis of 4-((benzyloxy)methyl)-2-oxopiperidine-4-carboxylic acid (4)

To a stirring solution of 3 (22 g, 0.079 mol) in THF, MeOH and H2O (300 mL, 4:1:1), LiOH.H2O (16.6 g, 0.397 mol) was added at room temperature and stirred for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was diluted with water (500 mL) extracted with Et2O (2×1 L). Aqueous layer was cooled to 0° C. and pH˜2 was adjusted with citric acid. Solid material was filtered and dried under vacuum to afford 4 (14 g, 67%) as an off white solid. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.37 (br s, 1H), 7.35-7.23 (m, 5H), 4.46 (s, 2H), 3.57 (d, J=8.8 Hz, 1H), 3.43 (br d, J=8.8 Hz, 1H), 3.17-3.04 (m, 1H), 3.06-2.98 (m, 1H), 2.53 (s, 1H), 2.08 (d, J=17.6 Hz, 1H), 1.86-1.81 (m, 1H), 1.77-1.66 (m, 1H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 264.0 [M++1].

Synthesis of 4-(hydroxymethyl)-2-oxopiperidine-4-carboxylic acid (5)

To a stirring solution of crude compound 4 (14 g, 0.053 mol) in MeOH (400 mL) was added 10% Pd/C (50% wet, 7 g) at room temperature and stirred under H2 atmosphere (balloon pressure) for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of celite and the pad was washed with MeOH (500 mL). Obtained filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude material was triturated with Et2O and dried under vacuum to afford compound 5 (6 g, 65%) as an off white solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.34 (br s, 1H), 3.51 (d, J=10.4 Hz, 1H), 3.40 (d, J=10.4 Hz, 1H), 3.19-3.10 (m, 1H), 3.09-2.98 (m, 1H), 2.48-2.41 (m, 2H), 2.02 (d, J=17.1 Hz, 1H), 1.87-1.77 (m, 1H), 1.69-1.58 (m, 1H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 174.2 [M++1].

Synthesis of benzyl O-benzyl-N-(4-(hydroxymethyl)-2-oxopiperidine-4-carbonyl)-L-threoninate (6)

To a stirring solution of compound 5 (8 g, 0.046 mol) in CH2Cl2 (300 mL) were added DIPEA (25.5 mL, 0.138 mol), HATU (26.3 g, 0.069 mol) and Int-D (18.6 g, 0.055 mol) at 0° C. under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction mixture was brought to room temperature and stirred for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was diluted with CH2Cl2 (200 mL) and washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3, saturated aqueous citric acid and brine. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography by eluting 2% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to obtain compound 6 (10 g, 50%) as a light yellow syrup. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.16-8.12 (m, 1H), 7.39-7.18 (m, 10H), 5.15-5.08 (m, 2H), 4.61-4.47 (m, 2H), 4.32 (d, J=11.5 Hz, 1H), 4.15-4.05 (m, 1H), 3.57-3.44 (m, 2H), 3.39-3.36 (m, 1H), 3.21-2.97 (m, 2H), 2.45-2.33 (m, 1H), 2.05-1.98 (m, 1H), 1.92-1.81 (m, 2H), 1.79-1.63 (m, 1H), 1.09 (t, J=7.1 Hz, 3H). LCMS (m/z): 455.2 [M++1].

Synthesis of benzyl (2S,3R)-3-(benzyloxy)-2-(1,6-dioxo-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonan-2-yl)butanoate (7)

To a solution of PPh3 (11.54 g, 0.044 mol) and DIAD (8.65 mL, 0.044 mol) in THF (200 mL) was stirred at room temperature under nitrogen atmosphere for 20 minutes. Then compound 6 (10 g, 0.022 mol) was added to the reaction mixture and allowed to stir 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was quenched with ice and concentrated under reduced pressure. Obtained crude material was purified by silica gel column chromatography eluting 2% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to afford compound 7 (8 g, 83%) as an off white solid. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.66-7.60 (m, 2H), 7.58-7.52 (m, 3H), 7.43-7.37 (m, 2H), 7.35-7.23 (m, 3H), 7.20 (br d, J=7.1 Hz, 1H), 5.24-5.11 (m, 2H), 4.64-4.53 (m, 2H), 4.27 (d, J=12.1 Hz, 1H), 4.22-0.416 (m, 1H), 3.53 (d, J=5.5 Hz, 1H), 3.47-3.41 (m, 1H), 3.35 (br d, J=4.9 Hz, 1H), 3.26 (br d, J=5.5 Hz, 1H), 2.46-2.29 (m, 2H), 1.96-1.77 (m, 2H), 1.07 (d, J=5.9 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 437.2 [M++1].

Synthesis of (2S,3R)-2-(1,6-dioxo-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonan-2-yl)-3-hydroxybutanoic acid (8)

To a stirring solution of crude compound 7 (8 g, 0.018 mol) in MeOH (500 mL) was added 10% Pd/C (50% wet, 5 g) at room temperature and stirred under H2 atmosphere (balloon pressure) for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of celite and the pad was washed with MeOH (500 mL). Obtained filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude material was triturated with Et2O and dried under vacuum to afford compound 8 (3 g, 65%) as an off white solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 12.87 (br s, 1H), 7.59 (br s, 1H), 4.86-4.72 (m, 1H), 4.63-4.56 (m, 1H), 4.40-4.33 (m, 1H), 4.24-4.14 (m, 1H), 4.12-3.98 (m, 1H), 3.49 (br d, J=6.0 Hz, 1H), 3.45-3.25 (m, 1H), 2.44-2.32 (m, 2H), 1.97-1.79 (m, 2H), 1.03 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 255.0 [M++1].

Synthesis of (2S,3R)—N-benzyl-2-(1,6-dioxo-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonan-2-yl)-3-hydroxybutanamide (CA & CB)

To a stirring solution of compound 8 (1.5 g, 5.85 mmol) in CH2Cl2 (150 mL) were added DIPEA (3 mL, 17.4 mmol), HATU (3.3 g, 8.68 mmol) and benzylamine (752 mg, 7.02 mmol) at 0° C. under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction mixture was brought to room temperature and stirred for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to afford crude compound which was purified by column chromatography by eluting 5% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to obtain racemic CA & CB (1.55 g,) as a white solid and was separated by chiral HPLC purification to obtain CA (300 mg) as white solid and CB (300 mg) as a white solid.

CA: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.62 (br t, J=5.9 Hz, 1H), 7.56 (br s, 1H), 7.36-7.28 (m, 2H), 7.26-7.20 (m, 3H), 4.99 (br d, J=4.2 Hz, 1H), 4.28 (d, J=5.8 Hz, 2H), 4.08-3.94 (m, 2H), 3.44 (d, J=5.9 Hz, 1H), 3.34-3.32 (m, 1H), 3.30-3.28 (m, 1H), 3.24-3.10 (m, 1H), 2.39-2.26 (m, 2H), 1.97-1.88 (m, 2H), 1.05 (d, J=5.8 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 346.0 [M++1]. HPLC: 96.16%. Chiral HPLC: 95.45%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase B: DCM:EtOH:IPA (90:05:05 &0.1% DEA); Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 7.971.

CB: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.63 (br t, J=5.8 Hz, 1H), 7.55 (s, 1H), 7.34-7.28 (m, 2H), 7.27-7.21 (m, 3H), 5.02 (br s, 1H), 4.34-4.21 (m, 2H), 4.05-3.93 (m, 2H), 3.39 (s, 1H), 3.33 (br s, 1H), 3.29-3.26 (m, 1H), 3.21-3.11 (m, 1H), 2.44-2.32 (m, 2H), 1.94-1.80 (m, 2H), 1.04 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 346.1 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.41%. Chiral HPLC: 95.23%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase B: DCM:EtOH:IPA (90:05:05 &0.1% DEA); Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 9.413.

Preparation of Int-D

Synthesis of (tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-threonine (A)

To a solution of SM-2 (50 g, 0.420 mol) in 1,4-dioxane and water (500 mL, 1:1) was added NaHCO3 (133 g, 1.255 mol) portion wise at RT and stirred for 15 min. Then Boc2O (144 mL, 0.629 mol) was added drop wise to the reaction mixture and stirring was continued at RT for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure and obtained residue was diluted with water (200 mL) and acidified by using 1N HCl (pH˜2). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2×300 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (1×200 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound A (80 g, 87%) as a colorless syrup. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 12.5 (br s, 1H), 6.30 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 1H), 4.50 (br s, 1H), 4.05-4.02 (m, 1H), 3.88-3.86 (m, 1H), 1.39 (s, 9H), 1.08 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 3H). LCMS (m/z): 218.1 [M+−1].

Synthesis of O-benzyl-N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-threonine (B)

To a stirring solution of compound A (80 g, 0.365 mol) in DMF (800 mL) was added 60% NaH (22 g, 0.913 mol) portion wise at −20° C. under N2 atmosphere and stirred for 2 h. Benzyl bromide (52 mL, 0.438 mol) drop wise and the reaction mixture was stirred at 0° C. for 4 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was quenched with ice cold water and extracted with diethyl ether (2×500 mL). Aqueous layer acidified by using 1N HCl (pH˜2). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2×1 L). Separated organic layer washed with brine solution, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound B (84 g, crude) as a thick syrup. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 12.64 (br s, 1H), 7.34-7.25 (m, 5H), 6.46 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 1H), 4.53 (d, J=11.5 Hz, 1H), 4.39 (d, J=12.0 Hz, 1H), 4.00-3.98 (m, 2H), 1.39 (s, 9H), 1.15 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 3H).

Synthesis of benzyl O-benzyl-N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-threoninate (C)

To a stirring solution of compound B (78 g, 0.252 mol) in DMF (780 mL) was added K2CO3 (87 g, 0.631 mol) at RT under N2 atmosphere and stirred for 30 min. Benzyl bromide (45 mL, 0.378 mol) was added drop wise at RT and the reaction mixture was stirred for 16 h. The reaction mixture was quenched with water (2 L) and extracted with diethyl ether (2×1 L). The separated organic layer was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude material was purified by silica gel column chromatography eluting with 10% EtOAc/n-hexane to afford compound C (68 g, 68%) as a yellow syrup. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.37-7.18 (m, 10H), 6.81 (d, J=9.0 Hz, 1H), 5.08 (s, 2H), 4.49 (d, J=12.0 Hz, 1H), 4.32 (d, J=12.0 Hz, 1H), 4.25-4.22 (m, 1H), 4.01-3.98 (m, 1H), 1.38 (s, 9H), 1.15 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 3H). MS (ESI): m/z 399.4 [M+].

Synthesis of benzyl O-benzyl-L-threoninate hydrochloride (D)

To a solution of compound C (68 g, 0.170 mol) in diethyl ether (500 mL) was added 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (130 mL, 0.511 mol) and stirred at RT for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude material was dissolved in diethylether (1 L) and vigorously stirred at RT for 1 h. Obtained solid was filtered off and dried under reduced pressure to afford compound D (50 g, 87%) as a white solid (HCl salt). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 8.59 (s, 2H), 7.50-7.25 (m, 10H), 5.23 (d, J=12.5 Hz, 1H), 5.16 (d, J=12.5 Hz, 1H), 4.54 (d, J=12.0 Hz, 1H), 4.36 (d, J=12.0 Hz, 1H), 4.12-4.09 (m, 1H), 4.09-3.99 (m, 1H), 1.29 (d, J=6.5 Hz, 3H).

Synthesis of CC & CD

Synthesis of 4-(hydroxymethyl)-2-oxopiperidine-4-carboxylic acid (5)

The experimental procedure for the synthesis compound 5 has been captured under the synthesis of CA & CB (as compound 5).

Synthesis of N-((2S,3R)-1-(dimethylamino)-3-hydroxy-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)-2-oxopiperidine-4-carboxamide (6)

To a stirring solution of compound 5 (3 g, 0.017 mol) in CH2Cl2 (150 mL) were added DIPEA (9 mL, 0.051 mol), HATU (9.8 g, 0.025 mol) and Int-C (2.7 g, 0.019 mol) at 0° C. under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction mixture was brought to room temperature and stirred for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was diluted with water (100 mL) and extracted with CH2Cl2 (2×200 mL). The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography by eluting 10% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to obtain compound 6 (2.2 g, 42%) as a thick syrup. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.30 (d, J=3.8 Hz, 1H), 7.29-7.34 (m, 1H), 7.13-7.09 (m, 1H), 5.37 (br s, 1H), 4.87 (br s, 1H), 4.75-4.62 (m, 1H), 3.94-3.81 (m, 1H), 3.47 (br d, J=15.4 Hz, 2H), 2.83 (s, 6H), 2.45-2.37 (m, 1H), 2.04-1.83 (m, 3H), 1.75-1.63 (m, 1H), 1.10-0.94 (m, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 302.2 [M++1].

Synthesis of (2S,3R)-2-(1,6-dioxo-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonan-2-yl)-3-hydroxy-N,N-dimethylbutanamide (CC & CD)

To a solution of PPh3 (4.78 g, 18.2 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added DIAD (3.59 mL, 18.2 mmol) at room temperature under nitrogen atmosphere and the reaction mixture was stirred for 20 minutes. Compound 6 (2.2 g, 7.31 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (20 mL) was added to the reaction mixture and allowed to stir for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was quenched with ice and concentrated under reduced pressure.

Obtained crude material was purified by silica gel column chromatography eluting 5% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to afford racemic mixture of CC & CD (1.6 g), and was resolved by reverse phase HPLC purification to obtain CC (105 mg) as a white solid and CD (108 mg) as a white solid.

CC: 1H NMR (400 MHz, D2O) δ 4.70 (d, J=7.2 Hz, 1H), 4.23-4.18 (m, 1H), 3.61 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 1H), 3.57-3.46 (m, 2H), 3.45-3.37 (m, 1H), 3.16 (s, 3H), 2.97 (s, 3H), 2.65 (d, J=2.3 Hz, 2H), 2.18-2.10 (m, 2H), 1.22 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 284.2 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.41%. Chiral HPLC: 100.00%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: DCM; Mobile Phase B: EtOH:IPA (50:50); A:B::85:15; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 6.775.

CD: 1H NMR (400 MHz, D2O) δ 4.71 (d, J=7.0 Hz, 1H), 4.24 (m, 1H), 3.58-3.47 (m, 3H), 3.45-3.36 (m, 1H), 3.18 (s, 3H), 2.98 (s, 3H), 2.71 (d, J=1.8 Hz, 2H), 2.16-2.02 (m, 2H), 1.22 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 284.3 [M++1]. HPLC: 98.28%. Chiral HPLC: 100.00%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: DCM; Mobile Phase B: EtOH:IPA (50:50). A:B::85:15; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 10.621.

Preparation of Int-C

Synthesis of ((benzyloxy)carbonyl)-L-threonine (A)

To a solution of L-threonine (20 g, 0.17 mol) in 1,4-dioxane and water (1:1, 200 mL) was added NaOH (27.35 g, 0.683 mol) followed by drop wise addition of CbzC (50% solution in toluene, 87 mL, 0.256 mol) at 0° C. and stirred at room temperature for 16 h. The reaction was diluted with cold water (100 mL) and washed with EtOAc (100 mL). The aqueous layer acidified with 1N HCl solution and extracted with EtOAc (3×100 mL). The organic layer was washed with brine solution (100 mL) and dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound A (32 g, 75%) as a white solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 12.64 (br s, 1H), 7.40-7.28 (m, 5H), 6.95 (d, J=8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.03 (s, 2H), 4.62-4.53 (m, 1H), 4.12-4.00 (m, 1H), 3.98-3.93 (m, 1H), 1.09 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 254.1 [M++1].

Synthesis of benzyl ((2S,3R)-1-(dimethylamino)-3-hydroxy-1-oxobutan-2-yl)carbamate (B)

To a solution of A (10 g, 39.52 mmol) in CH2Cl2 (100 mL) was added HOBt (8 g, 59.23 mmol), EDC.HCl (11.35 g, 59.23 mmol), dimethylamine hydrochloride (6.44 g, 79.05 mmol) and DIPEA (22 mL, 118.5 mmol) at 0° C. under nitrogen atmosphere and stirred at room temperature for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was quenched with water (100 mL) and extracted with DCM (2×200 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (50 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by Combi-Flash chromatography eluting with 60% EtOAc/n-hexane to afford compound B (9 g, 81%) as a white solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.40-7.27 (m, 5H), 7.04 (br d, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 5.08-4.97 (m, 2H), 4.72 (d, J=5.9 Hz, 1H), 4.41 (dd, J=5.4, 8.4 Hz, 1H), 3.86-3.78 (m, 1H), 3.07 (s, 3H), 2.83 (s, 3H), 1.03 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 281.1 [M++1].

Synthesis of (2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-N,N-dimethylbutanamide (Int-C)

To a solution of B (11 g, 39.28 mmol) in MeOH (100 mL), 10% Pd/C (50% wet, 4 g) was added at room temperature and stirred under H2 atmosphere (balloon) for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of celite and washed with MeOH (50 mL). The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to afford Int-C (5 g, 87%) as a white solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 3.57 (quin, J=6.2 Hz, 1H), 3.46 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 1H), 3.03 (s, 3H), 2.83 (s, 3H), 0.99 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 147.0 [M++1].

Synthesis of DA & DB

Synthesis of 4-((benzyloxy)methyl)-2-oxopiperidine-4-carboxylic acid (4)

The experimental procedure for the synthesis compound 4 has been captured under the synthesis of CA & CB (as compound 4).

Synthesis of 4-((benzyloxy)methyl)-N-((2S,3R)-3-hydroxy-1-(methylamino)-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-2-oxopiperidine-4-carboxamide (5)

To a stirring solution of compound 4 (5 g, 0.018 mol) in CH2Cl2 (100 mL) were added (2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-N-methylbutanamide (Int-D, 2.3 g, 0.031 mol), DIPEA (10.3 mL, 0.079 mol) and HATU (12.1 g, 0.031 mol) at 0° C. under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction mixture was brought to room temperature and stirred for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), volatiles were removed under reduced pressure to afford crude compound which was purified by column chromatography by eluting 10% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to obtain compound 5 (6.5 g, 95%) as white solid. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.61-7.46 (m, 2H), 7.44-7.24 (m, 6H), 4.87 (dd, J=5.5, 9.0 Hz, 1H), 4.58-4.47 (m, 2H), 4.22-4.11 (m, 1H), 4.04-3.91 (m, 1H), 3.65-3.48 (m, 2H), 3.13-3.00 (m, 2H), 2.55-2.51 (m, 4H), 2.09-1.97 (m, 2H), 1.84-1.71 (m, 1H), 0.99 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 3H). LCMS (m/z): 378.0 [M++1].

Synthesis of N-((2S,3R)-3-hydroxy-1-(methylamino)-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)-2-oxopiperidine-4-carboxamide (6)

To a stirred solution of compound 5 (6 g, 0.015 mol) in MeOH (60 mL), 10% Pd (OH)2/C (50% wet, 3 g) was added at room temperature and stirred for 16 h under H2 atmosphere (balloon pressure). After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of celite and the pad was washed with MeOH (500 mL). Obtained filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude material was triturated with Et2O and dried under vacuum to afford 6 (4 g, 93%) as off white solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ=7.65-7.54 (m, 2H), 7.49 (d, J=8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.34-7.24 (m, 1H), 5.74 (br s, 1H), 4.15-4.05 (m, 2H), 4.04-3.96 (m, 1H), 3.64-3.52 (m, 1H), 3.12-2.99 (m, 2H), 2.58 (d, J=4.6 Hz, 3H), 2.48-2.40 (m, 1H), 2.08-1.98 (m, 1H), 1.97-1.84 (m, 1H), 1.81-1.62 (m, 1H), 1.01 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 286.0 [M+−1].

Synthesis of (2S,3R)-2-(1,6-dioxo-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonan-2-yl)-3-hydroxy-N-methylbutanamide (DA & DB)

To a solution of PPh3 (10.95 g, 0.041 mol) and DTAD (9.61 g, 0.041 mol) in THF (40 mL) was stirred at room temperature under nitrogen atmosphere for 15 minutes. Then compound 6 (6 g, 0.020 mol) in THF (10 mL) was added to the reaction mixture and allowed to stir 2 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was quenched with ice water and concentrated under reduced pressure. Obtained crude material was purified by silica gel column chromatography eluting 10% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to obtain mixture of DA & DB (1.1 g, 19%) as white solid, which was separated by normal phase purification followed by chiral HPLC purification to obtain DA (60 mg) as hygroscopic white solid and DB (80 mg) as hygroscopic white solid.

DA: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.79-7.71 (m, 1H), 7.45 (s, 1H), 5.13 (t, J=5.3 Hz, 1H), 3.64-3.55 (m, 1H), 3.47 (dd, J=5.1, 10.7 Hz, 1H), 3.18-3.07 (m, 3H), 2.92-2.83 (m, 1H), 2.63 (d, J=4.6 Hz, 3H), 2.58-2.52 (m, 1H), 2.13 (d, J=17.3 Hz, 1H), 2.04-1.91 (m, 1H), 1.83-1.74 (m, 1H), 1.20 (d, J=5.5 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 270.1 [M++1]. HPLC: 95.39%. Chiral HPLC: 97.28%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: EtOH:MeOH (50:50); A:B::60:40; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 8.716.

DB: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.78 (br d, J=4.6 Hz, 1H), 7.41 (s, 1H), 5.10 (t, J=5.3 Hz, 1H), 3.58 (dd, J=5.4, 10.7 Hz, 1H), 3.46 (dd, J=5.3, 10.7 Hz, 1H), 3.17-3.05 (m, 3H), 2.93-2.83 (m, 1H), 2.63 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 3H), 2.55 (dd, J=0.9, 17.2 Hz, 1H), 2.15 (d, J=17.3 Hz, 1H), 2.00-1.88 (m, 1H), 1.83-1.72 (m, 1H), 1.20 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 270.1 [M++1]. HPLC: 96.43%. Chiral HPLC: 99.54%. Column: CHIRALPAK IC (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: EtOH:MeOH (50:50) A:B::60:40; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 10.289.

Preparation of Int-D

Synthesis of ((benzyloxy)carbonyl)-L-threonine (B)

To a solution of L-threonine (20 g, 0.17 mol) in 1,4-dioxane and water (1:1, 200 mL) was added NaOH (27.35 g, 0.683 mol) followed by drop wise addition of CbzCl (50% solution in toluene, 87 mL, 0.256 mol) at 0° C. and stirred at room temperature for 16 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with cold water (100 mL) and washed with EtOAc (100 mL). The aqueous layer was acidified with aqueous 1N HCl and extracted with EtOAc (3×100 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (100 mL) and dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound B (32 g, 75%) as a white solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 12.64 (br s, 1H), 7.40-7.28 (m, 5H), 6.95 (d, J=8.9 Hz, 1H), 5.03 (s, 2H), 4.62-4.53 (m, 1H), 4.12-4.00 (m, 1H), 3.98-3.93 (m, 1H), 1.09 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 254.1 [M++1].

Synthesis of benzyl ((2S,3R)-3-hydroxy-1-(methylamino)-1-oxobutan-2-yl)carbamate (C)

To a solution of B (6 g, 23.71 mmol) in CH2Cl2 (100 mL) were added HOBt (4.8 g, 35.57 mmol), EDC.HCl (6.83 g, 35.57 mmol), methylamine (2M in THF) (23.7 mL, 47.43 mmol) and DIPEA (13 mL, 71.14 mmol) at 0° C. under nitrogen atmosphere and stirred at room temperature for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was quenched with water (200 mL) and extracted with DCM (2×200 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with aqueous 10% citric acid (100 mL), saturated aqueous NaHCO3 (100 mL), brine (100 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by Combi-Flash chromatography eluting with 80% EtOAc/n-hexane to afford compound C (2.5 g, 39%) as a white solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.77 (br d, J=4.4 Hz, 1H), 7.40-7.27 (m, 5H), 6.84 (br d, J=8.8 Hz, 1H), 5.10-4.98 (m, 2H), 4.74 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 1H), 3.99-3.88 (m, 1H), 3.85 (dd, J=4.2, 8.7 Hz, 1H), 2.59 (d, J=4.6 Hz, 3H), 1.03 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 267.1 [M++1].

Synthesis of (2S,3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-N-methylbutanamide (Int-D)

To a solution of C (2.5 g, 9.39 mmol) in MeOH (30 mL), 10% Pd/C (50% wet, 1 g) was added and stirred under H2 atmosphere (balloon) for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of celite and washed with MeOH and H2O (250 mL, 1:1). The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to afford Int-D (1.1 g, 88%) as a white solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.82 (br d, J=2.5 Hz, 1H), 4.56 (br s, 1H), 3.83-3.75 (m, 1H), 2.88 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 1H), 2.59 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 3H), 2.34-1.83 (m, 2H), 1.03 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 133.2 [M++1].

Synthesis of DC & DD

Synthesis of 4-((benzyloxy)methyl)-2-oxopiperidine-4-carboxylic acid (3)

The experimental procedure for the synthesis compound 3 has been captured under the synthesis of CA & CB (as compound 3).

Synthesis of methyl (4-((benzyloxy)methyl)-2-oxopiperidine-4-carbonyl)glycinate (4)

To a stirring solution of compound 3 (7 g, 0.026 mol) in CH2Cl2 (70 mL) were added DIPEA (14.2 mL, 0.079 mol), Glycine methyl ester.HCl (3.67 g, 0.029 mol) and HATU (12.1 g, 0.031 mol) at 0° C. under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction mixture was brought to room temperature and stirred for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was quenched with ice cold water and extracted with CH2Cl2 (2×200 mL). The organic layer was washed with saturated aqueous NH4Cl, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford crude compound which was purified by column chromatography by eluting with 5% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to obtain compound 4 (8 g, 90%) as thick syrup. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.20 (t, J=5.7 Hz, 1H), 7.40-7.24 (m, 6H), 4.48 (s, 2H), 3.94-3.73 (m, 2H), 3.61 (s, 3H), 3.59-3.46 (m, 2H), 3.19-3.03 (m, 2H), 2.55 (dd, J=1.0, 17.1 Hz, 1H), 2.05 (d, J=17.1 Hz, 1H), 1.97-1.90 (m, 1H), 1.83-1.72 (m, 1H). LCMS (m/z): 335.1 [M++1].

Synthesis of methyl (4-(hydroxymethyl)-2-oxopiperidine-4-carbonyl)glycinate (5)

To a stirring solution of compound 4 (8 g, 0.023 mol) in MeOH (160 mL) was added 10% Pd/C (50% wet, 4 g) at room temperature and stirred for 48 h under H2 atmosphere (balloon pressure). After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of celite and the pad was washed with MeOH (500 mL). Obtained filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude material was triturated with Et2O/n-pentane and dried under vacuum to afford compound 5 (4 g, 70%) as white solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.12 (t, J=5.6 Hz, 1H), 7.27 (s, 1H), 5.05 (t, J=5.3 Hz, 1H), 3.96-3.85 (m, 1H), 3.81-3.69 (m, 1H), 3.62 (s, 3H), 3.53-3.41 (m, 2H), 3.19-3.05 (m, 2H), 2.48-2.42 (m, 1H), 2.04-1.87 (m, 2H), 1.78-1.71 (m, 1H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 245.1 [M++1].

Synthesis of methyl 2-(1,6-dioxo-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonan-2-yl)acetate (6)

To a solution of PPh3 (13.19 g, 0.0503 mol) and DTAD (11.58 g, 0.0503 mol) in THF (20 mL) was stirred at room temperature under nitrogen atmosphere for 15 minutes. Then compound 5 (4.1 g, 0.016 mol) in THF (20 mL) was added to the reaction mixture and allowed to stir 3 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was quenched with ice and concentrated under reduced pressure. Obtained crude material was purified by neutral alumina column chromatography eluting 4% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to obtain compound 6 (1.9 g, 50%) as white solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.61-7.52 (m, 1H), 4.03 (d, J=1.6 Hz, 2H), 3.31-3.27 (m, 1H), 3.21-3.15 (m, 4H), 2.45-2.33 (m, 2H), 1.99-1.85 (m, 2H), 1.52-1.41 (m, 2H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 277.0 [M++1].

Synthesis of 2-(1,6-dioxo-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonan-2-yl)acetamide (DC & DD)

To a solution of compound 6 (1 g, 0.004 mol) in MeOH (10 mL) was added methanolic ammonia (20 mL) at room temperature in sealed tube. The reaction mixture was stirred for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), volatiles were evaporated under reduced pressure. Obtained crude material was purified by neutral alumina column chromatography eluting 4% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to obtain mixture of DC & DD (220 mg, 23%) as white solid. Two more batched were performed to obtain 260 mg of mixture of DC & DD. The mixture (480 mg) was separated by chiral HPLC purification to obtain DC (187 mg) as white solid and DD (190 mg) as white solid.

DC: 1H NMR (400 MHz, D2O) δ 4.15-4.03 (m, 2H), 3.60-3.51 (m, 2H), 3.49-3.39 (m, 2H), 2.80-2.68 (m, 2H), 2.23-2.11 (m, 2H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 212.0 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.13%. Chiral HPLC: 100.00%. Column: CHIRALPAK IA (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: DCM:MeOH (50:50); A:B::70:30; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 8.372.

DD: 1H NMR (400 MHz, D2O) δ 4.14-4.03 (m, 2H), 3.59-3.51 (m, 2H), 3.49-3.38 (m, 2H), 2.81-2.68 (m, 2H), 2.24-2.11 (m, 2H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 212.0 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.58%. Chiral HPLC: 100.00%. Column: CHIRALPAK IA (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: DCM:MeOH (50:50); A:B::70:30; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 11.513.

Synthesis of DE & DF

Synthesis of 4-((benzyloxy)methyl)-2-oxopiperidine-4-carboxylic acid (3)

The experimental procedure for the synthesis compound 3 has been captured under the synthesis of CA & CB (as compound 3).

Synthesis of 4-((benzyloxy)methyl)-N-isobutyl-2-oxopiperidine-4-carboxamide (4)

To a stirring solution of compound 3 (7 g, 0.026 mol) in CH2Cl2 (100 mL) were added DIPEA (13.8 mL, 0.079 mol), isobutyl amine (2.3 g, 0.031 mol) and HATU (12.1 g, 0.031 mol) at 0° C. under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction mixture was brought to room temperature and stirred for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was quenched with ice cold water and extracted with CH2Cl2 (2×200 mL). The organic layer was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford crude compound which was purified by column chromatography by eluting with 5% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to obtain compound 4 (8 g, 95%) as thick syrup. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.68 (t, J=5.8 Hz, 1H), 7.38-7.25 (m, 6H), 4.46 (s, 2H), 3.57 (d, J=9.3 Hz, 1H), 3.46 (d, J=9.2 Hz, 1H), 3.19-2.99 (m, 2H), 2.96-2.86 (m, 2H), 2.57 (dd, J=1.4, 17.1 Hz, 1H), 2.04 (d, J=17.1 Hz, 1H), 1.98-1.89 (m, 1H), 1.85-1.63 (m, 2H), 0.80 (d, J=6.7 Hz, 6H). LCMS (m/z): 319.3 [M++1].

Synthesis of 4-(hydroxymethyl)-N-isobutyl-2-oxopiperidine-4-carboxamide (5)

To a stirring solution of compound 4 (8.5 g, 0.026 mol) in MeOH (150 mL) was added 10% Pd/C (50% wet, 8 g) at room temperature and stirred for 48 h under H2 atmosphere (balloon pressure). After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of celite and the pad was washed with MeOH (500 mL). Obtained filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude material was triturated with Et2O/n-pentane and dried under vacuum to afford compound 5 (2.9 g, 50%) as white solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.59 (t, J=5.7 Hz, 1H), 7.26 (s, 1H), 5.10-4.99 (m, 1H), 3.51-3.39 (m, 2H), 3.16-3.07 (m, 1H), 3.06-2.97 (m, 1H), 2.95-2.82 (m, 2H), 2.45 (d, J=1.6 Hz, 1H), 2.01-1.85 (m, 2H), 1.80-1.61 (m, 2H), 0.81 (d, J=6.7 Hz, 6H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 229.0 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.56%.

Synthesis of 2-isobutyl-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonane-1,6-dione (DE & DF)

To a solution of PPh3 (7.5 g, 0.028 mol) and DTAD (6.7 g, 0.028 mol) in THF (10 mL) was stirred at room temperature under nitrogen atmosphere for 15 minutes. Then compound 5 (2.2 g, 0.009 mol) in THF (12 mL) was added to the reaction mixture and allowed to stir 3 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was quenched with ice and concentrated under reduced pressure. Obtained crude material was purified by neutral alumina column chromatography eluting 4% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to obtain mixture of DE & DF (800 mg, 79%) as white solid. 300 mg of racemic of DE & DF was separated by chiral HPLC purification to obtain DE (62 mg) as white solid and DF (69 mg) as white solid.

DE: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.56 (br s, 1H), 3.29 (br s, 1H), 3.24-3.09 (m, 3H), 2.91 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 2H), 2.43-2.29 (m, 2H), 1.94-1.76 (m, 3H), 0.85 (d, J=6.7 Hz, 6H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 211.2 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.55%. Chiral HPLC: 100.00%. Column: CHIRALPAK IA (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: EtOH A:B::80:20; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 9.693.

DF: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.56 (br s, 1H), 3.29 (br s, 1H), 3.24-3.10 (m, 3H), 2.91 (d, J=6.7 Hz, 2H), 2.42-2.29 (m, 2H), 1.96-1.74 (m, 3H), 0.85 (d, J=6.7 Hz, 6H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 211.2 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.20%. Chiral HPLC: 100.00%. Column: CHIRALPAK IA (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: EtOH; A:B::80:20; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 12.647.

Synthesis of DG & DH

Synthesis of 4-((benzyloxy)methyl)-2-oxopiperidine-4-carboxylic acid (3)

The experimental procedure for the synthesis compound 3 has been captured under the synthesis of CA & CB (as compound 3).

Synthesis of 4-((benzyloxy)methyl)-N-methyl-2-oxopiperidine-4-carboxamide (4)

To a stirring solution of compound 3 (7 g, 0.026 mol) in CH2Cl2 (140 mL) were added DIPEA (14.28 mL, 0.079 mol), HATU (12.1 g, 0.031 mol) and methyl amine (2M solution in THF, 14.6 mL, 0.029 mol) at 0° C. under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction mixture was brought to room temperature and stirred for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was diluted with CH2Cl2 (200 mL) and washed with saturated aqueous NH4Cl. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford crude compound which was purified by combiFlash chromatography by eluting 2% MeOH/EtOAc to obtain compound 4 (4 g, 54%) as white solid. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.63 (br d, J=4.3 Hz, 1H), 7.40-7.25 (m, 6H), 4.46 (s, 2H), 3.53-3.41 (m, 2H), 3.10-2.94 (m, 2H), 2.60 (d, J=4.3 Hz, 3H), 2.57-2.53 (m, 1H), 2.05 (d, J=17.1 Hz, 1H), 1.96-1.85 (m, 1H), 1.79-1.69 (m, 1H). LCMS (m/z): 277.0 [M++1].

Synthesis of 4-(hydroxymethyl)-N-methyl-2-oxopiperidine-4-carboxamide (5)

To a stirring solution of compound 4 (4 g, 0.014 mol) in MeOH (80 mL) was added 10% Pd/C (50% wet, 4 g) at room temperature and stirred for 16 h under H2 atmosphere (balloon pressure). After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of celite and the pad was washed with MeOH (100 mL). Obtained filtrate was concentrated to obtain crude material which was purified by silica gel column chromatography by eluting 8% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to afford compound 5 (1.6 g, 59%) as white solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.55 (d, J=4.4 Hz, 1H), 7.27 (s, 1H), 5.04-4.92 (m, 1H), 3.47-3.35 (m, 2H), 3.15-3.06 (m, 1H), 3.04-2.93 (m, 1H), 2.58 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 3H), 2.47-2.43 (m, 1H), 1.98 (d, J=17.2 Hz, 1H), 1.90-1.80 (m, 1H), 1.74-1.63 (m, 1H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 187.1 [M++1].

Synthesis of 2-methyl-2,7-diazaspiro[3.5]nonane-1,6-dione (DG & DH)

To a solution of PPh3 (5.91 g, 0.022 mol) and DTAD (5.19 g, 0.022 mol) in THF (10 mL) was stirred at room temperature under nitrogen atmosphere for 15 minutes. Then compound 5 (1.4 g, 0.007 mol) in THF: 1,4-dioxane (20 mL, 1:1) was added to the reaction mixture and allowed to stir 2 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was quenched with ice and concentrated under reduced pressure. Obtained crude material was purified by neutral alumina column chromatography eluting 4% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to afford crude compound which was purified by column chromatography by eluting 5% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to obtain mixture of DG & DH (880 mg, 69%) as white solid, which was separated by chiral HPLC purification to obtain DG (230 mg) as white solid and DH (300 mg) as white solid.

DG: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.55 (br s, 1H), 3.30-3.25 (m, 1H), 3.20-3.11 (m, 2H), 3.09 (d, J=5.5 Hz, 1H), 2.72 (s, 3H), 2.44-2.25 (m, 2H), 1.95-1.79 (m, 2H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 169.1 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.31%. Chiral HPLC: 100.00%. Column: CHIRALPAK IA (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: EtOH; A:B::80:20; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 11.061.

DH: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.55 (br s, 1H), 3.30-3.25 (m, 1H), 3.20-3.11 (m, 2H), 3.09 (d, J=5.4 Hz, 1H), 2.72 (s, 3H), 2.42-2.27 (m, 2H), 1.93-1.82 (m, 2H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 169.0 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.37%. Chiral HPLC: 97.14%. Column: CHIRALPAK IA (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: 0.1% DEA in n-hexane; Mobile Phase B: EtOH; A:B::80:20; Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 13.372.

Synthesis of BX & BY

Synthesis of diethyl 2-((4-fluorophenyl)amino)malonate (2)

To a stirred solution of diethyl 2-bromomalonate, SM-1 (100.0 g, 420.0 mmol) in DMF (500 mL), 4-fluoroaniline, 1 (46.7 g, 420.0 mmol) was added at 0° C. and stirred at 100° C. for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was quenched with ice cold water, solid obtained was filtered and dried to afford compound 2 (95.0 g, 84%) as a light brown solid. LCMS (ESI): m/z 270.10 [M++1].

Synthesis of diethyl 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-methyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2,2-dicarboxylate (4)

To a stirred solution of compound 2 (25.0 g, 92.9 mmol) and methyl (E)-but-2-enoate 3 (10.8 mL, 102.1 mmol) in EtOH (100 mL) was added NaOEt (25 mL, 21% solution in EtOH) in sealed tube. The reaction mixture was stirred at 80° C. for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, diluted with water (250 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3×300 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (300 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography using 15-30% EtOAc/hexane to afford 4 (12.0 g, 38%) as a brown oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 338.0 [M++1].

Synthesis of 2-(ethoxycarbonyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-methyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (5)

To a stirred solution of 4 (11.0 g, 32.6 mmol) in EtOH (40 mL) and KOH (2.73 g, 48.9 mmol) in H2O (10 mL) was added drop wise. at RT and stirred for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, diluted with water (200 mL) and extracted with diethyl ether (200 mL). The aqueous layer was acidified with 1N HCl (pH˜2) and extracted with EtOAc (5×200 mL). Combined organic layer was washed with brine (300 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford 5 (8.0 g, 80%) as a yellow solid. LCMS (ESI): m/z 310.0 [M++1].

Synthesis of ethyl 2-(benzylcarbamoyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-methyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate (7)

To a stirred solution of 5 (1.0 g, 3.23 mmol) in DCM (10 mL), benzyl amine 6 (0.41 g, 3.87 mmol), HATU (1.84 g, 4.84 mmol), DIPEA (1.4 mL, 8.07 mmol) were added at 0° C. and reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), mixture was quenched with water (30 mL) and extracted with DCM (3×20 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (30 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography using 30-50% EtOAc/hexane to afford 7 (0.92 g, 72%) as a yellow oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 398.43 [M++1].

Synthesis of N-benzyl-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxamide (8)

To a stirred solution of 7 (2.3 g, 5.77 mmol) in THF and MeOH (3:1, 20 mL), NaBH4 (1.09 g, 28.8 mmol) was added at 0° C. portion wise over period of 20 min and stirred reaction mixture at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was diluted with water (30 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3×50 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (50 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography using 30-50% EtOAc/hexane to afford 8 (1.36 g, 66%) as a white solid. LCMS (ESI): m/z 357.0 [M++1].

Synthesis of 2-benzyl-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-8-methyl-2,5-diazaspiro[3.4]octane-1,6-dione (BX & BY)

To a stirred solution of triphenylphosphine (1.30 g, 4.96 mmol) in THF (20 mL), diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (1.0 g, 4.96 mmol) was added dropwise at 0° C. and stirred at same temperature for 20 min. A solution of compound 8 (1.36 g, 3.81 mmol) in THF and DMF (15 mL/1.5 mL) was added and stirred reaction mixture at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), mixture was diluted with water (30 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3×30 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (30 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography using 10-30% acetone/hexane to afford isomeric mixture of compounds BX and BY (1 g) as an off white solid. The isomeric mixture was purified by preparative HPLC followed by chiral HPLC to afford BX (0.19 g) and BY (0.19 g) as an off white solid.

BX: 1H NMR: (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 7.31-7.15 (m, 7H), 6.79-6.77 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 2H), 4.46-4.42 (d, J=15.6 Hz, 1H), 4.11-4.07 (d, J=15.6 Hz, 1H), 3.49-3.47 (d, J=7.2 Hz, 1H), 2.98-2.96 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 1H), 2.79-2.55 (m, 2H), 2.25-2.18 (m, 1H), 1.13-1.11 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 339.0 [M++1]. HPLC: 98.99%. Chiral HPLC: 100%. Column: YMC Chiral Amylose-SA (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: n-Hexane: CH3COOH (99&0.1% CH3COOH); Mobile Phase B: IPA (30%); A:B::70:30, Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 5.863.

BY: 1H NMR: (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 7.31-7.15 (m, 7H), 6.79-6.77 (d, J=7.2 Hz, 2H), 4.46-4.42 (d, J=15.6 Hz, 1H), 4.11-4.07 (d, J=15.6 Hz, 1H), 3.49-3.47 (d, J=7.2 Hz, 1H), 2.98-2.96 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 1H), 2.79-2.54 (m, 2H), 2.25-2.18 (m, 1H), 1.13-1.11 (d, J=7.2 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 339.0 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.76%. Chiral HPLC: 99.57%. Column: YMC Chiral Amylose-SA (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: n-Hexane: CH3COOH (99&0.1% CH3COOH); Mobile Phase B: IPA (30%); A:B::70:30, Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 9.895.

Synthesis of CE & CF

Synthesis of 2-(ethoxycarbonyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-methyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (5)

The experimental procedure for the synthesis compound 5 has been captured under the synthesis of BX & BY (as compound 5).

Synthesis of ethyl 2-((2,4-dimethoxybenzyl)carbamoyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-methyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate (7)

To a stirred solution of compound 5 (15 g, 48.5 mmol) in DCM (150 mL), (2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methanamine, 6 (9.73 g, 58.2 mmol), HATU (27.6 g, 72.7 mmol) and DIPEA (21.1 mL, 121.2 mmol) were added at 0° C. and reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction was quenched with water (200 mL) and extracted with DCM (3×200 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (250 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography using 30-50% EtOAc/hexane to afford compound 7 (11.0 g, 49.5%) as a yellow oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 459.0 [M++1].

Synthesis of N-(2,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxamide (8)

To a stirred solution of compound 7 (11.0 g, 24.0 mmol) in THF and MeOH (3:1, 120 mL), NaBH4 (4.56 g, 120.0 mmol) was added at 0° C. portion wise over period of 10 min. Reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was diluted with water (200 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3×200 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (300 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound 8 (9.0 g, 90%) as a white solid. LCMS (ESI): m/z 417.0 [M++1].

Synthesis of 2-(2,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-8-methyl-2,5-diazaspiro[3.4]octane-1,6-dione (9)

To a stirred solution of triphenylphosphine (8.18 g, 31.2 mmol) in THF (100 mL), diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (6.32 g, 31.2 mmol) was added dropwise at 0° C. and stirred at same temperature for 20 min. A solution of compound 8 (10.0 g, 24.0 mmol) in THF and DMF (15 mL/1.5 mL) was added and stirred reaction mixture at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was diluted with water (150 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3×150 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (200 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound 9 (9.1 g, 95%) as a brown oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 398.43 [M++1].

Synthesis of 5-(4-fluorophenyl)-8-methyl-2,5-diazaspiro[3.4]octane-1,6-dione (10)

To a stirred solution of compound 9 (8.0 g, 20.0 mmol) in acetonitrile and H2O (7:3, 100 mL) ceric ammonium nitrate (22.0 g, 40.0 mmol) was added portion wise at 0° C. and stirred reaction mixture at RT for 5 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was diluted with water (150 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3×150 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (200 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound 10 (4.0 g, 80%) as a yellow solid. LCMS (ESI): m/z 249.0 [M++1].

Synthesis of 2-(5-(4-fluorophenyl)-8-methyl-1,6-dioxo-2,5-diazaspiro[3.4]octan-2-yl)acetamide (CE & CF)

To a stirred solution of compound 10 (4.0 g, 16.1 mmol) in acetonitrile (50 mL), Cs2CO3 (10.5 g, 32.2 mmol), 2-bromoacetamide (2.66 g, 19.3 mmol) were added at RT and stirred for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was diluted with water (75 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3×75 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (100 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography using 2-5% MeOH/DCM to afford isomeric mixture of compounds CE and CF (0.35 g) as an off white solid. The isomeric mixture was purified by preparative HPLC followed by chiral HPLC to afford CE (0.08 g) and CF (0.14 g) as an off white solid.

CE: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 7.32-7.22 (m, 5H), 7.05 (brs, 1H), 3.80-3.76 (d, J=16.8 Hz, 1H), 3.68-3.66 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 1H), 3.62-3.58 (d, J=16.8 Hz, 1H), 3.23-3.21 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 1H), 2.76-2.57 (m, 2H), 2.26-2.20 (m, 1H), 1.23-1.21 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 306.0 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.74%. Chiral HPLC: 99.58%. Column: YMC Chiral Amylose-SA (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: n-Hexane:CH3COOH (0.1% CH3COOH); B: IPA (25%); A:B::75:25, Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 7.109.

CF: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.32-7.22 (m, 5H), 7.04 (brs, 1H), 3.80-3.76 (d, J=16.8 Hz, 1H), 3.68-3.66 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 1H), 3.62-3.58 (d, J=16.8 Hz, 1H), 3.23-3.21 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 1H), 2.74-2.57 (m, 2H), 2.26-2.20 (m, 1H), 1.23-1.21 (d, J=7.2 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 306.0 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.82%. Chiral HPLC: 99.49%. Column: YMC Chiral Amylose-SA (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm). Mobile Phase A: n-Hexane: CH3COOH (99&0.1% CH3COOH); Mobile Phase B: IPA (25%); A:B::70:30, Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 9.958.

Synthesis of CG & CH

Synthesis of (E)-but-2-enoyl chloride (2)

Thionyl chloride (118 mL) was added in stirred solution of (E)-but-2-enoic acid, compound 1 (125.0 g, 1.45 mmol) and DMF (1-2 drops) at 0° C. and stirred reaction mixture at 50° C. for 2 h. After consumption of the starting material, reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound 2 (100 g, crude) as a colourless oil.

Synthesis of diethyl 2-(benzyl(methyl)amino)malonate (3)

To a stirred solution of diethyl 2-bromomalonate SM-1 (100 g, 420.0 mmol) in acetonitrile (IL), N-methyl-1-phenylmethanamine SM-2 (101.8 g, 840.0 mmol) was added at 0° C. and reaction mixture stirred at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was filtered and filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to afford 3 (200 g, crude) as a yellow oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 280.15 [M++1].

Synthesis of diethyl 2-(methylamino)malonate (4)

To a stirred solution of compound 3 (125 g, 447.4 mmol) in EtOAc (1250 mL), 10% Pd/C (50% wet, 15 g) was added at RT and stirred under hydrogen atmosphere (balloon) for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of celite and washed with EtOAc (600 mL). The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound 4 (84 g, crude) as a light yellow oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 190 [M++1].

Synthesis of diethyl (E)-2-(N-methylbut-2-enamido)malonate (5)

To a stirred solution of compound 4 (87 g, 460 mmol) in DCM (500 mL), (E)-but-2-enoyl chloride, 2 (57.7 g, 552 mmol), pyridine (72.6 g, 920 mmol) were added at 0° C. and reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was quenched with water (700 mL) and extracted with DCM (3×600 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (700 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography using 10-30% EtOAc/hexane to afford compound 5 (61 g, 51.6%) as a light yellow liquid.

Synthesis of diethyl 2-(N,3-dimethyloxirane-2-carboxamido)malonate (6)

To a stirred solution of compound 5 (61.0 g, 237 mmol) in DCM (700 mL), mCPBA (122.7 g, 711.2 mmol) was added at 0° C. and reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was quenched with ice cold water (700 mL) and extracted with DCM (3×600 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (700 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography using 10-30% EtOAc/hexane to afford compound 6 (43.0 g, 66.3%) as a colourless liquid. LCMS (ESI): m/z 273.95[M++1].

Synthesis of diethyl 4-hydroxy-1,3-dimethyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2,2-dicarboxylate (7)

To a stirred solution of compound 6 (43.0 g, 153.6 mmol) in EtOH (420 mL), NaOEt (20.9 g, 307.3 mmol) was added at RT and stirred for 1 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. Reaction mixture was diluted with water (500 mL) and extracted with DCM (3×400 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with 1N HCl solution (500 mL) and brine (500 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound 7 (40.0 g, crude) as a light brown liquid.

Synthesis of diethyl 1,3-dimethyl-5-oxo-4-(((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)oxy)pyrrolidine-2,2-dicarboxylate (8)

To a stirred solution of compound 7 (40.0 g, 146.3 mmol) in DCM (400 mL), triflic anhydride (82.5 g, 292.7 mmol), pyridine (35 mL, 438.9 mmol) were added at 0° C. and reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was quenched with water (400 mL) and extracted with DCM (3×400 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (500 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound 8 (25.0 g, crude) as a light brown liquid.

Synthesis of diethyl 4-(benzylamino)-1,3-dimethyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2,2-dicarboxylate (9)

To a stirred solution of compound 8 (25.0 g, 61.7 mmol) in DCM (250 mL), pyridine (74 mL, 92.5 mmol), benzyl amine (9.90 g, 92.5 mmol) were added at 0° C. and reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was quenched with water (300 mL) and extracted with DCM (3×300 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (300 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography using 10-30% EtOAc/hexane to afford to afford compound 9 (12.0 g, 53.8%) as a brown liquid.

Synthesis of 4-(benzylamino)-2-(ethoxycarbonyl)-1,3-dimethyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (10)

To a stirred solution of compound 9 (3.0 g, 8.28 mmol) in EtOH (30 mL), KOH (0.46 g, 8.28 mmol) in H2O (10 mL) was added drop wise at RT and stirred for 4 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure.

Mixture was diluted with water (40 mL) and extracted with diethyl ether (30 mL). The aqueous layer was acidified with 1N HCl (pH˜2) and extracted with EtOAc (5×40 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (50 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. Crude product was purified by column chromatography using 10-30% EtOAc/hexane to afford to afford compound 10 (2.5 g, 92%) as a pale yellow solid. LCMS (ESI): m/z 335 [M++1].

Synthesis of ethyl 4-(benzylamino)-2-(benzylcarbamoyl)-1,3-dimethyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate (11)

To a stirred solution of compound 10 (2.5 g, 7.48 mmol) in DCM (60 mL), benzyl amine (0.96 g, 8.96 mol), HATU (4.26 g, 11.2 mmol) and DIPEA (3.26 mL, 18.7 mmol) were added at 0° C. and reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material, reaction mixture was quenched with water (30 mL) and extracted with DCM (3×20 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (30 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography using 30-50% EtOAc/hexane to afford compound 11 (2.0 g, 64%) as a pale yellow solid. LCMS (ESI): m/z 424 [M++1].

Synthesis of N-benzyl-4-(benzylamino)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-dimethyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxamide (12)

To a stirred solution of compound 11 (2.0 g, 4.72 mmol) in THF and MeOH (3:1, 16 mL), NaBH4 (0.89 g, 23.6 mmol) was added at 0° C. portion wise over period of 10 min and stirred reaction mixture at RT for 4 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was diluted with water (40 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3×40 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (40 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound 12 (1.70 g, crude) as a pale yellow solid.

Synthesis of 2-benzyl-7-(benzylamino)-5,8-dimethyl-2,5-diazaspiro[3.4]octane-1,6-dione (13)

To a stirred solution of triphenylphosphine (1.51 g, 5.79 mmol) in THF (60 mL), diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (1.17 g, 5.79 mmol) was added drop wise at 0° C. and stirred at same temperature for 20 min. A solution of compound 12 (1.70 g, 4.45 mmol) in THF (15 mL) was added and stirred reaction mixture at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), mixture was diluted with water (30 mL) and extracted with DCM (3×30 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (30 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound 13 (2.0 g, crude) as a pale yellow solid. LCMS (ESI): m/z 363.43 [M++1].

Synthesis of 7-amino-2-benzyl-5,8-dimethyl-2,5-diazaspiro[3.4]octane-1,6-dione (CG & CH)

To a stirred solution of compound 13 (2.0 g, 5.50 mmol) in MeOH (50 mL), 10% Pd/C (30% wet, 2.0 g) was added at RT and stirred under H2 atmosphere (balloon) for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material, reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of celite and washed with MeOH (100 mL). The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography using 2-5% MeOH/DCM to afford isomeric mixture of compounds CG and CH (0.38 g) as an off white solid. The isomeric mixture was purified by preparative HPLC followed by chiral HPLC to afford CG (0.12 g) and CH (0.12 g) as an off white solid.

CG: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.41-7.28 (m, 5H), 4.46 (s, 2H), 3.38-3.34 (m, 3H), 2.66 (s, 3H), 2.47-2.44 (m, 1H), 1.74 (brs, 2H), 0.89-0.87 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 274.0 [M++1]. HPLC: 97.21%. Chiral HPLC: 99.49%. Column: Phenomenix Cellulose-4 (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: n-Hexane:TFA (99&0.1% TFA); Mobile Phase B: IPA (60%); A:B::40:60, Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 10.351.

CH: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.41-7.25 (m, 5H), 4.41 (s, 2H), 3.38-3.35 (m, 3H), 2.66 (s, 3H), 2.47-2.44 (m, 1H), 1.75 (brs, 2H), 0.895-0.876 (d, J=7.6 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 274.0 [M++1]. HPLC: 97.48%. Chiral HPLC: 97.49%. Column: Phenomenix Cellulose-4 (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: n-Hexane:TFA (99&0.1% TFA); Mobile Phase B: IPA (60%); A:B::40:60, Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 16.639.

Synthesis of DI & DJ

Synthesis of diethyl 2-(benzyl(methyl)amino)malonate (B)

To a stirred solution of diethyl 2-bromomalonate Int-A (100 g, 420.0 mmol) in acetonitrile (1000 mL), N-methyl-1-phenylmethanamine SM-1 (101.8 g, 840.0 mmol) was added at 0° C. and mixture was stirred at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was filtered, filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to afford B (200 g, crude) as a yellow oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 280.15 [M++1].

Synthesis of diethyl 2-(methylamino)malonate (Int-C)

To a stirred solution of compound B (125 g, 447.4 mmol) in EtOAc (1250 mL), 10% Pd/C (50% wet, 15 g) was added at RT and stirred under hydrogen atmosphere (balloon) for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), mixture was filtered through a pad of celite and washed with EtOAc (600 mL). The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound C (84 g, crude) as a light yellow oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 190 [M++1].

Synthesis of diethyl 1,3-dimethyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2,2-dicarboxylate (1)

To a stirred solution of compound C (50.0 g, 264.4 mmol) and methyl (E)-but-2-enoate (29.1 mL, 291.0 mmol) in EtOH (300 mL) was added NaOEt (60 mL, 21% solution in EtOH) in sealed tube. The reaction mixture was heated at 80° C. for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, diluted with water (250 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3×400 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (300 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography using 15-30% EtOAc/hexane to afford 1 (40.0 g, 58%) as a brown oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 258.25 [M++1].

Synthesis of 2-(ethoxycarbonyl)-1,3-dimethyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (2)

To a stirred solution of 1 (40.0 g, 155.6 mmol) in EtOH (200 mL), KOH (8.70 g, 155.6 mmol) in H2O (50 mL) was added drop wise at RT and stirred for 4 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, diluted with water (300 mL) and extracted with diethyl ether (400 mL). The aqueous layer was acidified with 1N HCl (pH˜2) and extracted with EtOAc (4×300 mL). The Combined organic layer was washed with brine (300 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford 2 (30.0 g, crude) as a yellow solid. LCMS (ESI): m/z 230.2 [M++1].

Synthesis of ethyl 2-((2,4-dimethoxybenzyl)carbamoyl)-1,3-dimethyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate (3)

To a stirred solution of compound 2 (30 g, 131.0 mmol) in DCM (500 mL), (2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methanamine, (26 g, 157.2 mmol), HATU (74.6 g, 196.5 mmol) and DIPEA (39.2 mL, 229.2 mmol) were added at 0° C. and reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction was quenched with water (200 mL) and extracted with DCM (3×300 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (300 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography using 30-50% EtOAc/hexane to afford compound 3 (30.0 g, 60%) as a yellow oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 379.2 [M++1].

Synthesis of N-(2,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-dimethyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxamide (4)

To a stirred solution of compound 3 (30.0 g, 79.2 mmol) in THF/MeOH (3:1, 120 mL), NaBH4 (15.0 g, 396.8 mmol) was added at 0° C. portion wise over period of 10 min. Reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 4 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was diluted with water (300 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3×300 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (300 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound 4 (24.0 g, crude) as a colourless sticky oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 337.2 [M++1].

Synthesis of 2-(2,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-5,8-dimethyl-2,5-diazaspiro[3.4]octane-1,6-dione (5)

To a stirred solution of triphenylphosphine (24.3 g, 92.85 mmol) in THF (150 mL), diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (14.4 g, 71.4 mmol) was added dropwise at 0° C. and stirred at same temperature for 20 min. then the solution of compound 4 (24.0 g, 71.4 mmol) in THF (150 mL) was added and stirred reaction mixture at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was diluted with water (200 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3×250 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (300 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography using 30-70% EtOAc/hexane to afford compound 5 (17.0 g, 74%) as a colorless oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 319.1 [M++1].

Synthesis of 5,8-dimethyl-2,5-diazaspiro[3.4]octane-1,6-dione (6)

To a stirred solution of compound 5 (17.0 g, 53.4 mmol) in acetonitrile/H2O (4:1, 250 mL) solution of ceric ammonium nitrate (58.6 g, 106.9 mmol) in H2O (50 mL) was added drop-wise at 0° C. and stirred reaction mixture at RT for 5 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by reverse phase column chromatography to afford compound 6 (3.0 g, 33%) as a white solid. LCMS (ESI): m/z 169.0 [M++1].

Synthesis of 2-(5,8-dimethyl-1,6-dioxo-2,5-diazaspiro[3.4]octan-2-yl)acetamide (DI & DJ)

To a stirred solution of compound 6 (1.2 g, 7.10 mmol) in acetonitrile (60 mL), Cs2CO3 (4.64 g, 14.2 mmol), 2-bromoacetamide (1.17 g, 8.52 mmol) were added at RT and stirred for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was filtered through pad of celite, filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography using 2-5% MeOH/W DCM to afford mixture of compounds DI & DJ (0.85 g) as an off white solid. The mixture was purified by preparative HPLC followed by chiral HPLC to afford DI (0.12 g) and DJ (0.078 g) as an off white solid.

DI: 1H NMR: (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 7.48 (brs, 1H), 7.13 (brs, 1H), 3.85-3.82 (d, J=9.2 Hz, 2H), 3.68-3.67 (d, J=6 Hz, 1H), 3.41-3.40 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 1H), 2.71 (s, 3H), 2.61-2.57 (m, 1H), 2.49-2.41 (m, 1H), 1.97-1.90 (m, 1H), 1.12-1.11 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 226.0 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.17%. Chiral HPLC: 99.49%. Column: YMC Chiral Amylose-SA (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: MTBE:TFA (80 &0.1% CH3COOH); Mobile Phase B: IPA (20%); Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 15.43.

DJ: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 7.48 (brs, 1H), 7.13 (brs, 1H), 3.85-3.82 (d, J=9.2 Hz, 2H), 3.68-3.67 (d, J=6 Hz, 1H), 3.41-3.40 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 1H), 2.71 (s, 3H), 2.63-2.57 (m, 1H), 2.47-2.41 (m, 1H), 1.97-1.90 (m, 1H), 1.12-1.11 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 226.0 [M++1]. HPLC: 98.2%. Chiral HPLC: 98.77%. Column: YMC Chiral Amylose-SA (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: MTBE:TFA (0.1% CH3COOH); Mobile Phase B: IPA (20%); Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 19.20.

Synthesis of DK & DL

Synthesis of Diethyl 2-((4-fluorophenyl)amino)malonate (Int-B)

To a stirred solution of diethyl 2-bromomalonate, Int-1 (100.0 g, 420.0 mmol) in DMF (500 mL), 4-fluoroaniline (46.7 g, 420.0 mmol) was added at 0° C. and stirred at 100° C. for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was quenched with ice cold water, solid obtained was filtered and dried to afford compound 1 (95.0 g, 84%) as a light brown solid. LCMS (ESI): m/z 270.10 [M++1].

Synthesis of diethyl 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-methyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2,2-dicarboxylate (1)

To a stirred solution of compound Int-B (25.0 g, 92.9 mmol) and methyl (E)-but-2-enoate C (10.8 mL, 102.1 mmol) in EtOH (100 mL) was added NaOEt (25 mL, 21% solution in EtOH) in sealed tube. The reaction mixture was stirred at 80° C. for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, diluted with water (250 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3×300 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (300 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography using 15-30% EtOAc/hexane to afford 2 (12.0 g, 38%) as a brown oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 338.0 [M++1].

Synthesis of 2-(ethoxycarbonyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-methyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (2)

To a stirred solution of 1 (11.0 g, 32.6 mmol) in EtOH (40 mL), KOH (2.73 g, 48.9 mmol) in H2O (10 mL) was added drop wise at RT and stirred for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, diluted with water (200 mL) and extracted with diethyl ether (200 mL). The aqueous layer was acidified with 1N HCl (pH˜2) and extracted with EtOAc (5×200 mL). Combined organic layer was washed with brine (300 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford 2 (8.0 g, 80%) as a yellow solid. LCMS (ESI): m/z 310.0 [M++1].

Synthesis of ethyl 2-(((2S,3R)-1-amino-3-((tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy)-1-oxobutan-2-yl)carbamoyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-methyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate (3A/3B)

To a stirred solution of compound 2 (4 g, 12.94 mmol) in DCM (50 mL), Int-D (3.3 g, 14.23 mmol), HATU (7.37 g, 19.41 mmol) and DIPEA (5.6 mL, 32.35 mmol) were added at 0° C. and reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction was quenched with water (200 mL) and extracted with DCM (3×200 mL).

The combined organic layer was washed with brine (250 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography using 30-80% EtOAc/hexane to afford compound 3A (3.0 g, 44%) and 3B (2.8 g, 41%) as a yellow oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 524.20 [M++1].

Synthesis of N-((2S,3R)-1-amino-3-((tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy)-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxamide (4A)

To a stirred solution of compound 3A (3.0 g, 5.73 mmol) in THF/MeOH (3:1, 20 mL), NaBH4 (1.08 g, 28.65 mmol) was added at 0° C. portion wise over period of 10 min. Reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was diluted with water (20 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3×20 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (30 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound 4A (2.64 g, 96%) as a yellow oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 482.3 [M++1].

Synthesis of N-((2S,3R)-1-amino-3-((tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy)-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxamide (4B)

To a stirred solution of compound 3B (2.8 g, 5.35 mmol) in THF/MeOH (3:1, 20 mL), NaBH4 (2 g, 53.53 mmol) was added at 0° C. portion wise over period of 10 min. Reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was diluted with water (20 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3×20 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (30 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound 4B (2.38 g, 92%) as a yellow oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 482.3 [M++1].

Synthesis of (2S,3R)-3-((tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy)-2-(5-(4-fluorophenyl)-8-methyl-1,6-dioxo-2,5-diazaspiro[3.4]octan-2-yl)butanamide (5A)

To a stirred solution of triphenylphosphine (2.1 g, 8.26 mmol) in THF (10 mL), diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (1.67 g, 8.26 mmol) was added dropwise at 0° C. and stirred at same temperature for 20 min. then the solution of compound 4A (2.64 g, 5.50 mmol) in THF (15 mL) was added and stirred reaction mixture at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was diluted with water (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3×50 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (20 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford crude compound which was purified by column chromatography using 0-30% Acetone in DCM as eluent to afford 5A (1.9 g, 76%) as a yellow oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 464.05 [M+1]+.

Synthesis of (2S,3R)-3-((tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy)-2-(5-(4-fluorophenyl)-8-methyl-1,6-dioxo-2,5-diazaspiro[3.4]octan-2-yl)butanamide (5B)

To a stirred solution of triphenylphosphine (1.94 g, 7.42 mmol) in THF (10 mL), diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (1.5 g, 7.42 mmol) was added dropwise at 0° C. and stirred at same temperature for 20 min. then the solution of compound 4B (2.38 g, 4.94 mmol) in THF (15 mL) was added and stirred reaction mixture at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was diluted with water (50 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3×50 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (20 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford crude compound which was purified by column chromatography using 0-30% Acetone in DCM as eluent to afford 5B (1.6 g, 69%) as a yellow oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 464.10 [M++1].

Synthesis of (2S,3R)-2-(5-(4-fluorophenyl)-8-methyl-1,6-dioxo-2,5-diazaspiro[3.4]octan-2-yl)-3-hydroxybutanamide (DK)

To a stirred solution of compound 5A (1.9 g, 4.1 mmol) in THF (20 mL) TBAF (1M in THF (1.6 g, 6.15 mmol) was added portion-wise at RT and reaction mixture was heated at 60° C. for 1 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was diluted with brine (15 mL) and extracted with DCM (3×15 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (20 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound DK (0.2 g, 14%) as a white solid. LCMS (ESI): m/z 350.15 [M++1].

Synthesis of: (2S,3R)-2-(5-(4-fluorophenyl)-8-methyl-1,6-dioxo-2,5-diazaspiro[3.4]octan-2-yl)-3-hydroxybutanamide (DL)

To a stirred solution of compound 5B (1.6 g, 3.45 mmol) in THF (20 mL) TBAF (1M in THF, (1.6 g, 6.15 mmol) was added portion-wise at RT and reaction mixture was heated at 60° C. at RT for 1 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was diluted with brine (15 mL) and extracted with DCM (3×15 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (20 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound DL (0.15 g, 14%) as a white solid.

DK: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 7.39 (brs, 1H), 7.26-7.18 (m, 4H), 7.03 (brs, 1H), 4.94 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 1H), 3.91-3.89 (d, J=7.2 Hz, 1H), 3.84-3.79 (m, 1H), 3.76-3.74 (d, J=7.2 Hz, 1H), 3.34-3.27 (d, J=7.2 Hz, 1H), 2.71-2.68 (m, 1H), 2.63-2.57 (m, 1H), 2.26-2.20 (m, 1H), 1.22-1.20 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 3H), 1.04-1.02 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 349.15 [M++1]. HPLC: 95.77%. Chiral HPLC: 100%. Column: YMC ChiralArt Cellulose-Sc (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: Hexane:DEA:TFA (0.1% DEA & 0.1% TFA); Mobile Phase B: IPA (40%); Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 7.615.

DL: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 7.38 (brs, 1H), 7.30-7.23 (m, 4H), 7.08 (brs, 1H), 4.77-4.75 (d, J=5.2 Hz, 1H), 3.98-3.89 (m, 3H), 3.34-3.32 (m, 1H), 2.71-2.68 (m, 1H), 2.63-2.57 (m, 1H), 2.26-2.20 (m, 1H), 1.22-1.20 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 3H), 1.04-1.02 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 350.10 [M++1]. HPLC: 96.62%. Chiral HPLC: 100%. Column: YMC ChiralArt Cellulose-Sc (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: Hexane:DEA:TFA (0.1% DEA & 0.1% TFA); Mobile Phase B: IPA (40%); Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; Retention time: 7.644.

Synthesis of DM & DN

Synthesis of (E)-but-2-enoyl chloride (2)

Thionyl chloride (118 mL) was added in stirred solution of (E)-but-2-enoic acid, compound 1 (125.0 g, 1.45 mmol) and DMF (1-2 drops) at 0° C. and stirred reaction mixture at 50° C. for 2 h. After consumption of the starting material, reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound 2 (100 g, crude) as a colourless oil.

Synthesis of diethyl 2-(benzyl(methyl)amino)malonate (3)

To a stirred solution of diethyl 2-bromomalonate SM-1 (100 g, 420.0 mmol) in acetonitrile (IL), N-methyl-1-phenylmethanamine SM-2 (101.8 g, 840.0 mmol) was added at 0° C. and reaction mixture stirred at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was filtered and filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to afford 3 (200 g, crude) as a yellow oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 280.15 [M++1].

Synthesis of diethyl 2-(methylamino)malonate (4)

To a stirred solution of compound 3 (125.0 g, 447.4 mmol) in EtOAc (1250 mL), 10% Pd/C (50% wet, 15 g) was added at RT and stirred under hydrogen atmosphere (balloon) for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of celite and washed with EtOAc (600 mL). The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound 4 (84 g, crude) as a light yellow oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 190 [M++1].

Synthesis of diethyl (E)-2-(N-methylbut-2-enamido)malonate (5)

To a stirred solution of compound 4 (87 g, 460 mmol) in DCM (500 mL), (E)-but-2-enoyl chloride, 2 (57.7 g, 552 mmol), pyridine (72.6 g, 920 mmol) were added at 0° C. and reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was quenched with water (700 mL) and extracted with DCM (3×600 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (700 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography using 10-30% EtOAc/hexane to afford compound 5 (61 g, 51.6%) as a light yellow liquid.

Synthesis of diethyl 2-(N,3-dimethyloxirane-2-carboxamido)malonate (6)

To a stirred solution of compound 5 (61.0 g, 237 mmol) in DCM (700 mL), mCPBA (122.7 g, 711.2 mmol) was added at 0° C. and reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was quenched with ice cold water (700 mL) and extracted with DCM (3×600 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (700 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography using 10-30% EtOAc/hexane to afford compound 6 (43.0 g, 66.3%) as a colourless liquid. LCMS (ESI): m/z 273.95[M++1].

Synthesis of diethyl 4-hydroxy-1,3-dimethyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2,2-dicarboxylate (7)

To a stirred solution of compound 6 (43.0 g, 153.6 mmol) in EtOH (420 mL), NaOEt (20.9 g, 307.3 mmol) was added at RT and stirred for 1 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. Reaction mixture was diluted with water (500 mL) and extracted with DCM (3×400 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with 1N HCl solution (500 mL) and brine (500 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound 7 (40.0 g, crude) as a light brown liquid.

Synthesis of ethyl 2-(benzylcarbamoyl)-4-hydroxy-1,3-dimethyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate (8)

To a stirred solution of compound 7 (25.0 g, 91.5 mmol) in DCM (250 mL), pyridine (22 mL, 274.5 mmol), benzyl amine (12.7 g, 118.6 mmol) were added at 0° C. and reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was quenched with water (300 mL) and extracted with DCM (3×300 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (300 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography using 10-30% EtOAc/hexane to afford to afford compound 8 (12.0 g, 40%) as a brown liquid.

Synthesis of ethyl 2-(benzylcarbamoyl)-4-((tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy)-1,3-dimethyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate (9)

To a stirred solution of compound 8 (12.0 g, 35.9 mmol) in DCM (250 mL), TBDMS-Cl (5.95 g, 39.5 mmol), imidazole (3.66 g, 53.8 mmol) was added portion wise at 0° C. and stirred at RT for 16 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was diluted with water (100 mL) and extracted with DCM (3×200 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (150 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The Crude product was purified by column chromatography using 10-40% EtOAc/hexane to afford to afford compound 9 (15 g, 93%) as a pale yellow solid. LCMS (ESI): m/z 449.25 [M++1].

Synthesis of N-benzyl-4-((tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-dimethyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxamide (10)

To a stirred solution of compound 9 (15.0 g, 33.4 mmol) in THF/MeOH (3:1, 160 mL), NaBH4 (6.3 g, 167.4 mmol) was added at 0° C. portion wise over period of 10 min and stirred reaction mixture at RT for 4 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), reaction mixture was diluted with water (150 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3×200 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (150 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford compound 10 (10.0 g, crude) as a pale yellow oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 407.25 [M++1].

Synthesis of 2-benzyl-7-((tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy)-5,8-dimethyl-2,5-diazaspiro[3.4]octane-1,6-dione (11)

To a stirred solution of triphenylphosphine (8.3 g, 32.0 mmol) in THF (100 mL), diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (6.4 g, 32.0 mmol) was added drop wise at 0° C. and stirred at same temperature for 20 min. Then the solution of compound 10 (10.0 g, 24.6 mmol) in THF (100 mL) was added and stirred reaction mixture at RT for 12 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), mixture was diluted with water (100 mL) and extracted with DCM (3×200 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (150 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The Crude product was purified by column chromatography using 10-70% EtOAc/hexane to afford compound. 11 (8.0 g, 84%) as a colourless oil. LCMS (ESI): m/z 389.15 [M++1].

Synthesis of 2-benzyl-7-hydroxy-5,8-dimethyl-2,5-diazaspiro[3.4]octane-1,6-dione (DM & DN)

To a stirred solution of compound 11 (8.0 g, 20.61 mmol) in THF (150 mL), TBAF (1M, solution in THF, 30 mL, 30.9 mmol) was added at RT and stirred at 50° C. for 4 h. After consumption of the starting material (by TLC), the reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, diluted with water (100 mL) and extracted with DCM (3×150 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine (150 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography using 10-40% EtOAc/hexane to afford mixture of compounds DM & DN (3.0 g) as an off white solid. The mixture was purified by preparative HPLC followed by chiral HPLC to afford DM (0.14 g) and DN (0.14 g) as an off white solid.

DM: 1H NMR: (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 7.42-7.23 (m, 5H), 4.48 (s, 2H), 4.28-4.22 (m, 1H), 4.20 (s, 1H), 3.48-3.44 (m, 1H), 3.42 (s, 2H), 2.82 (s, 3H), 1.38-1.37 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 275.0 [M++1]. HPLC: 98.92%. Chiral HPLC: 100%. Column: ChiralPak IC (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: CO2; Mobile Phase B: IPA (40%):0.1% NH3; Flow rate: 3.0 mL/min; Retention time: 4.48.

DN: 1H NMR: (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 7.42-7.23 (m, 5H), 4.48 (s 2H), 4.26-4.25 (m, 1H), 4.20 (s, 1H), 3.47-3.46 (m, 1H), 3.42 (s, 2H), 2.82 (s, 3H), 1.38-1.37 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 3H). LCMS (ESI): m/z 275.05 [M++1]. HPLC: 99.56%. Chiral HPLC: 100%. Column: ChiralPak IC (250*4.6 mm, 5 μm); Mobile Phase A: CO2; Mobile Phase B: IPA (40%):0.1% NH3; Flow rate: 3.0 mL/min; Retention time: 4.48.

X-Ray Crystal Structure Determination of AA-2

Compound AA-2 (40 mg) was dissolved in methanol (2 mL) at 40° C., allowed to cool to room temperature and was left standing for 72 h to form crystals. Crystals were isolated and examined with a microscope. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis also was performed. The results of the crystal X-ray diffraction analysis are shown in FIG. 1. FIG. 1 shows detailed data for the crystal structure, and shows that the crystals are orthorhombic and have a P212121 space group. Analysis of the single crystal diffraction data shows that the absolute configuration of the carbon at the spiro center is (S), as determined by the PLATON technique (A. L. Spek, J. Appl. Cryst., 36, 7-13 (2003)). Based on these results, the absolute stereochemistry of compound AA-2 is shown in the structure below:

Consequently, compound AA-1 would have the (R) configuration at the spiro center as follows:

Following the above procedures, the following compounds and stereoisomers thereof were or are prepared. It will be appreciated by a person of skill in the art that for the structures shown, additional stereoisomers such as diastereomers and/or enantiomers are included in the present disclosure.


TABLE 1
Compound
Structure
AB
AC
AD
AE
AF
AG
AH
AI
AJ
AK
AL
AM
AN
AO, AP
AQ, AR
AS, AT
AU
AV, AW
AX, AY
AZ, BA
BB, BC
BD, BE
BF, BG
BH, BI
BJ, BK
BL, BM
BN
BO
BP
BQ
BR
BS
BT, BU
BV, BW
BX, BY
CA, CB
CC, CD
CE, CF
CG, CH
CI, CJ
CK, CL
CM, CN
CO, CP
CQ, CR
CS, CT
CU, CV
CW, CX
CY, CZ
DA, DB
DC, DD
DE, DF
DG, DH
DI, DJ
DK, DL
DM, DN

B. Positive Emotional Learning (PEL) Test

This example demonstrates the positive emotional learning (PEL) test. Experiments were conducted as described in Burgdorf et al., “The effect of selective breeding for differential rates of 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations on emotional behavior in rats,” Devel. Psychobiol., 51:34-46 (2009). Rat 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalization (hedonic USVs) is a validated model for the study of positive affective state and is best elicited by rough-and-tumble play. 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations have previously been shown to be positively correlated with reward and appetitive social behavior in rats, and to reflect a positive affective state.

The PEL assay measures the acquisition of positive (hedonic) 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) to a social stimulus, heterospecific rough and tumble play stimulation. Heterospecific rough-and-tumble play stimulation was administered by the experimenter's right hand. One hour after administration of test compound or vehicle negative control (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose in 0.9% sterile vehicle), animals received 3 min of heterospecific rough-and-tumble play that consisted of alternating 15 sec blocks of heterospecific play and 15 sec of no-stimulation. High frequency ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) were recorded and analyzed by sonogram with Avasoft SASlab Pro (Germany) as previously described by Burgdorf et al., “Positive emotional learning is regulated in the medial prefrontal cortex by GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors,” Neuroscience, 192:515-523 (2011). Frequency modulated 50-kHz USVs that occurred during each of the no-stimulation periods were quantified to measure PEL. Animals were not habituated to play stimulation before testing. Positive emotional learning was measured during the conditioned stimulus (CS) trials preceding the tickle unconditioned stimulus (UCS) trials. Animals received 15 second trials consisting of 6 CS and 6 UCS trials each (3 min total). For Compound AA-2, where the dose was in the range of 0.001-1 mg/kg and given orally, the maximum effect was in the range of 10.1-20, which denotes the mean number of 50 kHz USVs per 15 seconds. The experiment had a vehicle control group, where a typical maximum effect was lower than 6.0 50 kHz USVs per 15 seconds.

C. Nmdar Agonist Assays

Assays were conducted as described by Moskal et al., “GLYX-13: a monoclonal antibody-derived peptide that acts as an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor modulator,” Neuropharmacology, 49, 1077-87, 2005. These studies were designed to determine if the test compounds act to facilitate NMDAR activation in NMDAR2A, NMDAR2B, NMDAR2C or NMDAR2D expressing HEK cell membranes as measured by increases in [3H]MK-801 binding.

In the assay, 300 μg of NMDAR expressing HEK cell membrane extract protein was preincubated for 15 minutes at 25° C. in the presence of saturating concentrations of glutamate (50 μM) and varying concentrations of test compound (1×1015M−1×10−7M), or 1 mM glycine. Following the addition of 0.3 μCi of [3H]MK-801 (22.5 Ci/mmol), reactions were again incubated for 15 minutes at 25° C. (nonequilibrium conditions). Bound and free [3H]MK-801 were separated via rapid filtration using a Brandel apparatus.

In analyzing the data, the DPM (disintegrations per minute) of [3H]MK-801 remaining on the filter were measured for each concentration of test compound or for 1 mM glycine. The DPM values for each concentration of a ligand (N=2) were averaged. The baseline value was determined from the best fit curve of the DPM values modeled using the GraphPad program and the log(agonist) vs. response(three parameters) algorithm was then subtracted from all points in the dataset. The % maximal [3H]MK-801 binding was then calculated relative to that of 1 mM glycine: all baseline subtracted DPM values were divided by the average value for 1 mM glycine. The EC50 and % maximal activity were then obtained from the best fit curve of the % maximal [3H]MK-801 binding data modelled using the GraphPad program and the log(agonist) vs. response(three parameters) algorithm.

The tables below summarize the results for the wild type NMDAR agonists NMDAR2A, NMDAR2B, NMDAR2C, and NMDAR2D, and whether the compound is not an agonist (−), is an agonist (+), or is a strong agonist (++), where column A is based on the % maximal [3H]MK-801 binding relative to 1 mM glycine (−=0; <100%=+; and >100%=++); and column B is based on log EC50 values (0=-; >1×10−9 M (e.g., −8)=+; and <1×10−9 M (e.g., −10)=++).


NMDAR2A
NMDAR2B
Compound
A
B
A
B
AA-2
+
++
AA-1
+
++
AA-rac
+
++
CC
+
++
CD
+
++
+
++
BX
+
++
BY
CE
CF
+
++
CG
+
++
CH
CM
CN
+
++
+
++
CO
+
++
CP
+
++
+
++
CU
+
++
CV
+
++
+
++
DG
+
++
DH
+
++
++
++
CW
+
++
++
++
CX
+
++
+
++
CY
+
++
CZ
+
+
CS
+
++
++
++
CT
+
++
DA
DB
++
++
DE
+
++
+
++
DF
+
++
+
++
DC
+
++
+
++
DD
+
++
DI
+
++
+
++
DJ
+
++
DK
++
+
DL
+
++
DM
+
+
DN
+
++
CA
CB
+
++
CI
+
++
+
++
CJ
+
++
++
++
CK
CL
+
++
+
++
NMDAR2C
NMDAR2D
Compound
A
B
A
B
AA-2
+
++
AA-1
+
+
AA-rac
+
++

D. Pharmacokinetics

Sprague Dawley rats were dosed intravenously using a normal saline formulation containing 2 mg/kg of the compounds identified in the below table. The table below summarizes the results of the IV pharmacokinetics.


AUClast
Cl
C0
(hr * ng/
T1/2
(mL/min/
Vss
Compound
(ng/mL)
mL)
(hr)
kg)
(L/kg)
AA-2
1986.7
3370
1.25
9.82
0.54
AA-1
2335.11
3433.21
1.12
9.69
0.76
AA-rac
5791
6297
3.31
5.28
0.56
CC
7934.77
2125.34
2.11
15.65
0.5
CB
4320.17
1316.92
1.77
25.31
1.2
CI
2123.03
1043.32
0.42
32
0.91
CL
2686.53
772.31
0.21
41.73
0.7

In another experiment, Sprague Dawley rats were dosed per os using a normal saline formulation containing 10 mg/kg of the compounds identified in the table below. Plasma, brain, and CSF samples were analyzed at various time points over a 24 hour period. The table below summarizes the results of the oral pharmacokinetics.


AUClast
CSF
Brain
Tmax
Cmax
(hr * ng/
Cmax
Cmax
Compound
(hr)
(ng/mL)
mL)
(ng/mL)
(ng/mL)
% F
AA-2
0.25
11342.1
17262.4
1476.3
1107.2
100
AA-1
0.33
8922.48
15492.47
N/A
N/A
90
AA-rac
0.67
5809
17793
1466.9
951
57
CC
0.42
190.93
701.13
0
0
7
CB
0.5
143.28
297.31
31.02
7.38
5
CI
0.25
5051.91
5059.74
1113.94
996.66
97
CL
0.25
1799.14
1429.34
866.42
707.6
37

E. Novel Object Recognition (NOR)

Experiments were conducted as described previously (Hirst et al., 2006). Rats were habituated to the NOR test box twice a day for two consecutive days prior to testing. Each habituation session was comprised of a 3 min exposure to the empty test box (46×30×45 cm), followed by 1 min in the side annex (13×30×45 cm) and a further 3 min in the test box, thereby mimicking the test protocol. A vehicle dose was administered prior to one of the habituation sessions on each habituation day. The NOR test comprised two test sessions, T1 and T2, each lasting for 3 min. On the first test day, T1, rats were habituated to the empty test box for 3 min, and then placed in the side annex for approximately 1 min whilst two identical test objects were placed in the test arena equally spaced to each other and the side walls. The rat was then returned to the test arena and allowed to freely explore the objects for a further 3 min. At the end of the test session the rat was returned to its home cage. Following a 24 h inter-trial interval, the recall trial (T2) was conducted. T2 was similar to T1 except that one of the ‘familiar’ objects was substituted for a novel one of a similar size and color but different shape. The objects used were made of black hardened plastic and were geometric shapes (towers and cylinders) that were of no relevance to the animals.

T1 and T2 trials were recorded and files were scored remotely by an investigator blinded to the treatments. Exploration was scored as time spent sniffing or licking the objects, when the nose was in contact with the object and was moving (i.e. when the animal was sniffing). Sitting on the object or next to it with the nose directed away was not classed as exploration.

For the Compound AA-2 study, Compound AA-2 (1 mg/kg, oral gavage) or vehicle (CMC Saline, oral gavage) was administered 60 minutes before T1. Animals were assessed for total exploration time of novel vs. familiar objects in T2 (FIG. 2A), difference in exploration time between familiar and novel object in T2 (FIG. 2B) and discrimination index (d2) [=(time spent exploring the novel object in T2−time spent exploring the familiar object in T2)/total exploration time of both objects in T2] (FIG. 2C).

F: Porsolt Assay

A non-clinical in vivo pharmacology study (Porsolt assay) was performed to measure antidepressant-like effects. A negative control (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose in 0.9% sterile saline vehicle) and a positive control (fluoxetine) are shown for comparison against test compound. The study allowed for the evaluation of the effects of each compound on the Porsolt forced swim test as assessed by the rats' response (reduced floating time) during a 5-minute swimming test.

Male 2-3 month old Sprague Dawley rats were used (Harlan, Indianapolis, Ind.). Rats were housed in Lucite cages with aspen wood chip bedding, maintained on a 12:12 light:dark cycle (lights on at 5 AM), and given ad libitum access to Purina lab chow (USA) and tap water throughout the study.

The Porsolt forced swim test adapted for use in rats was performed as described by Burgdorf et al., (The long-lasting antidepressant effects of rapastinel (GLYX-13) are associated with a metaplasticity process in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Neuroscience 308:202-211, 2015). Animals were placed in a 46 cm tall×20 cm in diameter clear glass tube filled to 30 cm with tap water (23±1° C.) for 15 min on the first day (habituation) and 5 min on the subsequent test day. Positive control fluoxetine was dosed 3 times (24 h, 5 h and 1 h) prior to testing. Animals were tested 1 h or 24 h post-dosing with the test compounds or vehicle. Animals received a 15 min habituation session 1 day before the 5 min test. Water was changed after every other animal. Animals were videotaped, and floating time as defined as the minimal amount of effort required to keep the animals head above water was scored offline by a blinded experimenter with high inter-rater reliability (Pearson's r>0.9).

The results for test compounds are shown in the table below. Each compound tested at dose level shown. Significance vs. vehicle group for each experiment is marked. A compound marked “Yes” was found to be statistically significant (p<=0.05) from vehicle at dose level shown. A compound marked “No” was not statistically significant from vehicle. Data was averaged for test compound and vehicle groups (N approximately 8 per group) and the percent reduction in floating for group treated with test compound relative to group treated with vehicle is shown.


1 h post-dose
24 h post-dose
% reduction
% reduction
Dose
Significance
in float
Dose
Significance
in float
Compound
(mg/kg)
vs. vehicle
time
(mg/kg)
vs. vehicle
time
Fluoxetine
20
Yes
  54%
N/A
N/A
N/A
AA-2
0.1
Yes
51.5%
0.1
Yes
77.80%
AA-1
0.1
Yes
74.4%
0.1
Yes
69.50%
AA-rac
0.1
Yes
77.4%
0.1
Yes
74.40%

G. Bennett Assay

The Bennett model of mechanical analgesia is used to assess the analgesic effects of compounds as measured by paw withdrawal threshold. Bennett G J, Xie Y K, “A peripheral mononeuropathy in rat that produces disorders of pain sensation like those seen in man,” Pain 33:87-107, 1988. Sciatic nerve chronic constriction nerve injury surgery is performed on animals with testing for analgesic response once animals have recovered from surgery but still exhibit a low threshold of paw withdrawal after application of von Frey filaments. Vehicle animals receive the surgery and then receive vehicle rather than test compound. Animals were tested 1 hr, 24 h and 1 wk post-test compound or vehicle administration.

Male 2-3 month old Sprague Dawley rats were used. Harlan was the supplier for all studies. Rats were housed in Lucite cages with aspen wood chip bedding, maintained on a 12:12 light:dark cycle (lights on at 5 AM), and given ad libitum access to Purina lab chow (USA) and tap water throughout the study.

Rats were anesthetized using inhaled isoflurane (2.5%). Sciatic nerve chronic constriction nerve injury surgery was performed as previously described (Bennett and Xie, 1988). An incision (˜1.5 cm in length) was made with a scalpel blade dorsally through skin on the right hind limb, parallel and posterior to femur. Using a small pointed hemostat, the biceps femoris and gluteus superficialis muscles were separated. Using curved blunt forceps, the common sciatic nerve was isolated and exposed. For the mechanical analgesia studies, the whole sciatic nerve was ligated. Using hemostats/forceps and chromic gut (5-0), the nerve was loosely ligated with a square knot; 3 ligatures, 1 mm apart were placed on the nerve. The ligatures were tightened to the point that the suture did not slide up or down the nerve. This protocol resulted in a partial loss-of-function of the nerve. Testing occurred approximately 2 weeks post-surgery.

During testing, rats were acclimated to the surface of a suspended wire mesh grid (1 cm×1 cm, with the wire being 0.3 cm in diameter) for 15-20 min. Starting from the smallest, each Von Frey filament was pressed perpendicularly to the plantar surface of the affected (ipsilateral) hind paw until slightly bent and then held for 6 second. If an obvious hind paw withdrawal or a flinching behavior immediately after the withdrawal of the filament was not observed, the next larger filament was used in the same manner. In case of a response, a lower filament was used. This was repeated until six responses were collected.

For all studies, animals were baselined prior to study start to test for allodynia (defined as a paw withdrawal threshold under 5). A subset of animals was tested with gabapentin (150 mg/kg, PO) to ensure at least 50% analgesia. Once it was confirmed animals were ready for study initiation, animals were balanced across groups. All study investigators were blind to treatment conditions. Animals were dosed with 0.1, 1, 10, or 30 mg/kg of test compound via oral gavage (PO), control sets of animals were dosed with gabapentin (150 mg/kg, PO) or vehicle (0.5% Na-CMC in 0.9% sterile saline, PO). Testing occurred 1 h post-dosing with animals retested 24 hrs and 1 week post-dosing. The percent analgesia calculations for each animal were made using the following equation: % analgesia=[(log(x)−y)/((log (z)−y)]*100, where x=the paw withdrawal threshold for the drug-treated animal in grams, y=the average of the log(x) values for the vehicle treated group, and z=the paw withdrawal threshold for naïve animals in grams (historical value of 15 used). The results for Compound AA-2, where the percentage of analgesia is measured at 1 hour, 24 hours, and 1 week after compound administration are as follows: for 0.1 mg/kg dose: 22.3% at 1 h, 1.6% at 24 h, and 2.3% at 1 wk; for 1 mg/kg dose: 19.2% at 1 h, 10.7% at 24 h, and 11.0% at 1 wk; for 10 mg/kg dose: 38.1% at 1 h, 24.3% at 24 h, and 41.4% at 1 wk; and for 30 mg/kg dose: 24.4% at 1 h, 8.7% at 24 h, and 34.5% at 1 wk. The study had a gabapentin control group, where example (typical) gabapentin control values for 150 mg/kg dose are 72% at 1 h, 16% at 24 h, and 0% at 1 wk. For the study, gabapentin was confirmed effective (demonstrating at least 50% analgesia at 1 h post-administration). Gabapentin was not different from vehicle and resulted in no analgesia (<5%) at 24 h and 1 week post-administration.

EQUIVALENTS

Those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain using no more than routine experimentation, many equivalents to the specific embodiments of the disclosure described herein. Such equivalents are intended to be encompassed by the following claims.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

The entire contents of all patents, published patent applications, websites, and other references cited herein are hereby expressly incorporated herein in their entireties by reference.

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Patents Cited in This Cited by
Title Current Assignee Application Date Publication Date
NMDA receptor modulators and uses thereof NORTH WESTERN UNIVERSITY 24 October 2012 03 September 2014
Secondary structure stabilized NMDA receptor modulators and uses thereof NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 11 February 2011 09 January 2013
アルツハイマー病、ハンチントン病、自閉症及びその他の疾患を治療する方法 ノースウェスタン ユニバーシティ 27 April 2012 21 August 2014
ПРОИЗВОДНЫЕ {[2- (АМИНО -3,4- ДИОКСО -1- ЦИКЛОБУТЕН -1-ИЛ) АМИНО] АЛКИЛОВЫХ}КИСЛОТ АМЕРИКАН ХОУМ ПРОДАКТС КОРПОРЕЙШН 20 January 1992 09 July 1995
NMDA受容体モジュレータを安定化させる二次構造及びその使用 ノースウエスタン ユニバーシティ 11 February 2011 30 May 2013
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