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Patent Analysis of

Methods and compositions to regulate plant transformation susceptibility

Updated Time 12 June 2019

Patent Registration Data

Publication Number

US10150969

Application Number

US15/004227

Application Date

22 January 2016

Publication Date

11 December 2018

Current Assignee

PURDUE RESEARCH FOUNDATION

Original Assignee (Applicant)

PURDUE RESEARCH FOUNDATION

International Classification

C12N15/82,C07K14/415

Cooperative Classification

C12N15/8205,C07K14/415,C12N15/8282,C12N15/8261,Y02A40/146

Inventor

GELVIN, STANTON B.,SARDESAI, NAGESH

Patent Images

This patent contains figures and images illustrating the invention and its embodiment.

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Abstract

A genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants displaying a hyper-susceptible to Agrobacterium transformation (hat) phenotype was performed. The gene disrupted in the hat3 mutant encodes a putative myb-family transcription factor (MTF) that negatively regulates susceptibility to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Over-expression of an integrin-like protein results in plants that are hyper-susceptible to transformation. Manipulation of MTF, members of this protein family, and members of the integrin domain-like protein family for example At14a allows improved control of Agrobacterium transformation, including in crops.

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Claims

1. A method to increase transformation susceptibility in a plant selected from the group consisting of Brassica, Arabidopsis, and rice, the method comprising:

(a) down-regulating expression of endogenous genes encoding myb transcription factors in Brassica, Arabidopsis, or rice by using RNAi or trans-zeatin secretion (TZS) expressing bacteria, wherein the myb transcription factor in Brassica is selected from the group of amino acid sequences consisting of SEQ ID NO: 71 encoded by SEQ ID NO: 78, SEQ ID NO: 72 encoded by SEQ ID NO: 79, and SEQ ID NO: 73 encoded by SEQ ID NO: 80, and combinations thereof; the myb transcription factor in Arabidopsis is SEQ ID NO: 74 encoded by SEQ ID NO: 76; and the myb transcription factor in rice is SEQ ID NO: 75 encoded by SEQ ID NO: 77, and(b) contacting the Brassica, Arabidopsis, or rice plant having the downregulated myb transcription factor with Agrobacteria, thereby increasing transformation susceptibility.

2. A method to increase transformation susceptibility in a plant selected from the group consisting of Brassica, Arabidopsis, and rice, the method comprising:

(a) decreasing expression of a gene encoding a functional ortholog of a family of myb transcription factors designated MTF in Arabidopsis using RNAi or TZS in Brassica, Arabidopsis, and rice; wherein the transcription factors negatively regulate plant transformation susceptibility; and wherein the nucleic acid sequence encoding the functional ortholog is selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 78, 79, 80 and combinations thereof in Brassica; the nucleic acid sequence encoding the functional ortholog is SEQ ID NO: 76 in Arabidopsis; and the nucleic acid sequence encoding the functional ortholog is SEQ ID NO: 77 in rice; and(b) contacting the Brassica, Arabidopsis, or rice plant having the downregulated myb transcription factor with Agrobacteria, thereby increasing transformation susceptibility.

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Claim Tree

  • 1
    1. A method to increase transformation susceptibility in a plant selected from the group consisting of Brassica, Arabidopsis, and rice, the method comprising:
    • (a) down-regulating expression of endogenous genes encoding myb transcription factors in Brassica, Arabidopsis, or rice by using RNAi or trans-zeatin secretion (TZS) expressing bacteria, wherein the myb transcription factor in Brassica is selected from the group of amino acid sequences consisting of SEQ ID NO: 71 encoded by SEQ ID NO: 78, SEQ ID NO: 72 encoded by SEQ ID NO: 79, and SEQ ID NO: 73 encoded by SEQ ID NO: 80, and combinations thereof; the myb transcription factor in Arabidopsis is SEQ ID NO: 74 encoded by SEQ ID NO: 76; and the myb transcription factor in rice is SEQ ID NO: 75 encoded by SEQ ID NO: 77, and
    • (b) contacting the Brassica, Arabidopsis, or rice plant having the downregulated myb transcription factor with Agrobacteria, thereby increasing transformation susceptibility.
  • 2
    2. A method to increase transformation susceptibility in a plant selected from the group consisting of Brassica, Arabidopsis, and rice, the method comprising:
    • (a) decreasing expression of a gene encoding a functional ortholog of a family of myb transcription factors designated MTF in Arabidopsis using RNAi or TZS in Brassica, Arabidopsis, and rice; wherein the transcription factors negatively regulate plant transformation susceptibility; and wherein the nucleic acid sequence encoding the functional ortholog is selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 78, 79, 80 and combinations thereof in Brassica; the nucleic acid sequence encoding the functional ortholog is SEQ ID NO: 76 in Arabidopsis; and the nucleic acid sequence encoding the functional ortholog is SEQ ID NO: 77 in rice; and
    • (b) contacting the Brassica, Arabidopsis, or rice plant having the downregulated myb transcription factor with Agrobacteria, thereby increasing transformation susceptibility.
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Description

SEQUENCE LISTING

The instant application contains a Sequence Listing which has been submitted in ASCII format via EFS-Web and is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Said ASCII copy, created on Jan. 14, 2016, is named 246654_SEQ_ST25.txt and is 44,505 bytes in size.

BACKGROUND

A myb transcription factor designated MTF is disclosed that negatively regulates plant transformation susceptibility. An integrin domain-like protein (which is under negative regulation by MTF) is involved in Agrobacterium attachment to plant cells and, thus, is a positive mediator of transformation: plants over-expressing the integrin domain-like protein are more susceptible to transformation, whereas plants mutant for the integrin domain-like protein are less susceptible. Manipulation of these elements allows improved control of Agrobacterial transformation of plants, including in crops.

Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation forms the basis for the modern agricultural biotechnology industry.

Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes the disease crown gall and genetically transforms numerous plant, fungal and animal species. Virulent Agrobacteria harbor a tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid containing virulence (vir) genes required by the pathogen for transport of transferred (T-) DNA and virulence effector proteins to host cells. Induction of vir genes, processing of T-DNA from the Ti-plasmid, attachment of the bacteria to plants, and subsequent transfer of T-DNA and Vir proteins to host cells are complex processes. Numerous studies have elucidated the events governing these processes in the bacterium, but relatively little is known about the plant contribution to transformation.

Although Agrobacterium has a broad host range, many economically important plants remain recalcitrant to transformation. Scientists have used a variety of techniques to identify plant genes that are involved in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Among these, forward and reverse genetic screens revealed more than 125 Arabidopsis and tobacco genes involved in transformation. Collectively these lines, designated “rat” (resistant to Agrobacterium transformation), reflected their attenuated response to transformation. The genes identified represent steps necessary for successful transformation, including bacterial attachment/biofilm formation, T-DNA and Vir protein transfer, cytoplasmic trafficking and nuclear targeting of the Vir protein/T-DNA complex (T-complex), Vir protein removal, T-DNA integration, and transgene expression. However, none of these mutants identify genes globally affecting plant transformation susceptibility.

SUMMARY

A myb transcription factor designated MTF is disclosed that negatively regulates plant transformation susceptibility. An integrin domain-like protein (which is under negative regulation by MTF) is involved in Agrobacterium attachment to plant cells and, thus, is a positive mediator of transformation: plants over-expressing the integrin domain-like protein are more susceptible to transformation, whereas plants mutant for the integrin domain-like protein are less susceptible. Manipulation of these elements allows improved control of Agrobacterial transformation of plants, including crops.

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most widely used technique for generating transgenic plants. However, transformation remains a major limitation to enhancement of major crops through biotechnology. The first known regulator of plant transformation susceptibility is described herein. An Arabidopsis myb transcription factor (MTF) negatively regulates plant transformation susceptibility. DNA insertions in the mtf gene made Arabidopsis lines hyper-susceptible to transformation by several Agrobacterium strains. In addition, RNAi targeting of MTF in the transformation-recalcitrant Arabidopsis ecotype Bl-1 resulted in increased transformation susceptibility accompanied by increased bacterial attachment to roots.

Transcriptional profiling of wild-type and mtf mutant plants revealed down-regulation of the WRKY48 transcription factor gene in the mtf mutants. Mutation of WRKY48 resulted in hyper-susceptibility to transformation, as did over-expression of two genes that were up-regulated in the mtf mutants [At1g50060 or At5g15725]. Arabidopsis roots inoculated with Agrobacteria expressing a trans-zeatin secretion (TZS) gene showed decreased expression of MTF and a corresponding increase in transformation susceptibility.

When the Arabidopsis myb gene is overexpressed in Arabidopsis, the plants grow much larger, the roots are longer, and the leaves are darker green. This may be a useful agronomic trait if this is confirmed for crop plants grown in the field.

An integrin domain-like protein (which is under negative regulation by MTF) is involved in Agrobacterium attachment to plant cells and, thus, is a positive mediator of transformation: plants over-expressing the integrin domain-like protein are more susceptible to transformation, whereas plants mutant for the integrin domain-like protein are less susceptible. Over-expression of the At14a gene produces an integrin domain-like protein in the Arabidopsis ecotype BI-1 increased bacterial binding to roots, and also increases root transformation. This ecotype is highly recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and binds bacteria poorly to roots.

Increasing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of recalcitrant species, and tissues of these species, is achieved by over-expressing of the At14a gene. In particular, some tissues that are easy to regenerate but difficult to transform may not bind Agrobacterium well, and over-expressing At14a may improve binding and transformation.

Myb transcription factors and integrin-like proteins, alone or in combination are useful, to achieve a desired effect on transformation by manipulating Agrobacterial transformation in a plant. For example, the integrin-like protein is designated At14a, and the myb transcription factor is MTF.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIGS. 1A-1I. Expression of MTF influences plant susceptibility to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. 1A Percentage of root segments developing tumors in plants inoculated with A. tumefaciens A208. 1B Representative plates showing increased transformation susceptibility of mutants. 1C Map of T-DNA insertion positions in MTF. Numbers indicate nucleotide positions; +1 indicates translation start site 1D Relative MTF transcript levels in wild-type, hat3, and mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) roots 1E Transformation susceptibility of root segments from wild-type, mtf1-4, and mtf1-4 plants complemented with a MTF cDNA. Numbers indicate individual T2 generation lines 1F Relative MTF transcript levels in roots of wild-type, mtf1-4 (previously mtf2), and complemented mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) lines 1, 2, 3, and 5 as in 1E 1G-1I, Down-regulation of MTF by RNAi in roots of ecotype Bl-1 increases transformation susceptibility 1G and attachment of Agrobacteria to roots 1I. Numbers indicate individual T2 generation MTF-RNAi lines and empty vector (EV) line. 1H Relative MTF transcript levels in roots of Bl-1 and lines 2, 9, 10, and EV. 1I Attachment of GFP-tagged A. tumefaciens A208 to root segments of Col-0, Bl-1 and MTF-RNAi lines 2, 8, 9, 10, and EV. Error bars in all figures indicate s.e.m. from 3 (for relative transcript levels) or 5 (for percentage of roots developing tumors) replicates.

FIGS. 2A-2C. Phytohormone pre-treatment of Arabidopsis roots increases susceptibility to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. 2A Representative plates showing tumors on root segments from Arabidopsis ecotypes following 0, 1, and 3 days of phytohormone pre-treatment before infection with A. tumefaciens A208. 2B Percentage of root segments developing tumors. 2C Transient transformation after 3 d phytohormone pre-treatment of root segments followed by infection with A. tumefaciens At849.

FIGS. 3A-3D. A. tumefaciens tzs mutant is less virulent than the wild-type strain. 3A Percentage of root segments developing tumors after inoculation with tzs mutant and wild-type A. tumefaciens. 3B Relative MTF transcript levels in roots infected with tzs mutant and wild-type A. tumefaciens. 3C MTF promoter-EYFP construction expresses constitutively in transgenic Arabidopsis. 3D Inoculation of MTF promoter-EYFP transgenic roots with TZS+ and tzs mutant A. tumefaciens.

FIGS. 4A-4E. Trans-zeatin treatment increases susceptibility to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation by strains lacking TZS. 4A-4B Percentage of root segments developing tumors in Col-0 4A and Bl-1 4B inoculated with A. tumefaciens A348 and A281 in the absence or presence of trans-zeatin. Relative MTF transcript levels in root segments of Col-0 4C and Bl-1 4D treated for two days with trans-zeatin. 4E Attachment of GFP-tagged A. tumefaciens A281 to root segments of Col-0 and Bl-1 treated for 24 h with 0 or 1.4 μM trans-zeatin.

FIGS. 5A-5D. Manipulation of Arabidopsis genes that are regulated by MTF increases susceptibility to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. 5A Percentage of root segments developing tumors in transgenic plants over-expressing At1g50060 or At5g15725 cDNAs inoculated with A. tumefaciens A208. Numbers indicate individual T2 generation lines. Relative transcript levels of At1g50060 5B and At5g15725 5C after inoculation with A. tumefaciens A208 (TZS+), A348 (TZS), or A281 (TZS). 5D Percentage of root segments developing tumors in T-DNA-disruption mutants of genes down-regulated in mtf plants.

FIGS. 6A-6D. Arabidopsis mtf mutants are resistant to Botrytis cinerea. Col-0 and mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) plants were spray 6A or drop-inoculated 6B with B. cinerea spores. Average lesion diameter 6C was calculated from drop-inoculated leaves 4 days post-inoculation. 6D Relative ORA59 transcript levels in Col-0 and mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) leaves 0, 24, and 48 h post-inoculation.

FIG. 7. Mutation of MTF increases root transformation susceptibility to multiple Agrobacterium strains. Root segments from wild-type or homozygous mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) mutant plants were inoculated with A. tumefaciens A348 or A281. The percentage of root segments that developed tumors was calculated. Error bars indicate s.e.m. from five replicates.

FIG. 8. Decreasing MTF expression increases transformation susceptibility of Arabidopsis ecotype Bl-1. Transgenic T1 generation Arabidopsis ecotype Bl-1 plants expressing a RNAi construction which targets MTF were inoculated with A. tumefaciens A208. The percentage of root segments that developed tumors was calculated. Numbers below the bars indicate individual Bl-1::MTF-RNAi lines. Error bar indicates s.e.m. from five replicates.

FIG. 9. RT-PCR analysis of transcripts of genes up-regulated in hat3 and homozygous mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) roots. Amplified fragments were fractionated by electrophoresis through agarose gels, stained with ethidium bromide, and photographed. The ACT2 gene was used as a normalization control.

FIG. 10. RT-PCR analysis of transcripts of genes down-regulated in hat3 and homozygous mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) roots. Amplified fragments were fractionated by electrophoresis through agarose gels, stained with ethidium bromide, and photographed. The ACT2 gene was used as a normalization control.

FIG. 11. Over-expression of several Arabidopsis genes that are regulated by MTF increases plant susceptibility to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Root segments from T1 generation transgenic plants over-expressing At2g40960, At1g50060, At5g46295, or At5g15725 cDNAs were inoculated with A. tumefaciens A208. The percentage of root segments that developed tumors was calculated. Numbers indicate individual transgenic lines. Error bar indicates s.e.m. from five replicates.

FIGS. 12A-12B. Homozygous mtf1-4 (previously mtf-2) plants show no alteration in susceptibility to Alternaia brassicicola or Pseudomonas syringae DC3000. 12A Leaves of wild-type and homozygous mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) mutant plants were inoculated with 5 μL of a 500,000 spores/mL A. brassicicola spore suspension. The leaves were photographed 5 d after inoculation. 12B Leaves of wild-type and homozygous mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) mutant plants were inoculated with wild-type and hrcC mutant Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. After 0 and 3 d, leaf sections were ground and the bacteria plated.

FIG. 13. MTF-RNAi lines in Arabidopsis ecotype BI-1 show varying levels of MTF transcripts.

FIG. 14. Decreasing MTF transcripts in the transformation-recalcitrant Arabidopsis ecotype BI-1 increases susceptibility to Agrobacterium. Bacterial concentration (108 cfu/mL).

FIG. 15. MTF-RNAi lines show increased attachment of GFP-labeled Agrobacteria.

FIG. 16. Arabidopsis and crop myb transcription factors are highly homologous. FIG. 16 discloses SEQ ID NOS 71-75, respectively, in order of appearance.

FIG. 17. Expression of the rice MTF ortholog in the Arabidopsis mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) mutant results in lower transformation susceptibility.

FIG. 18. A rice MTF-RNAi line shows increased transient transformation.

FIGS. 19A-19B. Expression of the Brassica oleracea MTF ortholog in the Arabidopsis mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) mutant results in lower transformation susceptibility. 19A shows results of a transient GUS assay; 19B a root tumorigenesis assay.

FIGS. 20A-20B. Expression of the Brassica napus MTF ortholog in the Arabidopsis mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) mutant results in lower transformation susceptibility. 20A shows results of a transient GUS assay; 20B a root tumorigenesis assay.

FIG. 21. Expression of the Brassica rapa MTF ortholog in the Arabidopsis mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) mutant results in lower transformation susceptibility. (Transient GUS assay).

FIGS. 22A-22E. MTF Sequences: Double underlined nucleotides indicate start codons; single underlined nucleotides indicate stop codons; italic bold nucleotides indicate part of the 5′- and 3′ untranslated sequences on the cDNA clones: 22A Arabidopsis MTF and MTF (SEQ ID NOS 76 and 74, respectively, in order of appearance); 22B-22E orthology sequences [Rice, Brassica napus, Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea] (SEQ ID NOS 77, 75; 78, 71; 79, residues 1-233 of SEQ ID NO: 72; 80 and 73, respectively, in order of appearance).

FIG. 23. At14a: The mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) mutant shows increased At14a transcript levels; At14a was of interest because its expression is up-regulated in the Arabidopsis mtf myb transcription factor mutant; this mutant is hyper-susceptible to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

FIG. 24. At14a Sequences: The Arabidopsis data bases indicate that there are two identical At14a gene sequences (“At3G28290” and “At3G28300” both disclosed as SEQ ID NO: 81), plus two related sequences (SEQ ID NOS 82-83, respectively, in order of appearance).

FIGS. 25A-25B. At14a Transformation: The transformation susceptibility of the Arabidopsis At14a mutant is lower than that of wild-type Col-0 plants. 25A shows a transient GUS assay; 25B antibiotic resistant calli.

FIG. 26. At14a Binding: Arabidopsis At14a shows decreased binding of GFP-labeled A. tumefaciens A348.

FIG. 27. At14a Binding: Arabidopsis At14a mutant shows decreased binding of GFP-labeled A. tumefaciens A208.

FIG. 28. At14a and mtf1-4: The At14a mutant shows decreased binding, and the mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) shows increased binding, of A. tumefaciens compared to Arabidopsis Col-0 (using scanning electron microscopy of unlabeled Agrobacteria).

FIG. 29. Arabidopsis plants infected with TZS and/or iP-producing A. tumefaciens strains show lower amounts of MTF transcripts.

FIGS. 30A-30C. Arabidopsis plants infected with an A. tumefaciens miaA mutant show decreased transformation susceptibility. 30A binding; 30B shows a transient GUS assay; 30C shows kanamycin resistant calli.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

A genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants displaying a hyper-susceptible to Agrobacterium transformation (hat) phenotype was performed. The gene disrupted in the hat3 mutant encodes a putative myb-family transcription factor (MTF) that negatively regulates susceptibility to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

Identification and Characterization of Mtf Mutants

To identify mutants with increased susceptibility to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, ˜4000 mutagenized plants were screened from an Arabidopsis T-DNA activation-tagged library (Weigel, 2000). The mutant hat3 displayed a ˜10-fold increase in transformation susceptibility (FIG. 1A, 1B). TAIL-PCR (Liu et al., 1995) was used to identify the T-DNA/plant junction in hat3, and it was discovered that the T-DNA had inserted into the 5′ untranslated region of a putative myb transcription factor (MTF) gene, At2g40970, 36 bp upstream of the start codon (FIG. 1C). MTF has a single Myb DNA-binding domain of the SHAQKYF (SEQ ID NO: 1) type that is unique to plants, and is a member of a five-gene family (Hazen et al., 2005). The DNA-binding domain is similar to those found in proteins associated with two-component signal transduction systems (Hwang et al., 2002), the B-type Arabidopsis response regulators (ARRs), GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLK), and PRR2 (Hazen et al, 2005).

Homozygous mutant plants were not recoverable from self-fertilized progeny of hat3, suggesting that complete disruption of MTF may be lethal. Self-fertilization of three additional T-DNA MTF insertion mutants, SALK_072082 (mtf1), SALK_072083 (mtf1-4), and SALK_102624 (mtf3), resulted in a homozygous mutant only for mtf1-4 (previously mtf2). The insertion in mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) permitted expression of ˜85% of the MTF open reading frame, indicating that the majority of MTF protein is essential for Arabidopsis viability. Homozygous mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) plants showed an ˜11-fold increase in transformation susceptibility. Heterozygous mtf1 and mtf3 mutants displayed 4-7-fold increased transformation susceptibility (FIG. 1A, 1B). Thus, all four mtf mutant lines displayed a hat phenotype, highlighting the importance of MTF in transformation. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR assays revealed that MTF transcript levels decreased 2-fold in mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) and >12-fold in hat3 (FIG. 1D), demonstrating that transformation susceptibility negatively correlates with MTF transcript levels.

The transformation experiments described herein were carried out using A. tumefaciens A208 that contains a nopaline-type of Ti plasmid. Commonly used Agrobacterium strains were, for example A208, A348, A281 (Zhu et al., 2003; and Nam et al., 1999). To assess whether mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) shows increased susceptibility to other A. tumefaciens strains, root transformation assays were conducted using the octopine-type strain A348 and the succinamopine-type strain A281. The mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) mutant displayed 2-3-fold increased transformation susceptibility to these strains (FIG. 7). Thus, MTF plays an important role in plant susceptibility to different Agrobacterium strains.

Further studies used homozygous mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) plants. Ectopic expression of the MTF cDNA in mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) resulted in several transgenic lines with restored levels of wild-type susceptibility to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (FIG. 1E). These transgenic lines individually expressed various levels of MTF mRNA (FIG. 1F). Complementation experiments confirm that disruption of the MTF gene is responsible for increased transformation susceptibility.

The mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) mutant is hyper-susceptible to different strains of A. tumefaciens carrying nopaline-, octopine-, and succinomanopine-type Ti plasmids, indicating that MTF is a negative regulator of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transformation recalcitrance of some Arabidopsis ecotypes results from decreased binding of Agrobacterium to roots. Other ecotypes are debilitated in T-DNA integration, a late stage of transformation (Nam et al., 1997). Reducing MTF expression in Bl-1, a highly recalcitrant ecotype, increased transformation susceptibility and bacterial attachment, highlighting the potential to increase transformation susceptibility of recalcitrant plant species by down-regulating expression of MTF orthologs.

The importance of phytohormones in increasing transformation prompted investigation of the role of cytokinins in transformation. Agrobacterium strains containing nopaline-type Ti plasmids secrete trans-zeatin, mediated by the vir region-localized gene TZS. A. tumefaciens tzs mutants are less virulent than are TZS+ strains. The presence of TZS on the bacterial surface (Aly et al, 2008) may mean that metabolites from wounded plant cells may be converted into trans-zeatin at infection sites, resulting in down-regulation of MTF and consequent increased transformation susceptibility. Indeed, exogenous application of kinetin during infection increased the susceptibility of Arabidopsis roots infected with an Agrobacterium tzs mutant (Hwang et al., 2010). Down-regulation of MTF expression by cytokinins provides a molecular explanation for the importance of TZS to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (Zhan et al, 1990). Although influential, cytokinin signaling is not essential for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation because many virulent Agrobacterium strains do not secrete cytokinins.

Regulation of gene expression by MTF is highly specific. Fewer than 40 genes are significantly up- or down-regulated ≥1.5-fold in the mtf mutants. One of the up-regulated genes, At1g50060 encoding a basic PR1-like protein, increased transformation susceptibility when over-expressed in Arabidopsis. Unlike its acidic counterpart, PR-1, At1g50060 is not salicylic acid (SA)-responsive, pathogen-induced, nor is its expression correlated with the establishment of systemic acquired resistance (Niki et al., 1998). However, At1g50060 transcripts are negatively regulated by a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses (Zimmerman et al., 2004). Thus, At1g50060 does not encode a defense-related protein. Increased transformation susceptibility of the wrky48 mutant suggests that Agrobacterium manipulates host defense responses to its advantage. Previously Veena et al. (2003) showed that infection of plant cells by transfer-competent Agrobacterium strains suppresses host defense gene expression 30-36 h after infection, although these genes are induced as early as 3-12 h after infection (Veena et al., 2003). MTF is a specific regulator of plant susceptibility to Agrobacterium as evidenced by lack of increased susceptibility to A. brassicicola and P. syringae. Increased resistance of the mtf mutant to Botrytis is likely due to downstream responses to decreased MTF expression.

In conclusion, MTF was identified as the first known regulator of plant susceptibility to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. MTF regulates at least three genes independently capable of increasing transformation susceptibility. MTF also affects Agrobacterium binding to roots and integrates cytokinin secretion by Agrobacterium with transformation susceptibility. These findings pave the way for identifying orthologs of MTF in transformation-recalcitrant plant species and manipulating these genes to increase transformation efficiency of economically important crops.

EXAMPLES

Examples are provided for illustrative purposes and are not intended to limit the scope of the disclosure.

Example 1: Decreased MTF Expression in Arabidopsis Ecotypes Increases Transformation Susceptibility

The hat3 and mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) mutants are in the Columbia background, an ecotype relatively amenable to root transformation. Arabidopsis ecotype Bl-1 is highly recalcitrant to root transformation (Nam et al., 1997), but can be transformed using a floral dip method (Mysore et al., 2000). MTF genes of ecotypes Columbia and Bl-1 are identical. An RNAi expression construction targeting MTF transcripts was introduced into ecotype Bl-1 and the derived transgenic lines were screened for root transformation susceptibility. Eight of the 10 tested T1 generation transgenic plants exhibited increased susceptibility (FIG. 8). 25 T2 generation plants from each of five MTF-RNAi lines were tested, along with a RNAi empty vector line. Three of these transgenic lines continued to show higher transformation susceptibility (FIG. 1G). RNAi lines 2 and 9, that had increased transformation susceptibility, showed 4.6- and 7-fold decreases in MTF transcripts, respectively, whereas line 10, that did not have altered susceptibility, showed only a 2-fold decrease in MTF transcript levels (FIG. 1H). A transgenic line containing an empty RNAi vector did not display altered transformation susceptibility or altered MTF transcript levels. These results indicate that transformation susceptibility of Bl-1 plants is dependent on the level of MTF transcripts.

Earlier studies indicated that roots of ecotype Bl-1 do not bind Agrobacteria well. A. tumefaciens expressing GFP showed increased bacterial attachment in the high-transforming transgenic Bl-1 RNAi lines 2 and 9 compared to that of the low-transforming line 10, the empty RNAi vector line, and wild-type Bl-1 (FIG. 1I), suggesting that decreased MTF transcripts in Bl-1 increase susceptibility during the early attachment stage of the transformation process.

Example 2: Phytohormone Treatment Increases Transformation Susceptibility

Chateau et al. (2000) reported that phytohormone preincubation of Arabidopsis petioles increases transformation susceptibility, and hormone pre-treatment is part of the protocol to generate transgenic Arabidopsis plants from roots (Valvekens et al., 1988). Because phytohormone pretreatment of Arabidopsis root segments may enhance transformation susceptibility, which may be important in light of the fact that nopaline-type Agrobacterium strains express a trans-zeatin secretion (TZS) gene, and thus secrete cytokinins into the medium.

Root segments from five transformation-recalcitrant Arabidopsis ecotypes (Bl-1, Bla-2, Cal-0, Dijon-G, and Petergof) and a transformation-susceptible ecotype (Ws-2) were incubated on callus inducing medium (CIM) containing phytohormones prior to infection by Agrobacterium and scored for transformation susceptibility. All ecotypes displayed increased transformation susceptibility after one day of phytohormone pre-treatment (FIG. 2A, 2B). There was a further increase in transformation frequency after three days of phytohormone pre-treatment.

Whether phytohormone pre-treatment of Arabidopsis roots enhances the frequency of transient transformation was investigated, a process that does not require T-DNA integration into the plant genome. β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity, resulting from the transfer of a gusA-intron gene from Agrobacterium to plants, is a standard assay for transient transformation (Narasimhulu et al., 1996). Hormone pre-treatment of roots also increased transient transformation (FIG. 2C). Petiole explants of Arabidopsis treated with phytohormones before Agrobacterium infection showed actively dividing and dedifferentiated cells, and increased transformation efficiency. Increased DNA duplication and cell division of phytohormone treated Petunia hybrida cells correlated with increased Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (Villemont et al., 1997). Thus, phytohormone treatment sensitizes roots to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation at an early step (prior to T-DNA integration) of the transformation process.

Example 3: MTF Expression is Repressed by Cytokinins from Agrobacterium

Ti-plasmids of some nopaline-type Agrobacterium strains carry a TZS gene that directs synthesis and secretion of cytokinins (Regier et al., 1982; Beaty et al., 1986; and Powell et al., 1988). TZS promotes transformation both by nopaline-type A. tumefaciens strains and, when transferred to strain 1855, A. rhizogenes strains. A. tumefaciens strains harboring nopaline-type Ti plasmids secrete trans-zeatin or trans-zeatin ribosides into the medium in amounts >1 μg/L (Claeys et al., 1978; McCloskey et al, 1980).

Tumorigenesis assays were conducted on Arabidopsis roots infected with the TZS+ strain A. tumefaciens NT1RE(pJK270) and the tzs frameshift mutant NT1RE(pJK270tzs-fs). Arabidopsis root segments infected with the tzs mutant developed fewer tumors than did roots infected with the wild-type strain (FIG. 3A). Root segments infected with wild-type bacteria had 10-fold fewer MTF transcripts than did roots infected with tzs-mutant bacteria (FIG. 3B). These results indicate that MTF is down-regulated by trans-zeatin produced by A. tumefaciens, leading to altered transformation susceptibility.

Example 4: TZS-Expressing Agrobacteria Repress Expression of MTF

Decreased MTF transcript levels in roots co-cultivated with TZS+ A. tumefaciens suggests an early involvement of trans-zeatin and MTF in transformation. To determine in which root tissues this decrease in MTF expression was most pronounced, transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing EYFP under control of the MTF promoter were generated. MTF promoter activity was constitutive in all examined plant tissues (FIG. 3C). The highly-expressing line Col7-PMTF-EYFP4 was used to assess whether root tissues exhibited altered MTF expression when infected with a TZS+ A. tumefaciens strain. Fluorescence decreased in roots by 48 h of co-cultivation, most noticeably in the epidermal and cortical cells of the elongation zone, the region most susceptible to transformation (FIG. 3D). This decrease in fluorescence was not observed in roots incubated with the tzs frameshift mutant. These results are consistent with the decreased MTF transcript levels observed in roots co-cultivated with TZS+ bacteria.

Example 5: MiaA-Expressing Agrobacteria Repress Expression of MTF and are More Susceptible to Transformation

MiaA encodes an tRNA-isopentenyltransferase that isopentenylates adenine residues in tRNAs. Breakdown of tRNAs can release isopentenyladenine, a cytokinin. When Arabidopsis root segments are inoculated with Agrobacteria that contain a wild-type MIAA gene, the accumulation of MTF transcripts is repressed (FIG. 29). miaA mutant bacteria are less virulent than are wild-type bacteria (FIG. 30).

Example 6: Cytokinin Enhances Attachment of TZS-Lacking A. tumefaciens Strains

To determine whether exogenous application of trans-zeatin to roots could influence transformation susceptibility, Arabidopsis roots were incubated on medium containing trans-zeatin and they were infected with A. tumefaciens A348 or A281. Neither of these strains harbors TZS. Trans-zeatin concentrations representing the range secreted by nopaline-type A. tumefaciens strains were used. Trans-zeatin treatment of Col-0 roots resulted in a 4-8-fold increase in transformation efficiency by these A. tumefaciens strains. Ecotype Bl-1 roots infected with these strains showed a 2-3-fold increase in susceptibility (FIG. 4A, 4B). Incubation of roots on trans-zeatin decreased MTF transcript levels by 30-60% and also increased attachment of A. tumefaciens A281 (FIG. 4C, 4D, 4E).

Example 7: Decreased MTF Expression Alters Expression of Genes Important for Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation

The Arabidopsis ATH1 Genome Arrays were used to identify genes whose expression is altered in wild-type, heterozygous hat3, and homozygous mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) Arabidopsis roots. A total of 39 genes exhibited statistically significant differential expression between both mtf mutants and the wild-type, and had a difference greater than 1.5-fold (Table 1). Of these, 23 genes were commonly up-regulated and 16 genes were commonly down-regulated in both mtf mutants compared to the wild-type. These results were validated using RT-PCR (FIGS. 9 and 10). cDNAs of four genes At2g40960, At1g50060, At5g46295, At5g15725 that were up-regulated in both mtf mutants were overexpressed. Transgenic T1 lines over-expressing At2g40960 and At5g46295 did not exhibit a hat phenotype (FIG. 11). However, several T1 lines over-expressing At1g50060 and At5g15725 showed increased transformation susceptibility that carried over to the T2 generation (FIG. 5A). At1g50060 is a putative pathogenesis-related 1 (PR-1)-like protein proposed to be a serine protease involved in various signaling processes (Fernandez et al, 1997; Milne et al., 2003). At1g50060 transcript levels in root segments infected with A. tumefaciens A208 (TZS+) and strains A348 and A281 were assessed (TZS) and observed increased transcript levels only in A208-infected roots (FIG. 5B). Presumably, cytokinins produced by A. tumefaciens A208 regulate expression of MTF in the roots, which in turn regulate expression of At1g50060.

At5g15725 is annotated as an unknown protein (Tair; http://www.arabidopsis.org/). Arabidopsis root segments were infected with A. tumefaciens strains A348, A208, or A281. Expression of At5g15725 was up-regulated by all three strains; however, the highest transcript levels were found after infection by the TZS-producing strain A208 (FIG. 5C) which may be related to trans-zeatin production.

To assess the effect of genes down-regulated by MTF, roots of independent T-DNA insertion mutants in At5g49520 (wrky48), At3g56710 (sigA), At4g25470 (dreb1c), At5g39670 (cbp1) and At2g43290 (mss3) were assayed. The wrky48 mutant exhibited a mild hat phenotype (FIG. 5D). None of the other tested mutants displayed increased transformation susceptibility. WRKY48 is a transcriptional activator that represses plant basal defenses (Xing et al., 2008). Results indicate that defense genes regulated by WRKY48 do not play a major role in protecting the host from Agrobacterium infection, or that Agrobacterium somehow targets and/or recruits host defenses to its advantage.

Example 8: Effect of the MTF Mutation on Infection by Other Phytopathogens

A question was whether mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) plants showed altered susceptibility to other pathogens. Col-0 and mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) plants showed similar symptoms when infected with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola, and the virulent DC3000 or the non-pathogenic hrcC mutant strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (FIG. 12). However, mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) plants showed increased resistance to infection by Botrytis cinerea (FIG. 6A). Leaves of mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) drop-inoculated with B. cinerea displayed smaller lesions than did wild-type plants (FIGS. 6B, 6C). Resistance to necrotrophic pathogens is mediated through jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene. Microarray data revealed that At1g06160 (ORA59), encoding an octadecanoid-responsive Arabidopsis AP2/ERF transcription factor, is significantly up-regulated (1.6-fold; p<0.0001) in the mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) mutant. Because B. cinerea infection down-regulates MTF35, ORA59 transcript levels were quantified in leaves of mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) and wild-type plants 0, 24, and 48 hours post-inoculation (hpi) with B. cinerea spores. By 24 hpi, more than a 3-fold increase in ORA59 transcript levels was seen in mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) compared to infected wild-type plants (FIG. 6D). Constitutive over-expression of ERF1 induces the expression of the defense-response genes PDF1.2 and ChiB (PR-3), and confers resistance to B. cinerea (Berrocal-Lobo et al., 2002). Thus, the modestly higher levels of ChiB (1.3-fold; p=0.004), and B. cinerea-induced up-regulation of ORA59 in mtf1-4 (previously mtf2), likely contribute to increased resistance to B. cinerea.

Example 9: Manipulation of Myb Transcription Factors to Improve Crop Transformation

An Arabidopsis myb transcription factor (MTF) was identified which is a negative regulator of plant susceptibility to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Decreased expression of MTF results in a 10- to 15-fold increase in transformation frequency of the Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia (Col). Increased transformation susceptibility correlates with an increase in binding of Agrobacteria to the plant surface. This binding is mediated by an integrin-like protein. MTF expression is negatively regulated by cytokinins secreted by Agrobacterium cells, mediated by miaA and/or tzs.

mtf RNAi plants were generated in the transformation-recalcitrant ecotype BI-1 and transformation susceptibility was determined.

MTF orthologs were identified from crop species.

Using a bioinformatic approach i.e. “masking” the central myb DNA binding domain of MTF, and searching for proteins homologous to the N- and C-terminal regions of MTF, the correct myb orthology was verified by introducing the cDNA of an ortholog into the Arabidopsis mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) mutant and assaying for decreased transformation susceptibility.

MTF ortholog expression is identified in crop species using RNAi (or TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesion in Genomes)) and testing transformation susceptibility.

Results showed the following:

1. Decreased expression of MTF in A. thaliana ecotype Bl-1 results in increased Agrobacterium attachment and transformation susceptibility.

2. MTF orthologs were identified from rice and three Brassica species. The identity of these orthologs was confirmed by functional complementation of the Arabidopsis mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) mutant.

3. Decreased expression of the rice MTF ortholog by RNAi results in increased rice transformation susceptibility.

Expression of the Brassica MTF orthologs are determined in their native species and the resulting plants are assayed for increased transformation susceptibility.

Expression of the rice MTF ortholog is decreased in transformation-recalcitrant japonica and indicia lines and the resulting plants are assayed for increased transformation susceptibility.

A transient RNAi system, delivered by Agrobacterium, silences crop MTF orthologs while simultaneously delivering genes of interest to these species.

MTF orthologs from soybean and wheat were identified and are silenced. Putative orthologs were identified using bioinformatics. (using BLAST® (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool))

Example 10: Involvement of the Integrin Domain-Like Protein At14a in Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation. (See FIGS. 23, 24, 25A, 25B, 26, 27, 28)

Over-expression of the At14a gene in the Arabidopsis ecotype BI-1 increased bacterial binding to roots, and also increases root transformation. This ecotype is highly recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and binds bacteria poorly to roots.

Increasing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of recalcitrant species, and tissues of these species, is achieved by over-expressing of the At14a gene. In particular, some tissues that are easy to regenerate but difficult to transform may not bind Agrobacterium well, and over-expressing At14a may improve binding and transformation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

A. tumefaciens was cultured in Yeast Extract-Peptone medium (Lichtenstein et al., 1986) containing the appropriate antibiotics. Root transformation assays were carried out as previously described by Nam et al. with minor modifications (Tenea et al., 2009). MS basal medium lacking phytohormones was used to select for tumors. GUS activity assays were carried out after infection of root segments with A. tumefaciens At849 (Narasimhulu et al., 1996) for 4-6 d, using X-gluc (Jefferson et al., 1987). Detailed procedures for identifying and screening Arabidopsis mutants, generating transgenic plants, quantitative real-time RT-PCR, bacterial attachment assays, phytohormone treatment of plant roots, microarray experiments, and infection of plants with pathogenic microbes are available in the Methods.

Agrobacterium Culture, Plant Growth Conditions and Transformation Assays

A. tumefaciens was cultured in Yeast Extract-Peptone medium containing appropriate antibiotics. Root transformation assays were carried out as previously described with minor modifications. MS basal medium lacking phytohormones was used to select for tumors. GUS activity assays were carried out after infection of root segments with A. tumefaciens At849 for 4-6 d, using X-gluc.

Arabidopsis Mutants

˜4000 mutagenized plants from an activation-tagged library were screened at low Agrobacterium inoculation densities (105 and 106 cfu/mL) for increased root transformation. TAIL-PCR was utilized to identify the T-DNA/plant junction from hat3. Primers for TAIL-PCR are listed in Table 2.

Seeds of the T-DNA insertion MTF mutants SALK_072082 (mtf1), SALK_072083 (mtf1-4) (previously mtf2), and SALK_102624 (mtf3) (Alonso et al., 2003) were obtained from the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (Columbus, Ohio). The mutants were genotyped using primers listed in Table 2.

Generation of Transgenic MTF-Complemented Plants

MTF cDNA was synthesized from 1-2 μg RNA using oligo(dT) and the SuperscriptIII First Strand Synthesis System for RT-PCR™ (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, Calif.), following the manufacturer's protocol. Primer sequences are listed in Table 2. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted using PfuTurbo DNA polymerase (Stratagene, La Jolla, Calif.) and 200 ng of Arabidopsis Columbia root cDNA. PCR products were cloned into the SmaI site of pBluescript II SK+ (Stratagene). MTF cDNA was excised using XhoI and SpeI and cloned into the binary vector pE1775 (Lee et al., 2007). The resulting construction, pE3263, was introduced into A. tumefaciens GV3101 by electroporation and used for floral dip transformation (Clough and Bent, 1998) of the mutant mtf1-4. Transgenic plants were selected on B5 medium containing 20 μg/mL hygromycin.

Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Analysis

Real-time RT-PCR was carried out using total RNA isolated in triplicate from roots of plants grown in liquid B5 medium. PCR was performed in triplicate on an ABI Prism 7500 Sequence Detection System (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.). Expression levels were calculated by the relative standard curve method (Applied Biosystems) for all transcripts except ORA59, where the comparative cycle threshold method (Applied Biosystems) was used, and normalized to Actin2 transcript levels. Transcript levels of genes identified in microarray experiments were validated by RT-PCR. The list of primers is given in Table 2.

Generation of MTF-RNAi Lines

MTF-RNAi lines were generated using pFGC1008 (GenBank Accession AY310333). The RNAi construct (pE3387) contained a ˜400 bp cDNA fragment of MTF amplified using primers listed in Table 2. The MTF fragment was oriented as an inverted repeat with each repeat separated by a fragment from the gusA gene. RNAi lines, in ecotype Bl-1, were produced by floral-dip transformation using A. tumefaciens GV3101. Transgenic plants were selected on B5 medium containing hygromycin.

Bacterial Attachment Assays

Root segments of Arabidopsis Bl-1 and MTF-RNAi lines were incubated with A. tumefaciens A208 containing pJZ383 (Ptac::GFP). Root segments were co-cultivated with 105 cfu/mL (ecotype Columbia) or 108 cfu/mL (ecotype Bl-1) for 24 h in B5 minimal medium. Root segments were rinsed and visualized by epifluorescence microscopy.

Generation of MTF Promoter-EYFP Transgenic Plants

˜1.2 kb of the MTF promoter was amplified using a forward primer incorporating an AgeI restriction site at the 5′ end and a reverse primer incorporating the sequence for the first ten amino acids of MTF and a BamHI restriction site. Primers are listed in Table 2. The amplification product was cloned into the SmaI site of pBluescriptII SK+. The MTF promoter was excised using AgeI and BamHI and cloned into these sites of pSAT6-EYFP-N146 as a translational fusion with EYFP. The expression cassette was cloned as a PI-PspI fragment into pPZP-RCS2 (Tzfira et al., 2005). The resulting plasmid was transformed into A. tumefaciens GV3101 and used for floral-dip transformation of Arabidopsis Col-0. Transgenic plants were selected on B5 medium supplemented with hygromycin.

Phytohormone Treatment of Plant Roots

Plants of Arabidopsis ecotypes Ws-2, Bl-1, Bla-2, Cal-0, Dijon-G, and Petergof were grown as described by Nam et al. and roots were excised and incubated on CIM for 0, 1, or 3 days prior to cutting into segments and infection with A. tumefaciens A208 for tumorigenesis assays or strain At849 for transient GUS expression assays.

For assessing the effect of cytokinins on MTF transcript levels and transformation, root segments from Arabidopsis Col-0 or Bl-1 were incubated on MS medium supplemented with 0, 1.4 or 14 μM trans-zeatin, and co-cultivated with either A. tumefaciens A348 or A281 for 48 h. Roots were infected with bacteria at 106 cfu/mL (Col-0) or 108 cfu/mL (Bl-1). Following infection, root segments were either transferred to MS basal medium containing 100 μg/mL Timentin and incubated for 4-5 weeks before recording the percentage of root segments developing tumors, or used for RNA isolation.

Agrobacterium attachment assays were conducted as described herein. Col-0 and Bl-1 root segments were co-cultivated with A281 at 106 or 108 cfu/mL, respectively, for 24 h in the presence or absence of 1.4 μM trans-zeatin.

Microarray Analysis

Surface-sterilized seeds of wild-type, hat3, and mtf1-4 (previously mtf2) were germinated in B5 medium and seedlings grown for 2-weeks at 23° C. under a 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod. Three biological replicates, each consisting of twenty seedlings of each line transferred to liquid B5 medium, were grown for 12 days. Roots were frozen in liquid N2. RNA was isolated using Trizol reagent (Invitrogen). Microarray experiments were performed according to the Affymetrix GeneChip Expression Analysis Manual (http://www.affymetrix.com) using Arabidopsis ATH1 Genome Arrays (Affymetrix) at the Purdue University Genomics Center. GeneChip operating software was used to produce CEL files containing raw probe intensities for the arrays. Data from these files were read with “Biobase” and “affy” packages in R/Bioconductor (Gentleman et al., 2004) for analysis of genomic data. A background correction was performed on the perfect match intensities to make signals from different chips comparable. A robust local regression was employed to normalize background corrected data. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) method was employed as previously described by Chu et al., 2002, to detect probe sets which are differentially expressed between two lines using the natural log of the background corrected, normalized data as the gene expression level. To determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between two lines, it was sufficient to test whether the line effect was different from zero. This ANOVA model was performed for Col vs hat3, Col vs mtf1-4 (previously mtf2), and mtf1-4 vs hat3. Both the false discovery rate (FDR) approach (Benjamini et al., 1995) and Holm's sequential Bonferroni correction procedure (Holm, 1979) were used to adjust for multiple testing, with a significance level a of 0.05.

Generation of Transgenic Arabidopsis Lines Over-Expressing Genes Up-Regulated in mtf Mutants

cDNAs of At2g40960, At1g50060, At5g46295, and At5g15725 were amplified using primers containing KpnI and SacI sites, and cloned into the SmaI site of pBluescriptII SK+. The primers used for amplification are listed in Table 2. DNA was digested with KpnI and SacI and cloned into pE1775 (Lee et al., 2007). The resulting constructs were introduced into A. tumefaciens GV3101 by electroporation and used for floral-dip transformation of Arabidopsis Col-0. Transgenic plants were selected on B5 medium supplemented with hygromycin.

Disease Assays on Col-0 and Mtf1-4 (Previously Mtf2)

Fungal and bacterial cultures were maintained and disease assays performed as previously described by Mengiste et al., 2003. Botrytis cinerea strain B05-10 spores were harvested 10 days after initiating culture and re-suspended in 1% Sabouraud Maltose Broth (SMB) media (DIFCO, Sparks, Md.) at a concentration of 2.5×105 spores/mL for spray- and drop-inoculation of whole plants. Alternaria brassicicola spores were harvested and re-suspended in distilled water at a concentration of 5×105 spores/ml for drop-inoculation of detached leaves. Disease assays with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and hrcC were done as described.


TABLE 1
Fold-change of significantly differentially regulated genes in two MTF
mutants compared to the wild-type, identified by microarray analyses
Fold change
Gene
Annotation
hat3
mtf1-4
Up-regulated genes
At1g71870
MATE efflux family protein
3.9
3.3
At3g05730
defensin-like (DEFL) family protein
3.0
3.1
At2g25510
unknown protein
1.6
2.6
At3g16670
phylloplanin precursor (T-phylloplanin)
2.4
2.4
At5g10040
hypothetical protein
2.6
2.1
At2g02990
ribonuclease, RNS1
2.2
2.0
At2g41230
similar to ARL (ARGOS-LIKE)
1.4
2.0
At2g40960
nucleic acid binding
1.5
1.9
At1g50060
putative pathogenesis-related protein
1.3
1.8
At5g46295
expressed protein
1.8
1.7
At5g05900
UGT 76C3
1.3
1.7
At3g62760
glutathione transferase III-like protein
1.4
1.7
At5g14750
myb transcription factor werewolf
1.5
1.7
(WER)/MYB66
At5g15725
expressed protein
1.3
1.6
At1g74490
putative protein kinase
1.6
1.6
At4g38080
putative hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein
1.9
1.6
family protein
At4g29690
nucleotide pyrophosphatase-like protein
1.9
1.6
At2g25980
jacalin lectin family protein
1.4
1.5
At1g74500
putative DNA-binding bHLH protein
1.4
1.5
At1g23160
GH3-like auxin-regulated protein
1.7
1.5
At5g44260
zinc finger (CCCH-type) family protein
1.3
1.5
At2g40010
60S acidic ribosomal protein P0
1.4
1.5
At3g17990
phosphoethanolamine
1.5
1.5
N-methyltransferase 1
Down-regulated genes
At2g40970
myb family transcription factor
4.0
4.3
At1g35210
expressed protein
1.4
2.3
At1g77640
ERF/AP2 transcription factor DREBA5
1.7
2.2
At3g56710
SigA binding protein
1.3
1.9
At5g37770
calmodulin-related protein 2,
1.3
1.8
touch-induced (TCH2)
At5g39670
calcium-binding protein (CBP1)
1.5
1.8
At2g43290
calmodulin-like protein (MSS3)
1.3
1.8
At4g25470
DRE CRT-binding protein DREB1C
1.4
1.7
At5g49520
WRKY48
1.3
1.7
At4g11280
ACC synthase (AtACS-6)
1.3
1.6
At1g51920
expressed protein
1.4
1.6
At1g66160
U-box domain-containing protein
1.3
1.6
At5g47960
RAS superfamily GTP-binding protein
1.3
1.6
(SMG1)
At1g49230
RING-H2 finger protein RHA3a
1.2
1.5
At4g20000
SigA binding protein family
1.2
1.5


TABLE 2
Sequences of primers used (SEQ ID NOS 2-70, respectively, in
order of appearance)
Gene
Primer Name
Sequence (5′→3′)
RT-PCR primers:
At3g18780
Actin-FP
CTAAGCTCTCAAGATCAAAGGCTTA
Actin-RP
ACTAAAACGCAAAACGAAAGCGGTT
Actin2-F
GAAGTACAGTGTCTGGATCGGTGGTT
Actin2-R
ATTCCTGGACCTGCCTCATCATACTC
At1g71870
At1g71870-F
TGTGGTTTGGGTTGCTTTCAGCTC
At1g71870-R
TCAGTCTCATTGCCTTCACGGCTT
At3g05730
At3g05730-F
ATGGCAAAGACCCTCAATTCCATCTG
At3g05730-R
TATTTCAACGACCGTAGCAGTGGC
At3g16670
At3g16670-F
TCCTCAACATAGTCGCTATCCTCCCA
At3g16670-R
GAGAAGGGAAACACACTGTAACCGAAC
At5g10040
At5g10040-F
TTGCTGTGGCGGTTTCTAGTGGCTTT
At5g10040-R
ACATGCCCTCTGGTGATTAGAGAAGC
At2g02990
At2g02990-F
CTGGTTCCGGTTTAATCGAATGTCCG
At2g02990-R
GATCGATGCCGGTTCAAGAGACTGAA
At2g40960
At2g40960-F
AGCTGGTACCATGGACACAGCATTGACC
At2g40960-R
CCGGGAGCTCTTACCGGTTCTGCATG
At2g41230
At2g41230-F
CCTCCTCCTTCCTCTACTCCTCATGATT
At2g41230-R
TTATGTATGTACGGACGGTTCGCAACGC
At5g46295
At5g46295-F
TGAGAAGATGATGAGAAAAGGGAAGCTTTC
At5g46295-R
TGTTAGAATTTACAACCACAACAGAGGAAG
At1g50060
At1g50060-F
CAGTGAAGATAGGGTGTGCTAGGGTT
At1g50060-R
ATCAGTAAGGGTACTCTCCGACCCAA
At3g62760
At3g62760-F
ATCTCCACCACGTGCCTTACACTTAC
At3g62760-R
TTAAGGAAAGCCGGACGAGAACAGAG
At5g14750
At5g14750-F
TGGGTTCATGAGGATGAGTTTGAGC
At5g14750-R
GACTGTTGATGTATTAGTGTTTGATCAGC
At5g15725
At5g15725-F
CGACCAAGGATATAATATGAAGAAGACGAG
At5g15725-R
GTCAATTAGTGACGATTACGCACGCC
At1g74490
At1g74490-F
TTTAGTCCTTAGGATGTCTGAGAAACCC
At1g74490-R
GGTTAGACCATCGATGCTTGAGGT
At4g38080
At4g38080-F
GCCCACAATCCCTAACATTCCACAGA
At4g38080-R
AGTGTGTGATCCAAAGCTGTCTCAGG
At1g35210
At1g35210-F
GGTTTGGTAATGGGCACAAAGAAGAG
At1g35210-R
CTTGCACGTACCCACCAAACTGATCT
At1g77640
At1g77640-F
CGGAGATCCGTTTGATTATTCTCCAC
At1g77640-R
TGGACCGTTGGATTAACTGAAACTCC
At3g56710
At3g56710-F
GTGATTGTTATGAGCCGTTGAATGCGG
At3g56710-R
TCACATAGAATCGATGCTTCCAAAGTCA
At5g37770
At5g37770-F
GTGAGAAGTGCTCTGTGCAAGATTGT
At5g37770-R
CGGCGAAATCTTCCAAATCCTCAAGC
At5g39670
At5g39670-F
CGATGGAAGTAAAGACGGAAGAATCG
At5g39670-R
GGTGCGGAGACAACAGTATTAACAGAC
At2g43290
At2g43290-F
AGGTGGTGGCTTTAGCAGCAGTA
At2g43290-R
ACACCTTCCTCGATTACACGATGTT
At4g25470
At4g25470-F
TTGATGTCGAGGGAGATGATGACGTG
At4g25479-R
ACCATTTACATTCGTTTCTCACAACCAA
At5g49520
At5g49520-F
CCTTCGCAGATCAGATCCGATACTATT
At5g49520-R
ACTCCTCATGAAACCTACCTACCGGA
At4g11280
At4g11280-F
GAAGAAGTGTTGGCAGAGTAACCTCAG
At4g11280-R
TCTGTGCACGGACTAGCGGAGAA
TAIL-PCR primers:
Degenerate primers:
AD1:
NTCASTWTWTSGWGTT
AD2:
NGTCGASWGANAWGAA
AD3:
WGTGNAGWANCANAGA
pSKI015-specific primers:
ACT-TAIL1:
TGGATTGATGTGATATCTAGATCCG
ACT-TAIL2:
CCCCCACCCACGAGGAACATCGTGG
ACT-TAIL3:
GGAAGATGGCTTCTACAAATGCCAT
Primers to genotype MTF mutant plants:
MTF-RT forward:
CTCATCCCTATCTCTCAAACC
MTF reverse:
TTCCGGCAGGGAAGAGCTTAAGCATCTT
T-DNA primer LBa1:
TGGTTCACGTAGTGGGCCATCG
Primers to amplify MTF cDNA:
MTF-XhoI-F
ACGGCTCGAGATGAGAGAAGATAATCCA
MTF-SpeI-R
AACCACTAGTTTAATTTCCGGCAGGGAAG
Real-time RT-PCR primers:
MTF-RT forward
CTCATCCCTATCTCTCAAACC
MTF-RT reverse
TCTGAAGATGACTCGCAACGT
qORA59-F
TCGCGGCCGAGATAAGAGACTC
qORA59-R
TCCGGAGAGATTCTTCAACGACATCC
MTF RNAi primers:
MTF-RNAi-F
ACACTAGTGGCGCGCCTTTACCTTAGGAGAATGC
MTF-RNAi-R
ACGGATCCATTTAAATTTGATCCTGACGACAAAT
MTF promoter primers:
MybPro-AgeI:
CCCCACCGGTATACTACAAAATACCTAAAACAAAATGT
MybPro-BamHI:
CCAAGGATCCGAGATGGAAGCTCTTCTTC

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<160> NUMBER OF SEQ ID NOS: 83

<210> SEQ ID NO: 1

<211> LENGTH: 7

<212> TYPE: PRT

<213> ORGANISM: Arabidopsis sp.

<400> SEQENCE: 1

Ser His Ala Gln Lys Tyr Phe

1 5

<210> SEQ ID NO: 2

<211> LENGTH: 25

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<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

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ctaagctctc aagatcaaag gctta 25

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actaaaacgc aaaacgaaag cggtt 25

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<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

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<400> SEQENCE: 4

gaagtacagt gtctggatcg gtggtt 26

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<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 5

attcctggac ctgcctcatc atactc 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 6

<211> LENGTH: 24

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 6

tgtggtttgg gttgctttca gctc 24

<210> SEQ ID NO: 7

<211> LENGTH: 24

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 7

tcagtctcat tgccttcacg gctt 24

<210> SEQ ID NO: 8

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 8

atggcaaaga ccctcaattc catctg 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 9

<211> LENGTH: 24

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 9

tatttcaacg accgtagcag tggc 24

<210> SEQ ID NO: 10

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 10

tcctcaacat agtcgctatc ctccca 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 11

<211> LENGTH: 27

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 11

gagaagggaa acacactgta accgaac 27

<210> SEQ ID NO: 12

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 12

ttgctgtggc ggtttctagt ggcttt 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 13

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 13

acatgccctc tggtgattag agaagc 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 14

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 14

ctggttccgg tttaatcgaa tgtccg 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 15

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 15

gatcgatgcc ggttcaagag actgaa 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 16

<211> LENGTH: 28

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 16

agctggtacc atggacacag cattgacc 28

<210> SEQ ID NO: 17

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 17

ccgggagctc ttaccggttc tgcatg 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 18

<211> LENGTH: 28

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 18

cctcctcctt cctctactcc tcatgatt 28

<210> SEQ ID NO: 19

<211> LENGTH: 28

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 19

ttatgtatgt acggacggtt cgcaacgc 28

<210> SEQ ID NO: 20

<211> LENGTH: 30

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 20

tgagaagatg atgagaaaag ggaagctttc 30

<210> SEQ ID NO: 21

<211> LENGTH: 30

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 21

tgttagaatt tacaaccaca acagaggaag 30

<210> SEQ ID NO: 22

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 22

cagtgaagat agggtgtgct agggtt 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 23

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 23

atcagtaagg gtactctccg acccaa 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 24

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 24

atctccacca cgtgccttac acttac 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 25

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 25

ttaaggaaag ccggacgaga acagag 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 26

<211> LENGTH: 25

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 26

tgggttcatg aggatgagtt tgagc 25

<210> SEQ ID NO: 27

<211> LENGTH: 29

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 27

gactgttgat gtattagtgt ttgatcagc 29

<210> SEQ ID NO: 28

<211> LENGTH: 30

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 28

cgaccaagga tataatatga agaagacgag 30

<210> SEQ ID NO: 29

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 29

gtcaattagt gacgattacg cacgcc 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 30

<211> LENGTH: 28

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 30

tttagtcctt aggatgtctg agaaaccc 28

<210> SEQ ID NO: 31

<211> LENGTH: 24

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 31

ggttagacca tcgatgcttg aggt 24

<210> SEQ ID NO: 32

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 32

gcccacaatc cctaacattc cacaga 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 33

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 33

agtgtgtgat ccaaagctgt ctcagg 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 34

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 34

ggtttggtaa tgggcacaaa gaagag 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 35

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 35

cttgcacgta cccaccaaac tgatct 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 36

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 36

cggagatccg tttgattatt ctccac 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 37

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 37

tggaccgttg gattaactga aactcc 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 38

<211> LENGTH: 27

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 38

gtgattgtta tgagccgttg aatgcgg 27

<210> SEQ ID NO: 39

<211> LENGTH: 28

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 39

tcacatagaa tcgatgcttc caaagtca 28

<210> SEQ ID NO: 40

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 40

gtgagaagtg ctctgtgcaa gattgt 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 41

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 41

cggcgaaatc ttccaaatcc tcaagc 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 42

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 42

cgatggaagt aaagacggaa gaatcg 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 43

<211> LENGTH: 27

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 43

ggtgcggaga caacagtatt aacagac 27

<210> SEQ ID NO: 44

<211> LENGTH: 23

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 44

aggtggtggc tttagcagca gta 23

<210> SEQ ID NO: 45

<211> LENGTH: 25

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 45

acaccttcct cgattacacg atgtt 25

<210> SEQ ID NO: 46

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 46

ttgatgtcga gggagatgat gacgtg 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 47

<211> LENGTH: 28

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 47

accatttaca ttcgtttctc acaaccaa 28

<210> SEQ ID NO: 48

<211> LENGTH: 27

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 48

ccttcgcaga tcagatccga tactatt 27

<210> SEQ ID NO: 49

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 49

actcctcatg aaacctacct accgga 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 50

<211> LENGTH: 27

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 50

gaagaagtgt tggcagagta acctcag 27

<210> SEQ ID NO: 51

<211> LENGTH: 23

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 51

tctgtgcacg gactagcgga gaa 23

<210> SEQ ID NO: 52

<211> LENGTH: 16

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: modified_base

<222> LOCATION: (1)..(1)

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: a, c, t, g, unknown or other

<400> SEQENCE: 52

ntcastwtwt sgwgtt 16

<210> SEQ ID NO: 53

<211> LENGTH: 16

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: modified_base

<222> LOCATION: (1)..(1)

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: a, c, t, g, unknown or other

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: modified_base

<222> LOCATION: (11)..(11)

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: a, c, t, g, unknown or other

<400> SEQENCE: 53

ngtcgaswga nawgaa 16

<210> SEQ ID NO: 54

<211> LENGTH: 16

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: modified_base

<222> LOCATION: (5)..(5)

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: a, c, t, g, unknown or other

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: modified_base

<222> LOCATION: (10)..(10)

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: a, c, t, g, unknown or other

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: modified_base

<222> LOCATION: (13)..(13)

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: a, c, t, g, unknown or other

<400> SEQENCE: 54

wgtgnagwan canaga 16

<210> SEQ ID NO: 55

<211> LENGTH: 25

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 55

tggattgatg tgatatctag atccg 25

<210> SEQ ID NO: 56

<211> LENGTH: 25

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 56

cccccaccca cgaggaacat cgtgg 25

<210> SEQ ID NO: 57

<211> LENGTH: 25

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 57

ggaagatggc ttctacaaat gccat 25

<210> SEQ ID NO: 58

<211> LENGTH: 21

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 58

ctcatcccta tctctcaaac c 21

<210> SEQ ID NO: 59

<211> LENGTH: 28

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 59

ttccggcagg gaagagctta agcatctt 28

<210> SEQ ID NO: 60

<211> LENGTH: 22

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 60

tggttcacgt agtgggccat cg 22

<210> SEQ ID NO: 61

<211> LENGTH: 28

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 61

acggctcgag atgagagaag ataatcca 28

<210> SEQ ID NO: 62

<211> LENGTH: 29

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 62

aaccactagt ttaatttccg gcagggaag 29

<210> SEQ ID NO: 63

<211> LENGTH: 21

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 63

ctcatcccta tctctcaaac c 21

<210> SEQ ID NO: 64

<211> LENGTH: 21

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 64

tctgaagatg actcgcaacg t 21

<210> SEQ ID NO: 65

<211> LENGTH: 22

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 65

tcgcggccga gataagagac tc 22

<210> SEQ ID NO: 66

<211> LENGTH: 26

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 66

tccggagaga ttcttcaacg acatcc 26

<210> SEQ ID NO: 67

<211> LENGTH: 34

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 67

acactagtgg cgcgccttta ccttaggaga atgc 34

<210> SEQ ID NO: 68

<211> LENGTH: 34

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 68

acggatccat ttaaatttga tcctgacgac aaat 34

<210> SEQ ID NO: 69

<211> LENGTH: 38

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 69

ccccaccggt atactacaaa atacctaaaa caaaatgt 38

<210> SEQ ID NO: 70

<211> LENGTH: 29

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Artificial Sequence

<220> FEATURE:

<221> NAME/KEY: source

<223> OTHER INFORMATION: /note=“Description of Artificial Sequence

Synthetic primer”

<400> SEQENCE: 70

ccaaggatcc gagatggaag ctcttcttc 29

<210> SEQ ID NO: 71

<211> LENGTH: 247

<212> TYPE: PRT

<213> ORGANISM: Brassica napus

<400> SEQENCE: 71

Met Arg Glu Glu Thr Ser Asn Trp Leu Ile Arg Cys Glu Glu Glu Leu

1 5 10 15

Pro Ser Pro Glu Glu Leu Ile Pro Ile Ser Gln Thr Leu Ile Thr Pro

20 25 30

His Leu Ala Leu Ala Phe Gln Ile Gly Ser His Asn Asn His Ser Ser

35 40 45

Pro Lys Arg Thr Val Ala Met Tyr His Gln Lys Leu Gln Pro Ala Ala

50 55 60

Thr Pro Thr Pro Thr Met Met Asn Ser Asp Phe Ala Val Asp Ser Ser

65 70 75 80

Thr Asp Leu Gly Ser Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Glu Glu Pro Ala

85 90 95

Arg Thr Leu Lys Arg Pro Arg Leu Val Trp Thr Pro Gln Leu His Lys

100 105 110

Arg Phe Val Asp Ala Val Gly His Leu Gly Ile Lys Asn Ala Val Pro

115 120 125

Lys Thr Ile Met Gln Leu Met Ser Val Glu Gly Leu Thr Arg Glu Asn

130 135 140

Val Ala Ser His Leu Gln Lys Tyr Arg Leu Tyr Leu Arg Arg Met Gln

145 150 155 160

Gly Gly Asn Asp Asn Gly Val Ser Gly Gly His Val Ile Val Ser Asp

165 170 175

Ser Ala Thr Asp Arg Leu Phe Ala Ser Ser Pro Val Pro Ala His Leu

180 185 190

Leu Ser His Glu Tyr Leu Met Pro Ser Pro Leu Met Asn Pro Tyr Leu

195 200 205

Gly Lys His Val Val Thr Gln Gln Asn His Val Val Arg Asn Leu Arg

210 215 220

Tyr Glu Gly Ser Glu Tyr Gly Asn Gly Asp Gly Gly Arg Lys Val Leu

225 230 235 240

Lys Leu Phe Pro Ala Gly Asn

245

<210> SEQ ID NO: 72

<211> LENGTH: 247

<212> TYPE: PRT

<213> ORGANISM: Brassica rapa

<400> SEQENCE: 72

Met Arg Glu Glu Thr Pro Asn Trp Leu Val Arg Trp Glu Glu Glu Leu

1 5 10 15

Pro Ser Pro Glu Glu Leu Ile Pro Ile Ser Gln Thr Leu Ile Thr Pro

20 25 30

His Leu Ala Leu Ala Phe Gln Ile Gly Ser His Asn Asn His Ser Ser

35 40 45

Pro Lys Arg Thr Val Ala Met Tyr His Gln Lys Leu Gln Pro Ala Ala

50 55 60

Thr Pro Thr Pro Thr Met Met Asn Ser Asp Phe Ala Val Asp Ser Ser

65 70 75 80

Thr Asp Leu Gly Ser Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Glu Glu Pro Ala

85 90 95

Arg Thr Leu Lys Arg Pro Arg Leu Val Trp Thr Pro Gln Leu His Lys

100 105 110

Arg Phe Val Asp Ala Val Gly His Leu Gly Ile Lys Asn Ala Val Pro

115 120 125

Lys Thr Ile Met Gln Leu Met Ser Val Glu Gly Leu Thr Arg Glu Asn

130 135 140

Val Ala Ser His Leu Gln Lys Tyr Arg Leu Tyr Leu Arg Arg Met Gln

145 150 155 160

Gly Gly Asn Gly Asn Gly Val Ser Gly Gly His Val Ile Val Ser Asp

165 170 175

Ser Ala Thr Asp Arg Leu Phe Ala Ser Ser Pro Val Pro Ala His Leu

180 185 190

Leu Ser His Glu Tyr Leu Met Pro Ser Pro Leu Met Asn Pro Tyr Leu

195 200 205

Gly Lys His Val Val Thr Gln Gln Asn His Val Val Arg Asn Leu Arg

210 215 220

Tyr Glu Gly Ser Glu Tyr Gly Asn Gly Asp Gly Gly Arg Lys Val Leu

225 230 235 240

Lys Leu Phe Pro Ala Gly Asn

245

<210> SEQ ID NO: 73

<211> LENGTH: 248

<212> TYPE: PRT

<213> ORGANISM: Brassica oleracea

<400> SEQENCE: 73

Met Arg Glu Glu Thr Pro Asn Trp Leu Ile Arg Cys Glu Glu Glu Leu

1 5 10 15

Pro Ser Pro Glu Glu Leu Ile Pro Ile Ser Gln Thr Leu Ile Thr Pro

20 25 30

His Leu Ala Leu Ala Phe Gln Ile Gly Ser His Asn Asn Ile His Ser

35 40 45

Ser Pro Lys Arg Thr Ala Ala Met Tyr His Gln Lys Leu Gln Pro Ala

50 55 60

Ala Thr Pro Ser Pro Thr Met Met Asn Thr Asp Phe Gly Gly Asp Ser

65 70 75 80

Ser Thr Asp Leu Gly Ser Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Asp Glu Pro

85 90 95

Ala Arg Thr Leu Lys Arg Pro Arg Leu Val Trp Thr Pro Gln Leu His

100 105 110

Lys Arg Phe Val Asp Ala Val Gly His Leu Gly Ile Lys Asn Ala Val

115 120 125

Pro Lys Thr Ile Met Gln Leu Met Ser Val Glu Gly Leu Thr Arg Glu

130 135 140

Asn Val Ala Ser His Leu Gln Lys Tyr Arg Leu Tyr Leu Arg Arg Met

145 150 155 160

Gln Gly Gly Asn Gly Asn Gly Val Ser Gly Gly His Val Ile Val Ser

165 170 175

Asp Ser Ala Thr Asp Arg Leu Phe Ala Ser Ser Pro Val Pro Ala His

180 185 190

Leu Leu Ser His Glu Tyr Leu Met Pro Ser Pro Leu Met Asn Pro Tyr

195 200 205

Leu Gly Lys His Val Val Thr Gln Gln Asn His Val Val Arg Asn Leu

210 215 220

Arg Tyr Glu Asp Ser Glu Tyr Gly Asn Gly Asp Gly Gly Arg Lys Val

225 230 235 240

Leu Lys Leu Phe Pro Ala Gly Asn

245

<210> SEQ ID NO: 74

<211> LENGTH: 248

<212> TYPE: PRT

<213> ORGANISM: Arabidopsis thaliana

<400> SEQENCE: 74

Met Arg Glu Asp Asn Pro Asn Trp Phe Leu Arg Trp Glu Glu Glu Leu

1 5 10 15

Pro Ser Pro Glu Glu Leu Ile Pro Ile Ser Gln Thr Leu Ile Thr Pro

20 25 30

His Leu Ala Leu Ala Phe Gln Ile Gly Ser Pro Asn His His Leu Gly

35 40 45

Ser Lys Arg Thr Thr Ala Ile Tyr His Gln Lys Leu Gln Ser Ser Thr

50 55 60

Thr Pro Thr Thr Pro Thr Pro Thr Pro Pro Pro Met Met Met Asn Ser

65 70 75 80

Asp Phe Gly Gly Gly Asp Ser Thr Asp Leu Gly Ser Gly Ser Ile Gly

85 90 95

Gly Glu Pro Ala Arg Thr Leu Lys Arg Pro Arg Leu Val Trp Thr Pro

100 105 110

Gln Leu His Lys Arg Phe Val Asp Ala Val Gly His Leu Gly Ile Lys

115 120 125

Asn Ala Val Pro Lys Thr Ile Met Gln Leu Met Ser Val Glu Gly Leu

130 135 140

Thr Arg Glu Asn Val Ala Ser His Leu Gln Lys Tyr Arg Leu Tyr Leu

145 150 155 160

Arg Arg Met Gln Gly Gly Asn Gly Asn Gly Ile Thr Gly Gly His Val

165 170 175

Ile Val Ser Asp Ser Ala Thr Asp Arg Leu Phe Ala Ser Ser Pro Val

180 185 190

Pro Ala His Phe Leu Ser Pro Asp Tyr Leu Met Pro Pro Leu Glu His

195 200 205

Ser Tyr Met Gly Lys His Val Ile Thr Gln Gln Asn Gln Val Val Arg

210 215 220

Asn Leu Arg Tyr Glu Asp Ser Glu Tyr Gly His Gly Ser Met Lys Met

225 230 235 240

Leu Lys Leu Phe Pro Ala Gly Asn

245

<210> SEQ ID NO: 75

<211> LENGTH: 331

<212> TYPE: PRT

<213> ORGANISM: Oryza sativa

<400> SEQENCE: 75

Met Arg Glu Glu Glu Glu Pro Ser Trp Phe Ala Arg Trp Glu Glu Gln

1 5 10 15

Leu Pro Ala Pro Asp Glu Leu Met Pro Leu Ser Gln Ser Leu Ile Thr

20 25 30

Pro Asp Leu Ala Val Ala Phe Asp Ile Pro Thr His Gly Gly Gly Gly

35 40 45

Gly Gly Gly Val Gly Gly Gly Val Val Gly Gly Asp Gly Val Gly Gly

50 55 60

Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Val Gly Ala Gly Glu

65 70 75 80

Met Asn Gly Gly Ala Ser Ser Ala Ala Gly Ser Ser Gly Gly Gly Gly

85 90 95

Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Asp Glu Pro Ala Arg Thr Leu Lys Arg Pro Arg

100 105 110

Leu Val Trp Thr Pro Gln Leu His Lys Arg Phe Val Asp Ala Val Ala

115 120 125

His Leu Gly Ile Lys Asn Ala Val Pro Lys Thr Ile Met Gln Leu Met

130 135 140

Ser Val Asp Gly Leu Thr Arg Glu Asn Val Ala Ser His Leu Gln Lys

145 150 155 160

Tyr Arg Leu Tyr Leu Lys Arg Met Gln Gly Val Gly Asn Gly Gly Gly

165 170 175

Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Ala Gly Ala Gly Gly Ser His Ser Ser Gly

180 185 190

Ser Gly Thr Asp Ala Ala Thr Glu His Leu Phe Ala Thr Gly Pro Val

195 200 205

Pro Phe Leu Pro Pro Gly Arg Ala Pro Ala Gly Gly Asp Pro Tyr Pro

210 215 220

Pro Phe Ala Pro Met Gly Gly His His His His Pro Pro Gln Ile Gly

225 230 235 240

His Phe His His His Pro Ala Ala Arg Pro Leu Gly His Tyr Gly Ser

245 250 255

Gly Pro Gly Ala Gly Phe Asp His Gly Phe Leu Ser Arg Ala Val Ala

260 265 270

Gly Gly Gly Pro Pro Val Gly Pro Pro Gly Met His His Arg Met Val

275 280 285

Gly Pro Ala Ala Gly Met Ala Met Met Ala Pro Ser Pro Phe Ala Glu

290 295 300

Glu Leu Glu Leu Gly Ser Arg Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Gly Arg Arg

305 310 315 320

Glu Leu Thr Leu Phe Pro Thr Thr Gly Asp His

325 330

<210> SEQ ID NO: 76

<211> LENGTH: 747

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Arabidopsis thaliana

<400> SEQENCE: 76

atgagagaag ataatccaaa ttggttcctt agatgggaag aagagcttcc atctccagaa 60

gaactcatcc ctatctctca aaccttaatc actcctcatc tagctctcgc tttccaaatc 120

ggaagtccta atcatcatct cggatcaaag agaaccaccg cgatttatca ccagaagctt 180

caatcctcca ccactccaac aactccaact ccaactcctc caccgatgat gatgaattct 240

gatttcggcg gtggcgattc cacggatctt ggttcaggat caataggagg agagccagca 300

agaacgttga aacggccgcg tctagtgtgg acgcctcagc tacacaaacg tttcgtggat 360

gcggttggac acttagggat caaaaacgca gttccaaaga ctataatgca gcttatgagc 420

gttgaaggat tgactagaga gaacgttgcg agtcatcttc agaaatatcg tctttacctt 480

aggagaatgc aaggcgggaa cggtaacgga atcactggag gacacgtcat cgtctctgat 540

tcggctactg atcggctatt tgctagctca ccggttccag ctcatttctt gagcccggat 600

tacttgatgc cgccattaga gcattcgtat atggggaaac atgtgattac gcagcaaaac 660

caagtggttc gtaatctgag gtatgaagat tcggaatatg gtcatggtag tatgaagatg 720

cttaagctct tccctgccgg aaattaa 747

<210> SEQ ID NO: 77

<211> LENGTH: 1059

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Oryza sativa

<400> SEQENCE: 77

tggtttggtg ggaagaagaa ttggtgcgtg tgtgtgtgtg aggatgaggg aggaggagga 60

accgagctgg ttcgcgcggt gggaggagca gctgccggcg ccggacgagc tgatgccgct 120

gtcgcagtcg ctcatcacgc ccgatctcgc ggtggccttc gacatcccga cgcatggggg 180

tggtggtggt ggtggggtgg gcgggggtgt tgtcgggggt gatggggtgg gaggtggagg 240

tggtggtggt ggtggtggtg gcggtggcgt gggggcaggg gagatgaacg gcggggcgtc 300

gtcggcggcc gggtcgagcg gcggcggcgg cggcggggga ggtggcgacg agccggcgcg 360

gacgctcaag aggccccggc tcgtgtggac gccgcagctg cacaagcggt tcgtcgacgc 420

ggtggcgcac ctcggcatca agaacgccgt ccccaagacg ataatgcagc tgatgagcgt 480

cgatggcctc acgcgcgaga acgttgcgtc gcacctccag aagtaccgcc tctacctcaa 540

gcgcatgcag ggggtcggca acggcggcgg cggcggagga gggggcggcg ccggcgccgg 600

cgggagccac tcctccggct ccggcacgga cgccgccacg gagcacctct tcgccaccgg 660

gccggtcccc ttcctcccgc ccggccgcgc ccccgccggc ggggacccgt acccgccgtt 720

cgcccccatg ggcgggcacc accaccaccc gccgcagatc ggccacttcc accaccaccc 780

cgccgcgcgc ccgctcggcc actacggctc cggcccgggc gccggcttcg accacgggtt 840

cctcagccgg gccgtcgccg gaggcggccc gcccgtcggc ccaccgggga tgcaccaccg 900

catggtcggc cccgccgccg gcatggcgat gatggcgccg tcccccttcg ccgaagagct 960

ggagctcgga tcccgaggag gcggcggcgg cggcgggcgc cgcgagctta ctctgttccc 1020

gacgaccggc gaccactgag gcaagcagac agacagacc 1059

<210> SEQ ID NO: 78

<211> LENGTH: 767

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Brassica napus

<400> SEQENCE: 78

cacctttcaa aatgagagag gaaactccga actggctcgt cagatgggag gaggagcttc 60

cttcgccgga agagctcata cccatctctc aaaccttaat cactcctcac ctagctcttg 120

ccttccaaat aggaagccac aacaatcact cctcacctaa gagaaccgtc gccatgtacc 180

accagaagct ccaacccgcc gccactccat ctccaactat gatgaatact gacttcggcg 240

gagactcatc gactgatctc ggctcaggag gaggaggagg aggaggagac gagccagcga 300

ggacgctgaa acggccgcgt ttagtatgga cgccgcagct gcacaagcgt ttcgtggacg 360

cggttggtca cttagggatc aagaacgcag ttcctaagac gataatgcag ctgatgagcg 420

ttgaagggtt aacgagagag aacgttgcga gtcatctcca gaaataccgt ctctacctca 480

ggagaatgca aggcgggaac ggtaacggag tctccggagg acacgtcatc gtctcggact 540

cggccactga ccggctcttc gcgagctcgc cggttcctgc gcatttattg agccatgagt 600

acttgatgcc gtctccgttg atgaaccctt atttagggaa acatgtggtt acgcagcaga 660

accatgtggt tcgtaatttg aggtatgaag gttcagagta tggtaatgga gatggtggta 720

ggaaggttct taagctcttc cctgctggaa attaataatg agatttg 767

<210> SEQ ID NO: 79

<211> LENGTH: 767

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Brassica rapa

<400> SEQENCE: 79

cacctttcaa aatgagagag gaaactccga accggctcgt cagatgggag gaggagcttc 60

cttcgccgga agagctcata cccatctctc aaaccttaat cacccctcac ctagctcttg 120

ccttccaaat aggaagccac aacaatcact cctcacctaa gagaaccgtc gccatgtacc 180

accagaagct ccagcccgcc gccactccaa ctccaactat gatgaattct gacttcgcgg 240

tagactcatc aactgatctc ggctcaggag gaggaggagg aggaggagaa gagccagcga 300

ggacgctgaa acggccgcgt ttagtatgga cgccgcagct gcacaagcgt ttcgtggacg 360

cggttggtca cttagggatc aagaacgcag ttcctaagac gataatgcag cttatgagcg 420

ttgaagggtt aacgtgagag aacgtagcga gtcatctcca gaaatatcgt ctctacctaa 480

ggagaatgca aggcgggaac ggtaacggag tctccggagg acacgtcatc gtctcagact 540

cggccactga ccggctcttc gcgagttcgc cggttccggc gcatttattg agccatgagt 600

acttgatgcc gtctccgttg atgaaccctt atttagggaa acatgtggtt acgcagcaga 660

accatgtggt tcgtaatttg aggtatgaag gttcagagta tggtaatgga gatggtggta 720

ggaaggttct taagctcttc cctgctggaa attaataatg agatttg 767

<210> SEQ ID NO: 80

<211> LENGTH: 770

<212> TYPE: DNA

<213> ORGANISM: Brassica oleracea

<400> SEQENCE: 80

cacctttcaa aatgagagag gaaactccaa actggctcat cagatgtgag gaggagcttc 60

cttcgccgga agagctcata cctatctctc aaaccttaat cactcctcac ctagctcttg 120

ctttccaaat aggaagccac aacaatattc actcctcgcc gaagagaacc gccgccatgt 180

accaccagaa gctccaaccc gccgccactc catctccaac tatgatgaat actgacttcg 240

gcggagactc atcgactgat ctcggctcag gaggaggagg aggaggagga gacgagccag 300

cgaggacgct gaaacggccg cgtttagtat ggacgccgca gctgcacaag cgtttcgtgg 360

acgcggttgg tcacttaggg atcaagaacg cagttcctaa gacgataatg cagctgatga 420

gcgttgaagg gttaacgaga gagaacgttg cgagtcatct ccagaaatac cgtctctacc 480

tcaggagaat gcaaggcggc aacggtaacg gagtctccgg aggacacgtc atcgtctcgg 540

actcggctac tgaccggctc ttcgcgagct cgccggttcc ggcgcattta ttgagccatg 600

agtacttgat gccgtcaccg ttgatgaatc cttatttagg gaaacatgtg gtaacacagc 660

agaaccatgt ggttcgtaat ttgaggtatg aagattcgga gtatggtaat ggagatggtg 720

gtaggaaggt tcttaagctc tttcctgctg gaaattaata atgagatttg 770

<210> SEQ ID NO: 81

<211> LENGTH: 385

<212> TYPE: PRT

<213> ORGANISM: Arabidopsis sp.

<400> SEQENCE: 81

Met Val Leu Ser Lys Glu Asn Met Leu Lys Tyr Ser Ala His Leu Arg

1 5 10 15

Ala Tyr Asn Ser Ala Cys Gly Asp His Pro Glu Leu Lys Ser Phe Asp

20 25 30

Ser Glu Leu Gln Gln Lys Thr Ser Asn Leu Ile Asn Ser Phe Thr Ser

35 40 45

Asp Ala Lys Thr Gly Leu Val Pro Leu Pro Gln His Ala Ala Tyr Lys

50 55 60

Glu Phe Thr Lys His Leu Ala Glu Val Asn Gln Gln Val Ser Asp Tyr

65 70 75 80

Ile Ile Gly Tyr Gly Glu Val Val Trp Glu Asn Ser Thr Leu Arg Ser

85 90 95

Leu Val Glu Thr Tyr Phe Glu Ser Ala Lys Lys Thr Leu Asp Ile Ala

100 105 110

Glu Asn Val Thr Glu Tyr Val Asp Glu Ala Lys Arg Gly Glu Arg Tyr

115 120 125

Ile Val Ala Ala Val Ala Gln Phe Glu Lys Asp Lys Glu Asn Asp Val

130 135 140

Gly Lys Lys Thr Lys Arg Tyr Glu Asn Thr Leu Arg Glu Leu Lys Lys

145 150 155 160

Phe Glu Ala Met Gly Asn Pro Phe Asp Gly Asp Lys Phe Thr Thr Leu

165 170 175

Phe Lys Leu Met His Lys Glu Gln Glu Ser Leu Leu Glu Arg Val Arg

180 185 190

Glu Thr Lys Glu Lys Leu Asp Glu Glu Leu Lys Asn Ile Glu Met Glu

195 200 205

Ile Ser Ser Arg Lys Lys Trp Ser Ile Ile Ser Asn Val Leu Phe Ile

210 215 220

Gly Ala Phe Val Ala Val Ala Val Gly Ser Met Val Leu Val Cys Thr

225 230 235 240

Gly Val Gly Ala Gly Val Gly Val Ala Gly Leu Leu Ser Leu Pro Leu

245 250 255

Ile Ala Ile Gly Trp Val Gly Val His Thr Ile Leu Glu Asn Lys Ile

260 265 270

Gln Ala Arg Glu Lys Gln Glu Glu Ala Leu Lys Lys Ala His Arg Ile

275 280 285

Ala Asn Glu Met Asp Lys Gly Met Glu Thr Asp Lys Val Asp Met Asn

290 295 300

Ser Ile Ser Gly Lys Val His Ala Leu Lys Ser Lys Ile Thr Ser Met

305 310 315 320

Leu Asn Ala Val Lys Asp Ala Thr Glu Asp Gly Ala Asn Glu Val Asp

325 330 335

Thr Lys Gln Val Met Glu Thr Leu Thr Gly Asp Val Val Glu Leu Thr

340 345 350

Glu Asp Ile Lys Ala Val Gly Asp Asp Val Ala Lys Tyr Ser Lys Met

355 360 365

Ile Glu Glu Thr Ser Tyr His Val Leu Gln Lys Ile Thr Gly Ser Gly

370 375 380

Lys

385

<210> SEQ ID NO: 82

<211> LENGTH: 280

<212> TYPE: PRT

<213> ORGANISM: Arabidopsis sp.

<400> SEQENCE: 82

Met Glu Thr Leu Lys Ile Phe Glu Thr Val Thr Gln Cys Val His Glu

1 5 10 15

Ala Lys Arg Gly Gln Arg Tyr Ile Lys Ala Ala Val Ala Gln Phe Lys

20 25 30

Lys Asp Ser Glu Glu Lys Asp Val Gly Val Lys Lys Lys Arg Tyr Gly

35 40 45

Lys Thr Leu Glu Glu Leu Met Lys Phe Lys Ala Met Gly Asn Pro Phe

50 55 60

Asp Asp Gly Leu Leu Lys Thr Gln Phe Glu Leu Met Asn Lys Gln Gln

65 70 75 80

Glu Ser Leu Phe Asp Arg Val Thr Glu Thr Lys Glu Arg Ile Ala Lys

85 90 95

Glu Ile Glu Glu Val Gln Lys Arg Ile Ser Asn Val Asn Thr Ala Thr

100 105 110

Ile Val Ser His Val Val Phe Gly Ala Ala Ala Phe Gly Tyr Ala Ala

115 120 125

Gly Cys Ile Ala Leu Met Cys Thr Gly Val Gly Ala Pro Leu Gly Ala

130 135 140

Gly Met Val Thr Leu Leu Pro Val Ile Val Val Gln Trp Val Gly Val

145 150 155 160

Asn Tyr Val Leu Asn Asn Ser Leu Glu Ala Leu Gln Lys Gln Leu Lys

165 170 175

Ala Leu Asn Lys Val Lys Pro Ile Pro Glu Arg Ile Thr Glu Gly Met

180 185 190

Glu Ala Asp Lys Glu Gly Met Lys Ser Val Pro Glu Gln Val Asp Glu

195 200 205

Leu Lys Asp Gln Ile Ser Ser Leu Leu Gln Thr Val Asp Asp Ala Ile

210 215 220

Gly Ser Glu Gly Asp Glu Val Asp Val Lys Leu Asp Met Glu Ser Leu

225 230 235 240

Glu Asp Asp Val Lys Thr Leu Thr Thr Lys Ile Thr Glu Val Gly Glu

245 250 255

Thr Val Ala Lys Tyr Ser Lys Ile Ile Lys Glu Ala Arg Leu His Val

260 265 270

Leu Glu Lys Ile Thr Gly Thr Gly

275 280

<210> SEQ ID NO: 83

<211> LENGTH: 374

<212> TYPE: PRT

<213> ORGANISM: Arabidopsis sp.

<400> SEQENCE: 83

Met Ala Leu Ser Lys Asp Leu Met Leu Lys Cys Ser Glu Asp Met Met

1 5 10 15

Ser Ala Cys Lys Ser Ala Cys Glu Glu His Pro Lys Leu Lys Ser Phe

20 25 30

Asp Ala Ser Leu Gln Gln Arg Thr Asn Lys Met Ile Asp Ser Leu Thr

35 40 45

Val Glu Asp Lys Asn Gly Ser Ser Ser Pro His Asp Ala His Met Glu

50 55 60

Leu Ser Lys His Leu Val Glu Val Thr Gln Gly Val Ala Asp Phe Ile

65 70 75 80

Thr Glu Ile Glu Asp Asp Val Trp Asp Asn Gln Ala Leu Lys Tyr Leu

85 90 95

Val Leu Ala Tyr Phe Glu Asn Thr Lys Lys Thr Leu Glu Ile Phe Lys

100 105 110

Thr Ile Glu Asn Cys Val Glu Asn Ala Glu Met Gly Gln Leu Leu Ile

115 120 125

Arg Glu Ala Leu Ala Glu Phe Glu Lys Glu Ser Ala Glu Lys Asp Val

130 135 140

Gly Gly Lys Lys Lys Lys Tyr Glu Lys Thr Leu Glu Asp Leu Lys Ser

145 150 155 160

Phe Lys Glu Met Gly Asp Pro Phe Asp Gly Lys Val Leu Thr Thr Gln

165 170 175

Phe Glu Arg Ile Lys Lys Gln Gln Glu Ser Leu Leu Glu Glu Val Ser

180 185 190

Glu Thr Arg Lys Lys Ile Gln Asp Glu Ile Ser Asn Leu Glu Lys Lys

195 200 205

Thr Leu Ile Thr Asn Val Val Phe Gly Ala Ala Phe Ala Ile Val Ala

210 215 220

Val Ala Ser Ile Ala Leu Ile Ala Thr Gly Val Gly Ala Ala Ala Gly

225 230 235 240

Phe Gly Ala Leu Ala Ala Pro Leu Leu Ala Ala Gly Trp Ala Gly Val

245 250 255

Tyr Thr Thr Leu Asp Lys Lys Lys Asp Ala Leu Asn Lys Gln Leu Glu

260 265 270

Gly Leu Lys Lys Val Glu Glu Ile Glu Glu Ser Val Glu Lys Gly Ile

275 280 285

Lys Thr Asn Glu Glu Ala Thr Glu Thr Val Ser Ile Leu Val Asp Gly

290 295 300

Leu Glu Asp Arg Ile Lys Asn Met Leu Lys Leu Val Asp Asn Ala Ile

305 310 315 320

Asp His Glu Asp Asn Glu Ala Ala Thr Arg Ile Val Leu Thr Gln Ile

325 330 335

Ser Lys Lys Val Glu Lys Leu Thr Lys Lys Ile Thr Glu Val Gly Glu

340 345 350

Ser Val Glu Asp His Ser Lys Leu Ile Ala Lys Ala Arg Leu Gln Val

355 360 365

Leu Gln Lys Ile Asn Arg

370

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Citation

Patents Cited in This Cited by
Title Current Assignee Application Date Publication Date
Methods and compositions for enhanced plant cell transformation PURDUE RESEARCH FOUNDATION,IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY RESEARCH FOUNDATION,GELVIN, STANTON, B.,MYSORE, KIRANKUMAR, S.,WANG, KAN 17 September 2004 31 March 2005
Coil spring suspension KISS, G&AACUTE,BOR 23 June 2000 04 January 2001
Genes and uses for plant enhancement MONSANTO TECHNOLOGY LLC 27 October 2008 04 June 2009
Genetically transformed plants MONSANTO TECHNOLOGY LLC 30 October 1985 25 September 2012
Generation of plants with altered oil, protein, or fiber content AGRIGENETICS, INC. 17 December 2007 13 November 2008
See full citation <>

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