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Patent Analysis of

Method and system for performing testing of photonic devices

Updated Time 12 June 2019

Patent Registration Data

Publication Number

US10151627

Application Number

US14/964144

Application Date

09 December 2015

Publication Date

11 December 2018

Current Assignee

SKORPIOS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

Original Assignee (Applicant)

SKORPIOS TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

International Classification

G01R31/02,H04B10/077,H04B10/035,H04B17/00,H04B10/073

Cooperative Classification

G01J1/08,G01J1/42,G01R31/3187,H04B10/035,H04B10/0779

Inventor

STONE, ROBERT J.,KRASULICK, STEPHEN B.

Patent Images

This patent contains figures and images illustrating the invention and its embodiment.

US10151627 Method performing 1 US10151627 Method performing 2 US10151627 Method performing 3
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Abstract

A photonics system includes a transmit photonics module and a receive photonics module. The photonics system also includes a transmit waveguide coupled to the transmit photonics module, a first optical switch integrated with the transmit waveguide, and a diagnostics waveguide optically coupled to the first optical switch. The photonics system further includes a receive waveguide coupled to the receive photonics module and a second optical switch integrated with the receive waveguide and optically coupled to the diagnostics waveguide.

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Claims

1. A photonics system for wafer-level testing, the photonics system comprising:

a chip;a transmitter, wherein:

the transmitter is on the chip; and the transmitter is an optical transmitter;a receiver, wherein: the receiver is on the chip; and the receiver is an optical receiver; anda diagnostics waveguide, wherein:

the diagnostics waveguide is on the chip; and the diagnostics waveguide optically couples light from the transmitter with an out-of-plane coupler or with both the out-of-plane coupler and the receiver.

2. The photonics system as recited in claim 1, further comprising:

a transmit waveguide, wherein:

the transmit waveguide is on the chip; and the transmit waveguide is coupled with the transmitter; anda receive waveguide, wherein:

the receive waveguide is on the chip; the receive waveguide is coupled with the receiver; and the diagnostics waveguide optically couples light from the transmitter with the receiver by optically coupling the transmit waveguide with the receive waveguide.

3. The photonics system as recited in claim 1, further comprising:

a first switch, wherein:

the first switch is on the chip; and the first switch optically couples the transmitter with the diagnostics waveguide; anda second switch, wherein:

the second switch is on the chip; and the second switch optically couples the receiver with the diagnostics waveguide.

4. The photonics system as recited in claim 3, further comprising:

a transmit port, wherein the transmit port is optically coupled with the first switch; and a receive port, wherein the receive port is optically coupled with the second switch.

5. The photonics system as recited in claim 3, wherein the first switch is a variable coupler.

6. The photonics system as recited in claim 1, further comprising a wafer having a plurality of dies, and the chip is one of the plurality of dies.

7. The photonics system as recited in claim 1, further comprising a test circuit on the chip.

8. The photonics system as recited in claim 7, wherein the test circuit is configured to analyze signal to noise ratio, error detecting, signal bandwidth, and or optical frequency of an optical signal transmitted through the diagnostics waveguide.

9. The photonics system as recited in claim 1, further comprising:

a tap on the diagnostics waveguide; and a detector coupled with the tap.

10. A method of performing testing of a photonics transceiver, the method comprising:

providing a photonics system having:

a die that is part of a wafer, wherein the wafer is in undiced form; a transmitter on the die that generates light; a receiver on the die; and a diagnostics waveguide on the die that optically couples light from the transmitter with the receiver; generating a test pattern; generating, with the transmitter, an optical signal associated with the test pattern; coupling at least a portion of the optical signal from the transmitter into the diagnostics waveguide to provide a diagnostics signal; coupling at least a portion of the diagnostics signal with the receiver; testing the diagnostics signal; and dicing the wafer after testing the diagnostics signal.

11. The method of claim 10, wherein:

generating the test pattern is performed by using circuitry on the die; and testing the diagnostics signal is performed by using circuitry on the die.

12. The method of claim 10, wherein:

the photonics system further has:

a transmit waveguide optically coupling the diagnostics waveguide with the transmitter; and a receive waveguide optically coupling the diagnostics waveguide with the receiver; and the method further comprises transmitting the optical signal through the transmit waveguide; and coupling at least the portion of the diagnostics signal with the receiver includes coupling the portion of the diagnostics signal with the receive waveguide.

13. The method of claim 10, wherein:

the photonics system further has:

a first switch on the die optically between the transmitter and the diagnostics waveguide; and a second switch on the die optically between the receiver and the diagnostics waveguide; andthe method further comprises:

actuating the first switch to couple light from the transmitter with the diagnostics waveguide; and actuating the second switch to couple light from the diagnostics waveguide with the receiver.

14. The method of claim 10, the method further comprising measuring a power associated with the portion of the optical signal using a photodiode and/or a power monitor, wherein the photodiode and/or the power monitor are on the die.

15. The method of claim 10, the method further comprising coupling some of the portion of the optical signal off the wafer.

16. The method of claim 10, the method further comprising:

receiving an off-die optical signal; and coupling at least a portion of the off-die optical signal with the receiver.

17. The method of claim 10, the method further comprising adjusting a parameter of the transmitter and/or the receiver after testing the diagnostics signal.

18. A photonics system including:

a transmit photonics module; a receive photonics module; a transmit waveguide coupled to the transmit photonics module; a first optical switch integrated with the transmit waveguide; a diagnostics waveguide optically coupled to the first optical switch; a receive waveguide coupled to the receive photonics module; an optical tap coupled to the diagnostics waveguide; an optical coupler coupled to the optical tap, wherein the optical coupler comprises an out-of-plane coupler; and a second optical switch integrated with the receive waveguide and optically coupled to the diagnostics waveguide.

19. The photonics system of claim 18, wherein the transmit photonics module, the receive photonics module, the transmit waveguide, the first optical switch, the diagnostics waveguide, the optical tap, the optical coupler, and the second optical switch are part of an undiced optical ASIC.

20. The photonics system of claim 18, wherein the out-of-plane coupler comprises an angled facet.

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Claim Tree

  • 1
    1. A photonics system for wafer-level testing, the photonics system comprising:
    • a chip
    • a transmitter, wherein: the transmitter is on the chip
    • and the transmitter is an optical transmitter
    • a receiver, wherein: the receiver is on the chip
    • and the receiver is an optical receiver
    • anda diagnostics waveguide, wherein: the diagnostics waveguide is on the chip
    • and the diagnostics waveguide optically couples light from the transmitter with an out-of-plane coupler or with both the out-of-plane coupler and the receiver.
    • 2. The photonics system as recited in claim 1, further comprising:
      • a transmit waveguide, wherein: the transmit waveguide is on the chip
      • and the transmit waveguide is coupled with the transmitter
      • anda receive waveguide, wherein: the receive waveguide is on the chip
      • the receive waveguide is coupled with the receiver
      • and the diagnostics waveguide optically couples light from the transmitter with the receiver by optically coupling the transmit waveguide with the receive waveguide.
    • 3. The photonics system as recited in claim 1, further comprising:
      • a first switch, wherein: the first switch is on the chip
      • and the first switch optically couples the transmitter with the diagnostics waveguide
      • anda second switch, wherein: the second switch is on the chip
      • and the second switch optically couples the receiver with the diagnostics waveguide.
    • 6. The photonics system as recited in claim 1, further comprising
      • a wafer having a plurality of dies, and the chip is one of the plurality of dies.
    • 7. The photonics system as recited in claim 1, further comprising
      • a test circuit on the chip.
    • 9. The photonics system as recited in claim 1, further comprising:
      • a tap on the diagnostics waveguide
      • and a detector coupled with the tap.
  • 10
    10. A method of performing testing of a photonics transceiver, the method comprising:
    • providing a photonics system having: a die that is part of a wafer, wherein the wafer is in undiced form
    • a transmitter on the die that generates light
    • a receiver on the die
    • and a diagnostics waveguide on the die that optically couples light from the transmitter with the receiver
    • generating a test pattern
    • generating, with the transmitter, an optical signal associated with the test pattern
    • coupling at least a portion of the optical signal from the transmitter into the diagnostics waveguide to provide a diagnostics signal
    • coupling at least a portion of the diagnostics signal with the receiver
    • testing the diagnostics signal
    • and dicing the wafer after testing the diagnostics signal.
    • 11. The method of claim 10, wherein
      • : generating the test pattern is performed by using circuitry on the die; and testing the diagnostics signal is performed by using circuitry on the die.
    • 12. The method of claim 10, wherein
      • : the photonics system further has: a transmit waveguide optically coupling the diagnostics waveguide with the transmitter; and a receive waveguide optically coupling the diagnostics waveguide with the receiver; and the method further comprises
    • 13. The method of claim 10, wherein
      • : the photonics system further has: a first switch on the die optically between the transmitter and the diagnostics waveguide; and a second switch on the die optically between the receiver and the diagnostics waveguide; andthe method further comprises:
    • 14. The method of claim 10, the method further comprising
      • measuring a power associated with the portion of the optical signal using a photodiode and/or a power monitor, wherein the photodiode and/or the power monitor are on the die.
    • 15. The method of claim 10, the method further comprising
      • coupling some of the portion of the optical signal off the wafer.
    • 16. The method of claim 10, the method further comprising:
      • receiving an off-die optical signal
      • and coupling at least a portion of the off-die optical signal with the receiver.
    • 17. The method of claim 10, the method further comprising
      • adjusting a parameter of the transmitter and/or the receiver after testing the diagnostics signal.
  • 18
    18. A photonics system including:
    • a transmit photonics module
    • a receive photonics module
    • a transmit waveguide coupled to the transmit photonics module
    • a first optical switch integrated with the transmit waveguide
    • a diagnostics waveguide optically coupled to the first optical switch
    • a receive waveguide coupled to the receive photonics module
    • an optical tap coupled to the diagnostics waveguide
    • an optical coupler coupled to the optical tap, wherein the optical coupler comprises an out-of-plane coupler
    • and a second optical switch integrated with the receive waveguide and optically coupled to the diagnostics waveguide.
    • 19. The photonics system of claim 18, wherein
      • the transmit photonics module, the receive photonics module, the transmit waveguide, the first optical switch, the diagnostics waveguide, the optical tap, the optical coupler, and the second optical switch are part of an undiced optical ASIC.
    • 20. The photonics system of claim 18, wherein
      • the out-of-plane coupler comprises
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Description

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Embodiments of the present invention relate to photonic devices. More particularly, embodiments of the present invention relate to an apparatus and method for testing, including self-testing, of photonic devices. As an example, optical self-diagnostics can be performed for photonic devices.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, a photonics system is provided. The photonics system includes a transmit photonics module and a receive photonics module. The photonics system also includes a transmit waveguide coupled to the transmit photonics module, a first optical switch integrated with the transmit waveguide, and a diagnostics waveguide optically coupled to the first optical switch. The photonics system further includes a receive waveguide coupled to the receive photonics module and a second optical switch integrated with the receive waveguide and optically coupled to the diagnostics waveguide.

According to another embodiment of the present invention, a method of performing testing of a photonic device is provided. The method includes generating a test pattern and generating an optical signal associated with the test pattern. The method also includes transmitting the optical signal through a transmit waveguide and coupling at least a portion of the optical signal into a diagnostics waveguide to provide a diagnostics signal. The method further includes coupling at least a portion of the diagnostics signal into a receive waveguide and testing the diagnostics signal.

Embodiments of the present invention relate to photonic devices. More particularly, embodiments of the present invention relate to an apparatus and method for testing, including self-testing, of photonic devices.

Numerous benefits are achieved by way of the present invention over conventional techniques. For example, embodiments of the present invention provide method and systems that enable on-wafer testing, reduction in testing time (resulting in cost reduction during manufacturing), self-calibration, automatic configuration of the optical circuits, built in self-test capability and on-board diagnostics, and the like. These and other embodiments of the invention along with many of its advantages and features are described in more detail in conjunction with the text below and attached figures.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating a system for performing self-test of a photonic circuit.

FIG. 2A is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating a Mach-Zehnder interferometer acting as a variable coupler according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 2B is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating a resonant ring interferometer acting as a variable coupler according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 3 is a simplified flowchart illustrating a method of performing testing of a photonic device according to an embodiment of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC EMBODIMENTS

FIG. 1 is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating a system for performing self-test of a photonic circuit. The photonic design illustrated can be tested in a variety of configurations as described herein. As illustrated in FIG. 1, embodiments of the present invention provide for optical self-test of devices including, but not limited to, photonic modules, photonic transceivers with transmit and receive ports, reconfigurable optical add drop multiplexers (ROADM), optical switches, amplifiers, filters, and the like. As illustrated in FIG. 1, a portion of a processed substrate is illustrated in the form of a Optical ASIC 100 in undiced, die form. Though not shown in the figure, adjacent dies are present on one or more sides of the illustrated die. Because the die is still in undiced form, optical testing using the transmit and receive ports is unavailable. Embodiments of the present invention provide functionality not available using conventional photonic transceivers that have a transmit port and a receive port, typically formed on the edge of the diced or cleaved die. For such conventional transceivers, access to the transmit and receive ports is used to perform external loop-back testing of the transceiver, thereby requiring the transceiver to be in die format.

Embodiments of the present invention provide wafer level testing that is enabled by Built In Self-Test & Auto Calibration functionality. Various performance characteristics can be calibrated according to embodiments of the present invention, for example, the wavelength of the light in the transmit path. As described herein, light can be directed off the chip using the (out of plane, e.g., surface normal) coupler to provide the light to a wavelength test tool. In some embodiments, diagnostic elements are integrated on-chip, enabling both measurement and adjustment of the parameters on-chip. As an example, the power can be monitored using a detector and the feedback loop including the Built-in Self-Test Circuits and Link Validation module can be used to adjust the power of the Tx photonics. Thus, the fabrication and operation of on-chip as well as the operation of off-chip measurement devices are included within the scope of the present invention.

Utilizing embodiments of the present invention, it is possible to perform electrical testing of transceiver functionality at the wafer level, including both Tx and Rx functionality without the use of external fiber optic cables. Additionally, during the operational lifetime of the transceiver, the integrity of the transceiver can be tested using on-chip components to provide module health monitoring.

As an example, embodiments of the present invention provide for the on-chip generation of test patterns using the feedback loop between the Rx photonics 130 and the Tx photonics 110. Calibration is not limited to the Tx photonics, but can also be applied to the Rx photonics. Software in the BIST Test Routines can be used in conjunction with the self-test circuits to calibrate optical devices, for example, providing control of the modulation format. Thus, signals generated on the chip can be used to drive the Tx photonics and measure the Rx photonics. Additionally, wafer level probing of the transmit and/or receive photonics can be utilized. Moreover, combinations of on-chip and probe testing can be utilized as appropriate to the particular test protocol. One of ordinary skill in the art would recognize many variations, modifications, and alternatives. As an example, test patterns can be generated externally and then applied to the Tx photonics. Alternatively, test patterns can be generated on-chip with no or a reduced external input. The test patterns can be read using the Rx photonics to characterize, for example, transceiver performance.

Embodiments of the present invention use variable couplers (e.g., optical switches) to enable optical loopback. As shown in FIG. 1, light emitted by the transmit (i.e., Tx) photonics module 110 initially propagates in transmit waveguide 111 and, during self-test, is redirected by the variable coupler 115 from the transmit waveguide 111 into the on-chip optical loopback waveguide 113, also referred to as a diagnostics waveguide. As described herein, light from the transmit waveguide 111 can be coupled into the on-chip optical loopback waveguide 113 using variable coupler 115 and directed into the receive (i.e., Rx) photonics 130 by using variable coupler 117. The on-chip optical loopback waveguide 113 is an element of a diagnostic loop linking the Tx photonics and Rx photonics to enable wafer level testing.

During operation of the device (after dicing and packaging), light passes through the terminal portion 112 of transmit waveguide and is emitted at the Tx port 140, where it is typically coupled into a fiber. Likewise, during operation, light is received at the Rx port 142, typically from a fiber and coupled into the terminal portion 132 of the receive waveguide 131. After dicing and packaging, loopback testing can be performed by coupling a fiber to both the Tx and Rx ports. However, in the undiced state with conventional transceivers, because there is no optical access to the Tx and Rx ports, such loopback testing using an external fiber is not possible. Accordingly, embodiments of the present invention provide a mechanism to feed the signal from the transmit waveguide 111 into the receive waveguide 131, enabling loopback testing. The integration of the self-test functionality with the transceiver enables wafer scale testing (e.g., loopback testing) prior to dicing as well as testing during operation (i.e., after dicing and packaging).

In applications where optical elements are integrated onto the optical ASIC wafer, it is not typically possible to test the optical elements after integration and before dicing and packaging. Embodiments of the present invention enable fully electrical and optical testing of the integrated optical elements at the wafer scale using the diagnostic loop described herein. Prior to wafer dicing, loopback testing can be performed, the transmit power can be measured, other characteristics of the transmit signal can be measured using a suitable detector and associated electronics, or light can be output using a surface coupler, providing an optical input to a wide variety of test equipment. Accordingly, dies with performance below a predetermined threshold can be identified, improving yield in advance of dicing and packaging operations.

FIG. 2A is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating a Mach-Zehnder interferometer acting as a variable coupler according to an embodiment of the present invention. The Mach-Zehnder interferometer 210 receives an input at input waveguide 211 (e.g., from transmit waveguide 111) and splits the signal into two interferometer arms 215 and 216. Bias, represented by voltages V1 and V2 are applied to one or more of the two arms, resulting in coupling of light into either Output 1 (220) or Output 2 (222), or partially into each output. Bias to control the phase of the light in the arms of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer can be provided using heaters, diodes for phase control, or the like. Other contacts could also be added to perform similar functions. Based the bias in the arms, represented by V1 and V2, the input light is variably switched between outputs depending on applied signals. One of ordinary skill in the art would recognize many variations, modifications, and alternatives.

FIG. 2B is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating a resonant ring interferometer acting as a variable coupler according to an embodiment of the present invention. For this variable coupler, light is received at input waveguide 231 and coupled into resonant ring 235. Application of bias, represented by voltage V3 controls the optical resonance wavelength of coupling between the input and the outputs, thereby selectively directing the output light to Output 1 (240) or Output 2 (242). In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 2B, the bias control is through a heater, but this could also be a diode-based phase control element. In addition to the variable couplers illustrated in FIGS. 2A and 2B, other variable couplers are included within the scope of the present invention and these particular examples are not intended to limit the scope of the invention.

The optical path including the transmit waveguide 111, the on-chip optical loopback waveguide 113, and the receive waveguide 131 as illustrated in FIG. 1 enables a self-test mode in which loopback testing can be performed. The variable couplers 115 and 117 can be electrically actuated, thermally actuated, or the like.

The variable coupler 115 integrated into the transmit path enables a portion or all of the light in the transmit path to be switched into the diagnostic loop, i.e., the loop including loopback waveguide 113. Thus, light can be partially coupled to the Tx port 140 and partially coupled into the loopback waveguide 112.

One or more taps can be provided in the diagnostic loop as illustrated in FIG. 1 to enable integration of detectors (e.g., a power monitor) to measure the power in the diagnostic loop, which can be calibrated to determine the power in the transmit waveguide and the power that exits at the Tx port. Referring to FIG. 1, tap 114 directs light into a waveguide with a branching coupler to reach either a transmit signal monitor 122 or an out-of-plane coupler 120. The transmit signal monitor is illustrated in FIG. 1 as a photodetector (e.g., integrated on-chip) to provide data on the optical power in the transmit waveguide. In addition to power measurements, the transmit signal monitor 122 can provide information on wavelength, spectral characteristics, compliance with modulation or communication standards, a high speed receiver, other diagnostic elements, or the like. Electrical outputs from the transmit power monitor can be provided to enable electrical connection to off-chip diagnostic equipment during wafer-scale testing. Thus, a variety of different diagnostic systems can be utilized to characterize the optical signal propagating in the transmit waveguide 111.

In an embodiment, the out-of-plane coupler 120 is a surface normal coupler, for example, a grating coupler, operable to direct the light in a direction substantially normal to the surface of the optical ASIC die, but this is not required by the present invention since directions other than normal can be utilized. Thus, grating couplers operating at other than normal incidence are included within the scope of the present invention. The out-of-plane coupler 120 is integrated with tap 114 to provide a mechanism to direct optical power in a direction substantially vertical (or other suitable angle with respect to the wafer), providing an output that can be used as an optical pickup to measure the power in the diagnostic loop, characteristics of the transmit signal, such as frequency, wavelength, error patterns, test patterns, or the like. Using the out-of-plane coupler 120, characterization of the Tx photonics can be performed, measuring a variety of metrics associated with the transmitter portion of the transceiver, including bit rates, error rates, eye-diagrams, and the like. Thus, embodiments of the present invention provide for signal monitoring using integrated optical elements like the on-chip transmit signal monitor 122 or off-chip sensors, which can be provided with optical inputs using one or more out-of-plane couplers 120.

The present invention is not limited to the optical monitoring functionality illustrated by the power monitor, but can include a variety of diagnostic tools and systems.

As illustrated in FIG. 1, an additional out-of-plane coupler 126 (e.g., a grating coupler operating at normal or other angle of incidence) can be used to receive optical injection into the on-chip optical loopback waveguide 113 from off-chip. In the illustrated embodiment, the light received at the chip, which can then be used, for example, to calibrate or test the Rx photonics, is coupled into the diagnostic loop using a tap and then directed into the receive waveguide 131 using variable coupler 117. In addition to receiving light through the optical coupler and transmitting it to the diagnostic waveguide, the received light could be coupled into the receive waveguide, either before or after the variable coupler, using additional out-of-plane couplers (not shown), for example coupled at a location along receive waveguide 131 between the variable coupler 117 and the Rx photonics 130 or at a location along the terminal portion 132 of the receive waveguide. One of ordinary skill in the art would recognize many variations, modifications, and alternatives. In some testing protocols, an external fiber loop is used to receive light from out-of-plane coupler 120 and direct light into out-of-plane coupler 126, effectively mimicking the loopback testing typically performed by coupling a fiber loop to the Tx port 140 and the Rx port 142 of a diced device. In either external testing or loopback implementations, the testing protocols can include reference test signals, test patterns, or the like.

One example of an off-wafer optical pickup that can be used in conjunction with the out-of-plane couplers is diagnostics used for precise DWDM BOL calibrations. Examples of surface couplers include grating surface emitters, an angled facet, or the like.

FIG. 3 is a simplified flowchart illustrating a method of performing testing of a photonic device according to an embodiment of the present invention. The method includes generating a test pattern (310), generating an optical signal associated with the test pattern (312), and transmitting the optical signal through a transmit waveguide (314). In an embodiment, the transmit waveguide is a portion of an undiced wafer, providing no transmit port available for testing of the Tx photonics.

The method also includes coupling at least a portion of the optical signal into a diagnostics waveguide to provide a diagnostics signal (316), coupling the diagnostics signal into a receive waveguide (318) and testing the diagnostics signal (320). The test pattern can be generating using on-chip circuits or can be generated by probing Tx photonics, or combinations thereof.

According to some embodiments, coupling at least a portion of the optical signal into the diagnostics waveguide comprises coupling light through a variable coupler using electrical or thermal actuation. Additionally, the method can include tapping the at least a portion of the optical signal and measuring a power associated with the at least a portion of the optical signal. The power can be measured using a detector and associated electronics, which can be integrated on-chip. Moreover, the method can include tapping the at least a portion of the optical signal and coupling some of the optical signal off of the photonic device, for example, using a surface coupler.

In addition to transmitting signals off of the chip prior to dicing, off-chip optical signals can be received, a portion of the off-chip optical signal can be coupled into the receive waveguide, and the portion of the off-chip optical signal can be received using Rx photonics. Testing can include detecting the diagnostics signal and analyzing at least one of signal to noise ratio, error detection, signal bandwidth, optical frequency, optical wavelength, and the like.

It should be appreciated that the specific steps illustrated in FIG. 3 provide a particular method of testing a photonic device according to an embodiment of the present invention. Other sequences of steps may also be performed according to alternative embodiments. For example, alternative embodiments of the present invention may perform the steps outlined above in a different order. Moreover, the individual steps illustrated in FIG. 3 may include multiple sub-steps that may be performed in various sequences as appropriate to the individual step. Furthermore, additional steps may be added or removed depending on the particular applications. One of ordinary skill in the art would recognize many variations, modifications, and alternatives.

It is also understood that the examples and embodiments described herein are for illustrative purposes only and that various modifications or changes in light thereof will be suggested to persons skilled in the art and are to be included within the spirit and purview of this application and scope of the appended claims.

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Citation

Patents Cited in This Cited by
Title Current Assignee Application Date Publication Date
Multi-channel laser pump source for optical amplifiers GEMFIRE CORPORATION 09 July 2003 03 June 2004
2種混合気体の濃度測定装置 バキュームプロダクツ株式会社,独立行政法人産業技術総合研究所 17 January 2003 05 August 2004
混合ガスによる薄膜作製方法とその装置 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED INDUSTRIAL & TECHNOLOGY 03 March 2005 14 September 2006
フォトニックデバイスの試験の実行方法及びシステム スコーピオズ テクノロジーズ インコーポレイテッド 06 August 2013 19 November 2015
ガス混合物を提供するための方法および装置 エア プロダクツ アンド ケミカルズ インコーポレイテッド,AIR PRODUCTS AND CHEMICALS INCORPORATED 23 May 2013 10 September 2015
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