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Patent Analysis of

Electro-polarizable compound and capacitor

Updated Time 12 June 2019

Patent Registration Data

Publication Number

US10153087

Application Number

US15/163595

Application Date

24 May 2016

Publication Date

11 December 2018

Current Assignee

CAPACITOR SCIENCES INCORPORATED

Original Assignee (Applicant)

CAPACITOR SCIENCES INCORPORATED

International Classification

H01G4/14,C07D471/22,C09B5/62,H01G4/005,H01G4/32

Cooperative Classification

H01G4/14,C07D471/22,H01G4/32,H01G4/005,C09B5/62

Inventor

LAZAREV, PAVEL IVAN,FURUTA, PAUL T.,SHARP, BARRY K.,LI, YAN,KELLY-MORGAN, IAN S. G.

Patent Images

This patent contains figures and images illustrating the invention and its embodiment.

US10153087 Electro-polarizable compound capacitor 1 US10153087 Electro-polarizable compound capacitor 2 US10153087 Electro-polarizable compound capacitor 3
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Abstract

An electro-polarizable compound has the following general formula:

Core1 is an aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule having two-dimensional flat form and self-assembling by pi-pi stacking in a column-like supramolecule. R1 are electron donor groups connected to Core1 and R1′ are electron acceptor groups connected to Core1, m is number of acceptor groups R1, m′ is a number of donor groups R′. The numbers m and m′ are equal to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, but both m and m′ are not both equal to 0. R2 is a substituent comprising one or more ionic groups connected to Core1 directly or via a connecting group; a number p of ionic groups R2 is 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4. The fragment marked NLE has a nonlinear effect of polarization. Core2 is a self-assembling electro-conductive oligomer, a number n of the such oligomers is 0, 2, or 4. R3 is a substituent comprising one or more ionic groups connected to Core2; a number s of the ionic groups R3 is 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4. R4 is a resistive substituent providing solubility of the compound in a solvent and electrically insulating the column-like supramolecules from each other. A number k of substituents R4 is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8.

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Claims

1. An electro-polarizable compound having the following formula (I): where Core1 is an aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule having two-dimensional flat form and self-assembling by pi-pi stacking in a column-like supramolecule comprising one or more rylene fragments, R1 are electron donor groups connected to the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule (Core1) and R1′ are electron acceptor groups connected to the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule (Core1), m is number of acceptor groups R1, m′ is a number of donor groups R′, m and m′ are equal to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, wherein m and m′ are not both equal to 0, R2 is a substituent comprising one or more ionic groups from a class of ionic compounds that form ionic liquids connected to the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule (Core1) directly or via a connecting group, p is a number of ionic groups R2 which is equal to 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4; wherein the fragment marked NLE containing the Core1 with at least one group R1 and/or R1′ has a nonlinear effect of polarization, wherein Core2 is an electro-conductive oligomer , n is a number of the electro-conductive oligomers which is equal to 0, 2, or 4, R3 is a substituent comprising one or more ionic groups from a class of ionic compounds that form ionic liquids connected to the electro-conductive oligomer (Core2) directly or via a connecting group, s is a number of the ionic groups R3 which is equal to 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4; wherein R4 is a non-conjugate cyclic or polycyclic resistive substituent providing solubility of the organic compound in a solvent and electrically insulating the column-like supramolecules from each other and connected to the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule (Core1) and/or to the electro-conductive oligomer (Core2) directly or via a connecting group, k is a number of substituents R4 which is equal to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 wherein Core1 has the structural formula: where t is a repetition parameter that varies from 1 to 5.

2. The electro-polarizable compound according to claim 1, wherein the acceptor groups (R1′) are selected from —NO2, —NH3+and —NR3+(quaternary nitrogen salts), counterion Cl— or Br—, —CHO (aldehyde), —CRO (keto group), —SO3H (sulfonic acids), —SO3R (sulfonates), —SO2NH2 (sulfonamides), —COOH (carboxylic acid), —COOR (esters,), —COCl (carboxylic acid chlorides), —CONH2 (amides,), —CF3, —CCl3,—CN, —C(CN)2 wherein R is radical selected from the list consisting of alkyl, allyl (—CH2—CH═CH2), benzyl (—CH2C6H5,) groups, phenyl (+substituted phenyl) and other aryl (aromatic) groups.

3. The electro-polarizable compound according to claim 1, wherein the donor groups (R1) are selected from —O— (phenoxides,), —NH2, —NHR, —NR2, —OH, —OR (ethers), —NHCOR (amides), —OCOR (esters), alkyls, —C6H5, vinyls, wherein R is radical selected from the list consisting of alkyl, allyl (—CH2—CH═CH2), benzyl (—CH2C6H5) groups, phenyl (+substituted phenyl) and other aryl (aromatic) groups.

4. The electro-polarizable compound according to claim 1, wherein the at least one connecting group is selected from the list comprising the following structures: 13-22, where X is hydrogen (H) or an alkyl group:

5. The electro-polarizable compound according to claim 1, wherein the at least one connecting group is selected from the group of CH2, CF2, SiR2O, CH2CH2O, wherein R is selected from the list consisting of H, alkyl, and fluorine.

6. The electro-polarizable compound according to claim 1, wherein the at least one connecting group is selected from structures 24 to 29:

7. The electro-polarizable compound according to claim 1, wherein the resistive substituent R4 is selected from the group of alkyl, aryl, substituted alkyl, substituted aryl, fluorinated alkyl, chlorinated alkyl, branched and complex alkyl, branched and complex fluorinated alkyl, branched and complex chlorinated alkyl groups, and any combination thereof.

8. The electro-polarizable compound of claim 1, wherein the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule (Core1) and the groups R1 and R1′ form a non- centrosymmetric molecular structure.

9. The electro-polarizable compound of claim 1, wherein the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule (Core1), the groups R1 and R1′ and the resistive substituents (R4) form a non-centrosymmetric molecular structure.

10. The electro-polarizable compound of claim 1 having the following formula (II): wherein the Core1 is the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule, resistive substituents R4 are a non-conjugated part of compound II, and are either monocycles or fused polycycles, wherein the monocycles or polycycles are either saturated hydrocarbons or saturated halocarbons forming rigid spatial structures with dense packing of SP3 carbon saturated with H, F, Cl, and/or Br, and wherein k is a number of substituents R4 which is equal to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 and parameters n=p=s=0.

11. The electro-polarizable compound of claim 10, wherein a length of the non-conjugated part of the electro-polarizable compound is selected such that the resistivity of the electro-polarizable compound is greater than 1018 ohm·cm.

12. The electro-polarizable compound of claim 10, wherein a length of the non-conjugated part of the electro-polarizable compound is selected such that the resistivity of the electro-polarizable compound is between 1018 ohm·cm and 1024 ohm·cm.

13. The electro-polarizable compound of claim 10, wherein the resistive substituent R4 is a polycyclic alkyl group and a polycyclic halo-alkyl group, wherein in the polycyclic halo-alkyl group is connected to the apex of Core1 on which the electrophilic group (acceptor) R1 is connected, or the apex of Core1 on which the nucleophilic group (donor) R1′ is connected, but not both.

14. The electro-polarizable compound of claim 10, wherein the resistive substituent R4 is a resistive polycyclic substituent selected from the list consisting of C25H34 and C25H35 or C25F34 and C25F35 and located on the apex phenyl, naphthyl, or anthryl rings of Core1.

15. The electro-polarizable compound of claim 10 having the following formula (III): wherein R1′ is an acceptor group, and R1 is a donor group.

16. The electro-polarizable compound according to claim 15, wherein the set of the electron donor and acceptor groups consists of two donor groups —NH2 and two acceptor groups —NO2 (m is equal to 4) located on rylene rings, or on apex phenyl, naphthyl, and/or anthryl ring positions of the Core1, or on both rylene rings positions and apex phenyl, naphthyl, and/or anthryl ring positions and the fragment having a nonlinear effect of polarization (NLE) is represented by following chemical structure: wherein the resistive substituent (R4) is an amine structure having a formula of the type: whereby the electro-polarizable compound has the following structural formula (IV): wherein the resistive substituents R4 are connected the Core1 via a connecting group.

17. The electro-polarizable compound of claim 10 having a formula (V): wherein the Core1 is the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule, R1 is a donor group, and R1′ is acceptor group.

18. A solution comprising an organic solvent and at least one type of electro-polarizable compound according to claim 1.

19. The solution according to claim 18, comprising a mixture of different electro-polarizable compounds.

20. The solution according to claim 18, wherein the mixture of the electro-polarizable compounds comprises rylene fragments of different length.

21. The solution according to claim 18, wherein the organic solvent is selected from the list comprising ketones, carboxylic acids, hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, chlorohydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, esters, and any combination thereof.

22. The solution according to claim 18, wherein the organic solvent is selected from the list comprising acetone, xylene, toluene, ethanol, methylcyclohexane, ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, octane, chloroform, methylene chloride, dichloroethane, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, carbon tetrachloride, 1,4-dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, pyridine, triethylamine, nitromethane, acetonitrile, dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and any combination thereof.

23. A solution according to claim 18, wherein the solution is a lyotropic liquid crystal solution.

24. A metadielectric layer comprising a mixture of the electro-polarizable compounds according to claim 1, wherein the nonlinearly polarizable fragments comprising an aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule with one or more R1 groups, and wherein the one or more R1 and/or R1′ groups form a resistive envelope and solubilize the organic compound in a solvent and electrically insulating the column-like supramolecules from each other.

25. The metadielectric layer according to claim 24, wherein the column-like supramolecules are formed by the electro-polarizable compounds comprising rylene fragments of different length.

26. The metadielectric layer according to claim 24, wherein the metadielectric layer's relative permittivity is greater than or equal to 1000.

27. The metadielectric layer according to claim 24, wherein the layer's resistivity is greater than or equal to 1013 ohm/cm.

28. A meta-capacitor comprising two metal electrodes positioned parallel to each other and which can be rolled or flat and planar with said metadielectric layer between said electrodes, wherein the metadielectric layer comprises one or more types of the electro-polarizable compounds according to claim 1 wherein the nonlinearly polarizable fragments comprising an aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule with at least one group R1 or R1′, the electro-conductive oligomers and the ionic groups which have electronic and/or ionic type of polarizability are placed into a resistive dielectric envelope formed by resistive substituents R1 and/or R1′ providing solubility of the organic compound in a solvent and electrically insulating the column-like supramolecules from each other.

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Claim Tree

  • 1
    1. An electro-polarizable compound having
    • the following formula (I): where Core1 is an aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule having two-dimensional flat form and self-assembling by pi-pi stacking in a column-like supramolecule comprising one or more rylene fragments, R1 are electron donor groups connected to the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule (Core1) and R1′ are electron acceptor groups connected to the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule (Core1), m is number of acceptor groups R1, m′ is a number of donor groups R′, m and m′ are equal to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, wherein m and m′ are not both equal to 0, R2 is a substituent comprising one or more ionic groups from a class of ionic compounds that form ionic liquids connected to the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule (Core1) directly or via a connecting group, p is a number of ionic groups R2 which is equal to 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4
    • wherein the fragment marked NLE containing the Core1 with at least one group R1 and/or R1′ has a nonlinear effect of polarization, wherein Core2 is an electro-conductive oligomer , n is a number of the electro-conductive oligomers which is equal to 0, 2, or 4, R3 is a substituent comprising one or more ionic groups from a class of ionic compounds that form ionic liquids connected to the electro-conductive oligomer (Core2) directly or via a connecting group, s is a number of the ionic groups R3 which is equal to 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4
    • wherein R4 is a non-conjugate cyclic or polycyclic resistive substituent providing solubility of the organic compound in a solvent and electrically insulating the column-like supramolecules from each other and connected to the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule (Core1) and/or to the electro-conductive oligomer (Core2) directly or via a connecting group, k is a number of substituents R4 which is equal to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 wherein Core1 has the structural formula: where t is a repetition parameter that varies from 1 to 5.
    • 2. The electro-polarizable compound according to claim 1, wherein
      • the acceptor groups (R1′) are selected from —NO2, —NH3+and —NR3+(quaternary nitrogen salts), counterion Cl— or Br—, —CHO (aldehyde), —CRO (keto group), —SO3H (sulfonic acids), —SO3R (sulfonates), —SO2NH2 (sulfonamides), —COOH (carboxylic acid), —COOR (esters,), —COCl (carboxylic acid chlorides), —CONH2 (amides,), —CF3, —CCl3,—CN, —C(CN)2 wherein
    • 3. The electro-polarizable compound according to claim 1, wherein
      • the donor groups (R1) are selected from —O— (phenoxides,), —NH2, —NHR, —NR2, —OH, —OR (ethers), —NHCOR (amides), —OCOR (esters), alkyls, —C6H5, vinyls, wherein
    • 4. The electro-polarizable compound according to claim 1, wherein
      • the at least one connecting group is selected from the list comprising
    • 5. The electro-polarizable compound according to claim 1, wherein
      • the at least one connecting group is selected from the group of CH2, CF2, SiR2O, CH2CH2O, wherein
    • 6. The electro-polarizable compound according to claim 1, wherein
      • the at least one connecting group is selected from structures 24 to 29:
    • 7. The electro-polarizable compound according to claim 1, wherein
      • the resistive substituent R4 is selected from the group of alkyl, aryl, substituted alkyl, substituted aryl, fluorinated alkyl, chlorinated alkyl, branched and complex alkyl, branched and complex fluorinated alkyl, branched and complex chlorinated alkyl groups, and any combination thereof.
    • 8. The electro-polarizable compound of claim 1, wherein
      • the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule (Core1) and the groups R1 and R1′ form a non- centrosymmetric molecular structure.
    • 9. The electro-polarizable compound of claim 1, wherein
      • the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule (Core1), the groups R1 and R1′ and the resistive substituents (R4) form a non-centrosymmetric molecular structure.
    • 10. The electro-polarizable compound of claim 1 having
      • the following formula (II): wherein the Core1 is the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule, resistive substituents R4 are a non-conjugated part of compound II, and are either monocycles or fused polycycles, wherein the monocycles or polycycles are either saturated hydrocarbons or saturated halocarbons forming rigid spatial structures with dense packing of SP3 carbon saturated with H, F, Cl, and/or Br, and wherein k is a number of substituents R4 which is equal to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 and parameters n=p=s=0.
  • 18
    18. A solution comprising
    • an organic solvent and at least one type of electro-polarizable compound according to claim 1.
    • 19. The solution according to claim 18, comprising
      • a mixture of different electro-polarizable compounds.
    • 20. The solution according to claim 18, wherein
      • the mixture of the electro-polarizable compounds comprises
    • 21. The solution according to claim 18, wherein
      • the organic solvent is selected from the list comprising
    • 22. The solution according to claim 18, wherein
      • the organic solvent is selected from the list comprising
    • 23. A solution according to claim 18, wherein
      • the solution is a lyotropic liquid crystal solution.
  • 24
    24. A metadielectric layer comprising
    • a mixture of the electro-polarizable compounds according to claim 1, wherein the nonlinearly polarizable fragments comprising an aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule with one or more R1 groups, and wherein the one or more R1 and/or R1′ groups form a resistive envelope and solubilize the organic compound in a solvent and electrically insulating the column-like supramolecules from each other.
    • 25. The metadielectric layer according to claim 24, wherein
      • the column-like supramolecules are formed by the electro-polarizable compounds comprising
    • 26. The metadielectric layer according to claim 24, wherein
      • the metadielectric layer's relative permittivity is greater than or equal to 1000.
    • 27. The metadielectric layer according to claim 24, wherein
      • the layer's resistivity is greater than or equal to 1013 ohm/cm.
  • 28
    28. A meta-capacitor comprising
    • two metal electrodes positioned parallel to each other and which can be rolled or flat and planar with said metadielectric layer between said electrodes, wherein the metadielectric layer comprises one or more types of the electro-polarizable compounds according to claim 1 wherein the nonlinearly polarizable fragments comprising an aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule with at least one group R1 or R1′, the electro-conductive oligomers and the ionic groups which have electronic and/or ionic type of polarizability are placed into a resistive dielectric envelope formed by resistive substituents R1 and/or R1′ providing solubility of the organic compound in a solvent and electrically insulating the column-like supramolecules from each other.
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Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present disclosure relates generally to passive components of electrical circuit and more particularly to an electro-polarizable compound and capacitor based on this material and intended for energy storage.

BACKGROUND

A capacitor is a passive electronic component that is used to store energy in the form of an electrostatic field, and comprises a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric layer. When a potential difference exists between the two electrodes, an electric field is present in the dielectric layer. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value of capacitance, which is a ratio of the electric charge on each electrode to the potential difference between them. For high voltage applications, much larger capacitors have to be used.

One important characteristic of a dielectric material is its breakdown field. The breakdown field corresponds to the value of electric field strength at which the material suffers a catastrophic failure and conducts electricity between the electrodes. For most capacitor geometries, the electric field in the dielectric can be approximated by the voltage between the two electrodes divided by the spacing between the electrodes, which is usually the thickness of the dielectric layer. Since the thickness is usually constant it is more common to refer to a breakdown voltage, rather than a breakdown field. There are a number of factors that can dramatically reduce the breakdown voltage. In particular, the geometry of the conductive electrodes is important factor affecting breakdown voltage for capacitor applications. In particular, sharp edges or points hugely increase the electric field strength locally and can lead to a local breakdown. Once a local breakdown starts at any point, the breakdown will quickly “trace” through the dielectric layer until it reaches the opposite electrode and causes a short circuit.

Breakdown of the dielectric layer usually occurs as follows. Intensity of an electric field becomes high enough to “pull” electrons from atoms of the dielectric material and makes them conduct an electric current from one electrode to another. Presence of impurities in the dielectric or imperfections of the crystal structure can result in an avalanche breakdown as observed in semiconductor devices.

Another important characteristic of a dielectric material is its dielectric permittivity. Different types of dielectric materials are used for capacitors and include ceramics, polymer film, paper, and electrolytic capacitors of different kinds. The most widely used polymer film materials are polypropylene and polyester. Increasing dielectric permittivity allows for increasing volumetric energy density, which makes it an important technical task.

Second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) effects of organic molecules have been extensively investigated for their advantages over inorganic crystals. Properties studied, for example, include their large optical non-linearity, ultra-fast response speed, high damage thresholds and low absorption loss, etc. Particularly, organic thin films with excellent optical properties have tremendous potential in integrated optics such as optical switching, data manipulation and information processing. Among organic NLO molecules, azo-dye chromophores have been a special interest to many investigators because of their relatively large molecular hyper-polarizability (b) due to delocalization of the p-electronic clouds. They were most frequently either incorporated as a guest in the polymeric matrix (guest-host polymers) or grafted into the polymeric matrix (functionalized polymers) over the past decade.

Hyper-electronic polarization of organic compounds is described in greater detail in Roger D. Hartman and Herbert A. Pohl, “Hyper-electronic Polarization in Macromolecular Solids”, Journal of Polymer Science: Part A-1 Vol. 6, pp. 1135-1152 (1968). Hyper-electronic polarization may be viewed as the electrical polarization external fields due to the pliant interaction with the charge pairs of excitons, in which the charges are molecularly separated and range over molecularly limited domains. In this article four polyacene quinone radical polymers were investigated. These polymers at 100 Hz had dielectric constants of 1800-2400, decreasing to about 58-100 at 100,000 Hz. Essential drawback of the described method of production of material is use of a high pressure (up to 20 kbars) for forming the samples intended for measurement of dielectric constants.

SUMMARY

The present disclosure provides an electro-polarizable compound having the following general formula (I):

  • Core1 is an aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule having two-dimensional flat form and self-assembling by pi-pi stacking in a column-like supramolecule, R1 are electron donor groups connected to the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule (Core1) and R1′ are electron acceptor groups connected to the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule (Core1), m is number of acceptor groups R1, m′ is a number of donor groups R′, m and m′ are equal to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, wherein m and m′ are not both equal to 0, R2 is a substituent comprising one or more ionic groups from a class of ionic compounds that are used in ionic liquids connected to the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule (Core1) directly or via a connecting group, p is number of ionic groups R2 which is equal to 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4. The fragment marked NLE containing the Core1 with at least one group R1 and/or R1′ has a nonlinear effect of polarization.
  • Core2 is an electro-conductive oligomer and number n of the electro-conductive oligomers is equal to 0, 2, or 4. R3 is a substituent comprising one or more ionic groups from a class of ionic compounds that are used in ionic liquids connected to the electro-conductive oligomer (Core2) directly or via a connecting group, s is number of the ionic groups R3 which is equal to 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4.
  • R4 is a resistive substituent providing solubility of the organic compound in a solvent and electrically insulating the column-like supramolecules from each other and connected to the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule (Core1) and/or to the electro-conductive oligomer (Core2) directly or via a connecting group. The parameter k is a number of substituents R4, which is equal to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8.

In one aspect, the present disclosure provides a solution comprising an organic solvent and at least one disclosed electro-polarizable compound.

In another aspect, the present disclosure provides a crystal metadielectric layer comprising a mixture of the electro-polarizable compounds as disclosed above. The nonlinearly polarizable fragments comprising an aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule with at least one group R1 are placed into the resistive dielectric envelope formed by resistive substituents R4 providing solubility of the organic compound in a solvent and electrically insulating the column-like supramolecules from each other.

In still another aspect, the present invention provides a meta-capacitor comprising two metal electrodes positioned parallel to each other and which can be rolled or flat and planar with said metadielectric layer between said electrodes, wherein the metadielectric layer comprises one or more types of the disclosed electro-polarizable. The nonlinearly polarizable fragments comprising an aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule with at least one group R1, the electro-conductive oligomers and the ionic groups which have electronic and/or ionic type of polarizability are placed into the resistive dielectric envelope formed by resistive substituents providing solubility of the organic compound in a solvent and electrically insulating the column-like supramolecules from each other.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

All publications, patents, and patent applications mentioned in this specification are herein incorporated by reference to the same extent as if each individual publication, patent, or patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

FIG. 1A schematically shows a capacitor with flat and planar electrodes in accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure.

FIG. 1B schematically shows a capacitor with rolled (circular) electrodes in accordance with another aspect of the present disclosure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

While various embodiments of the invention have been shown and described herein, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that such embodiments are provided by way of example only. Numerous variations, changes, and substitutions may occur to those skilled in the art without departing from the invention. It should be understood that various alternatives to the embodiments of the invention described herein may be employed.

The present disclosure provides an electro-polarizable compound. Existence of the electrophilic groups (acceptors) and the nucleophilic groups (donors) in the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule (Core1) promotes non-uniform distribution of electronic density in the conjugated molecule: surplus of electrons in one place (in a donor zone) and a shortage of electrons in other place (in an acceptor zone). The influence of external electric field onto non-uniform distribution of electronic density along the conjugated molecule leads to the induced polarization Pind. In the general case the induced polarization is nonlinear function of intensity of local electric field Eloc. In the assumption of weak nonlinearity when it is possible to be limited to several members of decomposition of an induced polarization into a series on degrees of intensity of a local electric field, the induced polarization of the environment (of molecule) can be written down in the following form:

Pind=α·Eloc+β·Eloc2+ . . . ,

where α—linear polarizability, β—square polarizability. Though the assumption of a smallness of electric field is not always right, nevertheless parameters α and β can be used for qualitative analysis of polarizability of the disclosed compounds. In the present disclosure the main attention is paid to ways of increase in the induced polarization of the disclosed compounds and therefore onto ways of increase of the linear polarizability α and square polarizability β. Such attention is caused by that the constant dipole and quadrupole electrical moments are mutually neutralized at self-assembly of such conjugated molecules. Analysis shows that linear polarizability depends on the size of the average electronic density in the molecule, and nonlinear polarizability depends on the size of heterogeneity of electronic density. It is also shown that a non-centrosymmetric arrangement of the electron donor and acceptor groups can lead to a strong nonlinear response of the compound's electronic polarization in the presence of an electric field. Influence of chemical structure on linear polarizability α and square polarizability β is shown in Table 1 below.


TABLE 1
chemical structure
α
β
945
0.041
1348
0.165
1537
862
1252
21107
1908
40221
1431
35189
2057
168081
3397
582843
4604
1002570

An essential feature of the present disclosure is use of rigid no-conjugated limit carbon structures as resistive substituents. Such structures are absolutely determined in distinguishing from the dielectric structures formed by “fat” tails (such as alkyl, aryl, substituted alkyl, substituted aryl, fluorinated alkyl, chlorinated alkyl, branched and complex alkyl) which can be bent (curved) and lead to stochastic distribution of electronic density in the dielectric structure that leads to its electric breakdown. Thus, as resistive substituent R4 is used a non-conjugated compound, such as cyclo-hydrocarbons with rigid/fixed spatial structure like cyclohexane, cyclopentane and flat structures that are built as tiles from cyclo-molecules that do not contain voids/empty space; that have dense packing of SP3 carbon with H and F substitutes. Otherwise use of fat tails leads to formation of friable dielectric structure (film, layer, and envelope). It is possible that in friable structure always there will be a local area (“hole”) in which electronic density is equal to zero and which can be occupied with a free electron (that leads to electric breakdown). It is possible to enter a concept of a molecular hole when one molecule “is taken out” from the ordered structure (from a crystal lattice). In this case the quantum object (a quantum hole, a quantum point) is formed in which there are empty (non-occupied) energy levels. Set of such objects creates a condition for conductivity of electrons and for electric breakdown of dielectric structure. Therefore in the present disclosure the determined structures forming the ordered crystal dielectric layers are disclosed which do not allow electrons to pass through material.

Presence of the electro-conductive oligomers leads to increasing of polarizability of the disclosed electro-polarizable compound because of electronic super conductivity of the electro-conductive oligomers. Ionic groups increase an ionic component of polarization of the disclosed electro-polarizable compound. The nonlinearly polarizable fragments comprising an aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule with at least one dopant group, the electro-conductive oligomers and the ionic groups are placed into the resistive dielectric envelope formed by resistive substituents providing solubility of the organic compound in a solvent and electrically insulating the column-like supramolecules from each other. The resistive substituents increase the electric strength of these electro-polarizable compounds and breakdown voltage of the dielectric layers made on their basis.

In one embodiment of the present disclosure, the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule (Core1) comprises rylene fragments, which may be in conjugation with phenyl amides, naphthalene amides, and/or anthracene amides. In another embodiment of the disclosed electro-polarizable compound, the rylene fragments are selected from structures from 1 to 12 as given in Table 2.


TABLE 2
Examples of the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule comprising rylene fragments
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

In one embodiment of the present disclosure, the electron donor and acceptor groups (R1) are selected from nucleophilic groups (donors) and electrophilic groups (acceptors) and the set (variety) of groups (R1)m containing of m elements comprises donors (R1′) and/or acceptors (R1). The electrophilic groups (acceptors) are selected from —NO2, —NH3+ and —NR3+ (quaternary nitrogen salts), counterion Cl— or Br—, —CHO (aldehyde), —CRO (keto group), —SO3H (sulfonic acids), —SO3R (sulfonates), —SO2NH2 (sulfonamides), —COOH (carboxylic acid), —COOR (esters, from carboxylic acid side), —COCl (carboxylic acid chlorides), —CONH2 (amides, from carboxylic acid side), —CF3, —CCl3, —CN, —C(CN)2 wherein R is radical selected from the list comprising alkyl (methyl, ethyl, iso-propyl, tert-butyl, neopentyl, cyclohexyl etc.), allyl (—CH2—CH═CH2), benzyl (—CH2C6H5) groups, phenyl (+substituted phenyl) and other aryl (aromatic) groups. The nucleophilic groups (donors) are selected from —O— (phenoxides, like —ONa or —OK), —NH2, —NHR, —NR2, —OH, —OR (ethers), —NHCOR (amides, from amine side), —OCOR (esters, from alcohol side), alkyls, —C6H5, vinyls, wherein R is radical selected from the list comprising alkyl (methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl, neopentyl, cyclohexyl etc.), allyl (—CH2—CH═CH2), benzyl (—CH2C6H5) groups, phenyl (+substituted phenyl) and other aryl (aromatic) groups.

In still another embodiment of the disclosed electro-polarizable compound, at least one connecting group is selected from the list comprising the following structures: 13-23 given in Table 3, where X is hydrogen (H) or an alkyl group.


TABLE 3
Examples of the connecting group
13
14
15
16
17
19
20
21
22

In one embodiment of the present disclosure, the at least one connecting group is selected from the group of CH2, CF2, SiR2O, CH2CH2O, wherein R is selected from the list comprising H, alkyl, and fluorine. In another embodiment of the present disclosure, the at least one connecting group is selected from structures 24 to 29 as given in Table 4.


TABLE 4
Examples of the connecting group
24
25
26
27
28
29

In yet another embodiment of the present disclosure, the resistive substituent R4 is selected from the group of alkyl, aryl, substituted alkyl, substituted aryl, fluorinated alkyl, chlorinated alkyl, branched and complex alkyl, branched and complex fluorinated alkyl, branched and complex chlorinated alkyl groups, and any combination thereof, and wherein the alkyl group is selected from methyl, ethyl, propyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl and tert-butyl groups, and the aryl group is selected from phenyl, benzyl and naphthyl groups or siloxane, and/or polyethyleneglycol as linear or branched chains. In still another embodiment of the present disclosure, the resistive substituent R4 is CXQ2X+1, where X≥1 and Q is hydrogen (H), fluorine (F), or chlorine (Cl).

In one embodiment of the electro-polarizable compound, the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule (Core1) and the groups (R1) form a non-centrosymmetric molecular structure. In another embodiment of the electro-polarizable compound, the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule (Core1), the groups (R1) and the resistive substituents (R4) form a non-centrosymmetric molecular structure.

In one embodiment of the present disclosure, the electro-polarizable compound has the following general formula (II):

In general formula II, Core1 is the aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule, as discussed above, the resistive substituent R4 is a non-conjugated part of disclosed compound, which may be saturated and fused cyclo-hydrocarbons or saturated and fused cyclo-halocarbons with rigid spatial structure including, but not limited to cyclohexane, cyclopentane, polycyclic perflourohexyls, polycyclic perflouropentyls, and structures that are built from tiles of cyclic carbon molecules. Wherein, the tiles of cyclic carbon molecules have dense packing of SP3 carbon saturated with H, F, Cl, Br. And, wherein parameters n=p=s=0. In another embodiment of the electro-polarizable compound, a length of the non-conjugated part is selected such that its resistivity is greater than 1018 ohm·cm. In yet another embodiment of the electro-polarizable compound, the resistive substituent R4 is a polycyclic alkyl group and a polycyclic halo-alkyl, wherein in the polycyclic halo-alkyl group is connected to the apex of Core1 on which the electrophilic group (acceptor) R1 is connected, or the apex of Core1 on which the nucleophilic group (donor) R1′ is connected, but not both. In still another embodiment of the electro-polarizable compound, the resistive substituent R4 is resistive polycyclic substituents selected from the list comprising long C25H34 and C25H35 or C25F34 and C25F35 and located on the apex phenyl rings of Core1. In one embodiment of the present disclosure, the electro-polarizable compound has the following general formula (III):

In general formula III, the parameter m is equal to 4, R1′ is donor group, R1 is acceptor group, k is equal to 2. In another embodiment of the electro-polarizable compound, the Core1 is rylene fragment having following structural formula where repetition parameter t is an integer varying from 0 to 5:

wherein the set of the electron donor and acceptor groups comprises two donor groups —NH2 and two acceptor groups —NO2 (m is equal to 4) located on rylene phenyl rings and/or apex phenyl ring positions of the Core1, so that the fragment having a nonlinear effect of polarization (NLE) is represented by the following chemical structure (when t=1):

wherein the resistive substituent (R4) is an amine structure of the following type:

leading to the following structural formula (IV):

wherein the resistive substituents are connected via a connecting group.

In another embodiment of the present disclosure, the electro-polarizable compound has the following general formula (V):

In general formula V, Core1 is the above-described aromatic polycyclic conjugated molecule, m is equal to 6, R1′ is donor group, R1 is acceptor group, k is equal to 2. In yet another embodiment of the electro-polarizable compound, the Core1 is rylene fragment having following structural formula where repetition parameter t varies from 1 to 5:

wherein the set of the electron donor and acceptor groups comprises three donor groups —NH2 and three acceptor groups —NO2 (m is equal to 6) are located on rylene phenyl rings and/or apex phenyl ring positions of the Core1, so that the fragment having a nonlinear effect of polarization (NLE) is represented by following chemical structure (when t=1):

wherein the resistive substituent (R4) is an amine structure of the following type:

leading to the following structural formula (VI):

wherein the resistive substituents are connected via a connecting group.

In one embodiment of the present disclosure, the induced polarization Pind of the electro-polarizable compound may be written in the form of decomposition into a series on degrees of intensity of a local electric field Eloc:

Pind=α·Eloc+β·Eloc2+ . . . ,

where α represents linear polarizability, β represents square polarizability.

In an aspect, the present disclosure provides the organic solvent comprising the disclosed electro-polarizable compound. In one embodiment, the solution comprises a mixture of different electro-polarizable compounds. In another embodiment of the disclosed organic solvent, the mixture of the electro-polarizable compounds comprises the rylene fragments of different length. In still another embodiment, the organic solvent is selected from the list comprising ketones, carboxylic acids, hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, chlorohydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, esters, and any combination thereof. In yet another, the organic solvent is selected from the list comprising acetone, xylene, toluene, ethanol, methylcyclohexane, ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, octane, chloroform, methylene chloride, dichloroethane, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, carbon tetrachloride, 1,4-dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, pyridine, triethylamine, nitromethane, acetonitrile, dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and any combination thereof. In yet another embodiment of disclose, the solution is a lyotropic liquid crystal solution.

In another aspect, aspects of the present disclosure provide a crystal metadielectric layer comprising at least one type of the disclosed electro-polarizable compounds. The crystal metadielectric layers are produced from the disclosed organic compound by Cascade Crystallization; a method of thin crystal film (or thin crystal layer) manufacturing known as the Optiva-Process. See U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,739,296 and 6,049,428, and P. Lazarev et al., “X-ray Diffraction by Large Area Organic Crystalline Nano-films”, Molecular Materials, 14 (4), 303-311 (2001), and Bobrov, “Spectral Properties of Thin Crystal Film Polarizers”, Molecular Materials, 14 (3), 191-203 (2001).

Cascade Crystallization process involves a chemical modification step and four steps of ordering during the crystal metadielectric layer formation. The chemical modification step introduces hydrophilic groups on the periphery of the molecule of the disclosed organic compound in order to impart amphiphilic properties to the molecule. Amphiphilic molecules stack together into supramolecules, which is the first step of ordering. At certain concentration, supramolecules are converted into a liquid-crystalline state to form a lyotropic liquid crystal, which is the second step of ordering. The lyotropic liquid crystal is deposited under the action of a shear force (or meniscus force) onto a substrate based on a Mayer Rod shearing technique, so that shear force (or the meniscus) direction determines the crystal axis direction in the resulting solid crystal layer. The external alignment upon the lyotropic liquid crystal can be produced using any other means, for example by applying an external electric field at normal or elevated temperature, with or without additional illumination, magnetic field, or optical field (e.g., coherent photovoltaic effect); the degree of the external alignment should be sufficient to impart necessary orientation to the supramolecules of the lyotropic liquid crystal and form a structure, which serves as a base of the crystal lattice of the dielectric layer. This directional deposition is third step of ordering, representing the global ordering of the crystalline or polycrystalline structure on the substrate surface. The last fourth step of the Cascade Crystallization process is drying/crystallization, which converts the lyotropic liquid crystal into a solid crystal dielectric layer. The term Cascade Crystallization process is used to refer to the chemical modification and four ordering steps as a combination process.

The Cascade Crystallization process is used for production of thin crystalline metadielectric layers. The dielectric layer produced by the Cascade Crystallization process has a global order which means that a direction of the crystallographic axis of the layer over the entire substrate surface is controlled by the deposition process. Molecules of the deposited material are packed into supramolecules with a limited freedom of diffusion or motion. The thin crystalline dielectric layer is characterized by an interplanar spacing of 3.4±0.3 Ångströms (Å) in the direction of one of the optical axes.

In one embodiment of the present disclosure, the crystal metadielectric layer comprises the column-like supramolecules formed by the electro-polarizable compounds comprising the rylene fragments of different length. The variety of the rylene fragment lengths increases the randomness of the stack. In one embodiment according to aspects of the present disclosure, the layer's relative permittivity is greater than or equal to 1000. In one embodiment, the real part of the relative permittivity (∈′) of the crystal metadielectric layer comprises first-order (∈(1)) and second-order (∈(2)) permittivities according to follow formula:

ɛ=ɛ(1)+2ɛ(2)V0d,

where V0 is the DC-voltage which is applied to the crystal metadielectric layer, d is the layer thickness. In another embodiment of the present invention, the layer's resistivity is greater than or equal to 1013 ohm/cm.

The present disclosure provides the metacapacitor comprising two metal electrodes positioned parallel to each other and which can be rolled or flat and planar and metadielectric layer between said electrodes. The layer comprises the electro-polarizable compounds as disclosed above.

The metacapacitor comprises a first electrode 1, a second electrode 2, and a metadielectric layer 3 disposed between said first and second electrodes as shown in FIG. 1A. The electrodes 1 and 2 may be made of a metal, such as copper, zinc, or aluminum or other conductive material such as graphite or carbon nanomaterials and are generally planar in shape.

The electrodes 1, 2 may be flat and planar and positioned parallel to each other. Alternatively, the electrodes may be planar and parallel, but not necessarily flat, they may be coiled, rolled, bent, folded, or otherwise shaped to reduce the overall form factor of the capacitor. It is also possible for the electrodes to be non-flat, non-planar, or non-parallel or some combination of two or more of these. By way of example and not by way of limitation, a spacing d between the electrodes land 2 may range from about 100 nm to about 10 000 μm. The maximum voltage Vbd between the electrodes land 2 is approximately the product of the breakdown field Ebd and the electrode spacing d. If Ebd=0.1 V/nm and the spacing d between the electrodes 1 and 2 is 10,000 microns (100,000 nm), the maximum voltage Vbd would be 100,000 volts.

The electrodes land 2 may have the same shape as each other, the same dimensions, and the same area A. By way of example, and not by way of limitation, the area A of each electrode 1 and 2 may range from about 0.01 m2 to about 1000 m2. By way of example and not by way of limitation for rolled capacitors, electrodes up to, e.g., 1000 m long and 1 m wide.

These ranges are non-limiting. Other ranges of the electrode spacing d and area A are within the scope of the aspects of the present disclosure.

If the spacing d is small compared to the characteristic linear dimensions of electrodes (e.g., length and/or width), the capacitance C of the capacitor may be approximated by the formula:

C=∈∈oA/d,  (V)

where ∈o is the permittivity of free space (8.85×10−12 Coulombs2/(Newton·meter2)) and ∈ is the dielectric constant of the dielectric layer. The energy storage capacity U of the capacitor may be approximated as:

U=½∈∈oAEbd2  (VI)

The energy storage capacity U is determined by the dielectric constant ∈, the area A, and the breakdown field Ebd. By appropriate engineering, a capacitor or capacitor bank may be designed to have any desired energy storage capacity U. By way of example, and not by way of limitation, given the above ranges for the dielectric constant ∈, electrode area A, and breakdown field Ebd a capacitor in accordance with aspects of the present disclosure may have an energy storage capacity U ranging from about 500 Joules to about 2·1016 Joules.

For a dielectric constant ∈ ranging, e.g., from about 100 to about 1,000,000 and constant breakdown field Ebd between, e.g., about 0.1 and 0.5 V/nm, a capacitor of the type described herein may have a specific energy capacity per unit mass ranging from about 10 W·h/kg up to about 100,000 W·h/kg, though implementations are not so limited.

The present disclosure includes metacapacitors that are coiled, e.g., as depicted in FIG. 1B. In this example, a metacapacitor 20 comprises a first electrode 21, a second electrode 22, and a metadielectric material layer 23 of the type described hereinabove disposed between said first and second electrodes. The electrodes 21 and 22 may be made of a metal, such as copper, zinc, or aluminum or other conductive material such as graphite or carbon nanomaterials and are generally planar in shape. In one implementation, the electrodes and metadielectric material layer 23 are in the form of long strips of material that are sandwiched together and wound into a coil along with an insulating material, e.g., a plastic film such as polypropylene or polyester to prevent electrical shorting between the electrodes 21 and 22.

In order that the invention may be more readily understood, reference is made to the following examples, which are intended to be illustrative of the invention, but are not intended to limit its scope.

EXAMPLE 1

This Example describes synthesis of the disclosed organic compound according following structural scheme:

Terrylene anhydride 1 (1 equiv.) and 1-bromomethanamine (1 equiv.) were stirred in imidazole at 130° C. overnight. The mixture was dissolved in THF and washed with water 3 times. The organics were combined and dried over MgSO4. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give 2.

Terrylene imide 2 (1 equiv.) was dissolved in THF and stirred over an ice bath. Lithium aluminum hydride (5 equiv.) dissolved in THF was slowly added. The mixture was allowed to warm to ambient temperature and stirred for 18 h. The mixture was quenched with 2M NaOH, filtered, and dried over MgSO4, and the solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give 3.

Terrylene 3 (1 equiv.) and Pd/C (20% wt/wt) were stirred in THF in a three-neck flask with a H2 balloon attached for 18 h. The mixture was filtered through Celite and the solvents were removed under reduced pressure to give 4.

Bromo-amine 4 (1 equiv.), Anthracene 5 (1 equiv.), Pd(Ph)4 (10 mol %), K2CO3 (1.5 equiv.) were stirred in toluene at 70° C. for 18 h. The mixture was filtered through Celite and the filtrate was washed with NaHCO3 and brine. The organics were dried over MgSO4, and the solvents were removed under reduced pressure to give 6.

Naphthalene anhydride 7 (1 equiv.) and anthracene 6 (1 equiv.) were stirred in imidazole at 130° C. overnight. The mixture was dissolved in THF and washed with water 3 times. The organics were combined and dried over MgSO4. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give 8.

Amidine 8 (1 equiv.) and Pd/C (20% wt/wt) were stirred in THF in a three-neck flask with a H2 balloon attached for 18 h. The mixture was filtered through Celite and the solvents were removed under reduced pressure to give 9.

Amidine 8 (1 equiv.) was dissolved in THF and stirred at −80° C. N-butyllithium (1.2 equiv., 2.5 M in hexanes) was added dropwise. After 1 h, triisopropylborane was added dropwise and allowed to warm to room temperature overnight. The mixture was washed with NaHCO3 and brine and dried over MgSO4. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give 10.

Bromo-amidine 9 (1 equiv.), Amidine boronic ester 10 (1 equiv.), Pd(Ph)4 (10 mol %), K2CO3 (1.5 equiv.) were stirred in toluene at 70° C. for 18 h. The mixture was filtered through Celite and the filtrate was washed with NaHCO3 and brine. The organics were dried over MgSO4, and the solvents were removed under reduced pressure to give 11.

A mixture of 1.48 g (13 mmol) potassium tert-butoxide 2.30 g (15.1 mmol) of diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU), 2.2 g 36.3 mmol) ethanolamine and 1.0 g of 11 was heated to 140° C. for 11 hours. Afterwards, the same amount of potassium tert-butoxide, DBU and ethanolamine were added and the mixture was kept at 140° C. for 18 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, poured into 250 ml of 1M HCl filtered, washed until neutral pH and then dried to give the final product 12.

EXAMPLE 2

This Example describes synthesis of the disclosed organic compound according following structural scheme:

Bromo-amine 4 (1 equiv.), Naphthalene 14 (1 equiv.), Pd(Ph)4 (10 mol %), K2CO3 (1.5 equiv.) were stirred in toluene at 70° C. for 18 h. The mixture was filtered through Celite and the filtrate was washed with NaHCO3 and brine. The organics were dried over MgSO4, and the solvents were removed under reduced pressure to give 15.

Naphthalene anhydride 16 (1 equiv.) and naphthalene 15 (1 equiv.) were stirred in imidazole at 130° C. overnight. The mixture was dissolved in THF and washed with water 3 times. The organics were combined and dried over MgSO4. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give 17.

Amidine 17 (1 equiv.) and Pd/C (20% wt/wt) were stirred in THF in a three-neck flask with a H2 balloon attached for 18 h. The mixture was filtered through Celite and the solvents were removed under reduced pressure to give 18.

Amidine 17 (1 equiv.) was dissolved in THF and stirred at −80° C. N-butyllithium (1.2 equiv., 2.5 M in hexanes) was added dropwise. After 1 h, triisopropylborane was added dropwise and allow to warm to room temperature overnight. The mixture was washed with NaHCO3 and brine and dried over MgSO4. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give 19.

Bromo-amidine 18 (1 equiv.), Amidine boronic ester 19 (1 equiv.), Pd(Ph)4 (10 mol %), K2CO3 (1.5 equiv.) were stirred in toluene at 70° C. for 18 h. The mixture was filtered through Celite and the filtrate was washed with NaHCO3 and brine. The organics were dried over MgSO4, and the solvents were removed under reduced pressure to give 20.

A mixture of 1.48 g (13 mmol) potassium tert-butoxide 2.30 g (15.1 mmol) of diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU), 2.2 g 36.3 mmol) ethanolamine and 1.0 g of 20 was heated to 140° C. for 11 hours. Afterwards, the same amount of potassium tert-butoxide, DBU and ethanolamine were added and the mixture was kept at 140° C. for 18 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, poured into 250 ml of 1M HCl filtered, washed until neutral pH and then dried to give the final product 21.

Aspects of the present disclosure provide compounds characterized by highly nonlinear electric polarizabilitly. Such compounds are useful as high dielectric constant metadielectrics for metacapacitors with extremely high capacitance and extremely high energy storage capacity. While the above is a complete description of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is possible to use various alternatives, modifications and equivalents. Therefore, the scope of the present invention should be determined not with reference to the above description but should, instead, be determined with reference to the appended claims, along with their full scope of equivalents. Any feature described herein, whether preferred or not, may be combined with any other feature described herein, whether preferred or not. In the claims that follow, the indefinite article “A”, or “An” refers to a quantity of one or more of the item following the article, except where expressly stated otherwise. As used herein, in a listing of elements in the alternative, the word “or” is used in the logical inclusive sense, e.g., “X or Y” covers X alone, Y alone, or both X and Y together, except where expressly stated otherwise. Two or more elements listed as alternatives may be combined together. The appended claims are not to be interpreted as including means-plus-function limitations, unless such a limitation is explicitly recited in a given claim using the phrase “means for.”

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Citation

Patents Cited in This Cited by
Title Current Assignee Application Date Publication Date
电容器及该电容器的制造方法 昭和电工株式会社 06 February 2004 02 June 2010
一种风光电互补型移动电源 北京工业大学 14 March 2014 13 August 2014
叠层薄膜电容器及其制造方法 小岛冲压工业株式会社 08 August 2011 25 April 2012
使用导电聚合物的薄膜电容器 H.C.施塔克公司 01 November 2002 07 January 2009
一种多层复合介质薄膜电容器 深圳圣融达科技有限公司 21 August 2012 07 August 2013
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US10153087 Electro-polarizable compound capacitor 1 US10153087 Electro-polarizable compound capacitor 2 US10153087 Electro-polarizable compound capacitor 3