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Patent Analysis of

Multi-acid polymers from multifunctional amino acids and sulfonyl halide precursors and methods of making the same

Updated Time 12 June 2019

Patent Registration Data

Publication Number

US10153505

Application Number

US15/078072

Application Date

23 March 2016

Publication Date

11 December 2018

Current Assignee

NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.

Original Assignee (Applicant)

NISSAN NORTH AMERICA, INC.

International Classification

H01M8/1039,C08G75/30,H01M8/103,H01M8/1032,H01M8/1018

Cooperative Classification

H01M8/1039,C08G75/30,H01M8/1032,H01M8/103,Y02P70/56

Inventor

YADAV, RAMESHWAR

Patent Images

This patent contains figures and images illustrating the invention and its embodiment.

US10153505 Multi-acid polymers multifunctional amino 1 US10153505 Multi-acid polymers multifunctional amino 2 US10153505 Multi-acid polymers multifunctional amino 3
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Abstract

Multi-acid polymers are produced having the formula R—SO2—NH—R′—(SO3H)n and made from a polymer precursor in sulfonyl fluoride form or sulfonyl chloride form The R is one or more units of the polymer precursor without sulfonyl fluoride or sulfonyl chloride, R′ is the portion of the amino sulfonic acid without the SO3H and NH, n is one or more, and the multi-acid polymer has two or more proton conducting groups. A method of making the multi-acid polymers includes reacting an amino acid having multiple sulfonic acids with a polymer precursor in sulfonyl fluoride form or sulfonyl chloride form in a mild base condition to produce the multi-acid polymer having two or more proton conducting groups.

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Claims

1. A multi-acid polymer having the formula R—SO2—NH—R′—(SO3H)n, and made from an amino sulfonic acid and a polymer precursor in sulfonyl fluoride form or sulfonyl chloride form, R′ is the portion of the amino sulfonic acid without the SO3H and NH, n is one or more, the multi-acid polymer has two or more proton conducting groups, R is: and wherein Rf═—CF2—CF(CF3)—O—(CF2)2—, —(CF2)4—, or —(CF2)2—, m=3-13.5, n=1 or more.

2. The multi-acid polymer of claim 1, the multi-acid polymer has four proton conducting groups and the following formula: wherein n=3.

3. The multi-acid polymer of claim 1, wherein the polymer precursor is a fluorinated polymer or resin or membrane in sulfonyl fluoride form.

4. The multi-acid polymer of claim 1, wherein the polymer precursor is selected from the following group: 2-allyloxy-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro ethane sulfonyl fluoride, 4-(trifluoro vinyl) benzene sulfonyl fluoride, and p-styrene sulfonyl fluoride.

5. The multi-acid polymer of claim 1, wherein the polymer precursor is perfluoro (3-oxapent-4-ene) sulfonyl fluoride.

6. The multi-acid polymer of claim 1, wherein the polymer precursor is ethene sulfonyl fluoride.

7. The multi-acid polymer of claim 1, wherein the polymer precursor is 2-propene-1-sulfonyl chloride or p-styrene sulfonyl chloride.

8. The multi-acid polymer of claim 1, wherein the polymer precursor is perfluoro(4-methyl-3,6-dioxaoct-7-ene)sulfonyl fluoride.

9. A multi-acid membrane for a fuel cell comprising the multi-acid polymer of claim 1.

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Claim Tree

  • 1
    1. A multi-acid polymer having
    • the formula R—SO2—NH—R′—(SO3H)n, and made from an amino sulfonic acid and a polymer precursor in sulfonyl fluoride form or sulfonyl chloride form, R′ is the portion of the amino sulfonic acid without the SO3H and NH, n is one or more, the multi-acid polymer has two or more proton conducting groups, R is: and wherein Rf═—CF2—CF(CF3)—O—(CF2)2—, —(CF2)4—, or —(CF2)2—, m=3-13.5, n=1 or more.
    • 2. The multi-acid polymer of claim 1, the multi-acid polymer has four proton conducting groups and the following formula: wherein
      • n=3.
    • 3. The multi-acid polymer of claim 1, wherein
      • the polymer precursor is a fluorinated polymer or resin or membrane in sulfonyl fluoride form.
    • 4. The multi-acid polymer of claim 1, wherein
      • the polymer precursor is selected from the following group: 2-allyloxy-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro ethane sulfonyl fluoride, 4-(trifluoro vinyl) benzene sulfonyl fluoride, and p-styrene sulfonyl fluoride.
    • 5. The multi-acid polymer of claim 1, wherein
      • the polymer precursor is perfluoro (3-oxapent-4-ene) sulfonyl fluoride.
    • 6. The multi-acid polymer of claim 1, wherein
      • the polymer precursor is ethene sulfonyl fluoride.
    • 7. The multi-acid polymer of claim 1, wherein
      • the polymer precursor is 2-propene-1-sulfonyl chloride or p-styrene sulfonyl chloride.
    • 8. The multi-acid polymer of claim 1, wherein
      • the polymer precursor is perfluoro(4-methyl-3,6-dioxaoct-7-ene)sulfonyl fluoride.
  • 9
    9. A multi-acid membrane for a fuel cell comprising
    • the multi-acid polymer of claim 1.
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Description

TECHNICAL FIELD

This disclosure relates to multi-acid polymers from multifunctional amino acids and sulfonyl halide precursors and methods of making the multi-acid polymers.

BACKGROUND

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) generate power from electrochemical conversion of fuels, such as hydrogen and hydrocarbons, at their anodes and oxidants, such as oxygen and air, at their cathodes using the polymer membrane as electrolyte. The membrane acts both as a proton conductor from anode to cathode and a barrier between fuels and oxidants. Current state-of-art membranes such as Nafion™ membranes, Aquivion™ membranes, and low equivalent weight (EW) perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) membranes have only one sulfonic acid group in the side chain. As a result, these membranes hold little water at any given relative humidity (RH %) and have very low ionic conductivity, especially at low RH % and at temperatures below 100° C.

SUMMARY

Disclosed herein are multi-acid polymers and multi-acid membranes, and methods of making the multi-acid polymers and multi-acid membranes.

A multi-acid polymer disclosed herein has the formula R—SO2—NH—R′—(SO3H)n, and is made from an amino sulfonic acid and a polymer precursor in sulfonyl fluoride form or sulfonyl chloride form, wherein R is one or more units of the polymer precursor without sulfonyl fluoride or sulfonyl chloride, R′ is the portion of the amino sulfonic acid without the SO3H and NH, n is one or more, and the multi-acid polymer has two or more proton conducting groups.

Another multi-acid polymer disclosed herein has the formula R—SO2—NH—R′—(PO3H2)n, and is made from an amino phosphonic acid and a polymer precursor in sulfonyl fluoride form or sulfonyl chloride form, wherein R is one or more units of the polymer precursor without sulfonyl fluoride or sulfonyl chloride, R′ is the portion of the amino phosphonic acid without the PO3H2 and NH, n is one or more, and the multi-acid polymer has two or more proton conducting groups.

Also disclosed are methods of making the multi-acid polymers. The method comprises reacting an amino acid having multiple sulfonic acids or phosphonic acids with a polymer precursor in sulfonyl fluoride form or sulfonyl chloride form in a mild base condition to produce the multi-acid polymer having two or more proton conducting groups.

These and other aspects of the present disclosure are disclosed in the following detailed description of the embodiments, the appended claims and the accompanying figures.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The invention is best understood from the following detailed description when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings. It is emphasized that, according to common practice, the various features of the drawings are not to-scale. On the contrary, the dimensions of the various features are arbitrarily expanded or reduced for clarity.

FIG. 1 is a flow diagram of a method of making a multi-acid polymer as disclosed herein.

FIG. 2 is a flow diagram of the method of making the multi-acid polymer and a multi-acid membrane as disclosed herein.

FIG. 3 is a flow diagram of another method of making a multi-acid polymer as disclosed herein.

FIG. 4 is a flow diagram of a method of making an imide and sulfonic acid fluorinated polymer as disclosed herein.

FIG. 5 is a flow diagram of a method of making an imide and phosphonic acid fluorinated polymer as disclosed herein.

FIG. 6 is a flow diagram of another method of making a multi-acid polymer as disclosed herein.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Membranes that incorporate more acid groups for high ionic conductivity, especially at low RH % and at typical PEMFCs operating temperature, will enable simplified humidification systems, will improve performance of the fuel cell, and will reduce the cost for early commercialization of PEMFC electric vehicles. The multi-acid polymers disclosed herein, having two or more proton conducting sites, provide such membranes.

Ionic conductivity of membranes at low RH % is improved by increasing the acid groups in the membrane, such as sulfonic acids (—SO3H group), imide acids (SO2—NH—SO2 group), and phosphonic acids (PO3H2 group). Increasing the acid groups reduces the equivalent weight (EW) because EW is inversely proportional to acid quantity in the membrane. However, increasing the acid groups by more than one in the side group in the current state-of-the-art membranes has been extremely difficult and challenging. The current membranes in the precursor form (SO2F) have only one SO2F group that is hydrolyzed and ion-exchanged to accomplish only one SO3H group per side chain. Since, only one SO3H acid group per side chain is attained in the current membranes, the water uptake, ionic conductivity, IV performance, and power density are limited in such membranes that have applications in hydrogen and hydrocarbon PEMFCs. Additionally, because of limits on reactivity of typical starting monomers and comonomers, such as tetrafluoroethylene (CF2═CF2) monomer and perfluoro (3-oxapent-4-ene) sulfonyl fluoride and perfluoro (4-methyl-3,6-dioxaoct-7-ene)sulfonyl fluoride, increasing the acid group or reducing the EW below certain values, such as EW 1100, EW 870, EW 725, is difficult and expensive. Current state-of-the-art PFSA membranes that have just one sulfonic acid group are already expensive. Modifying such PFSA membranes to incorporate multi-acid groups currently requires sophisticated equipment and extremely high reaction conditions.

Currently, monomers having multiple acids or capable of holding multiple acids are non-existent for application in PEMFC membranes. In the PEMFC industry, it has been very challenging to develop membranes having phosphonic acid. Attempts to develop membranes with phosphonic acids for high temperature PEMFCs have been unsuccessful. Doping methods have been used to add phosphonic acids into the membrane; however, the phosphonic acids can leach from the membranes. The methods disclosed herein incorporate amino phosphonic acids into a polymer matrix, covalently attaching phosphonic acid to the polymer to produce a robust and stable membrane.

Multi-acids in the side group enable higher water uptake, higher ionic conductivity and higher power density in PEMFCs. The methods disclosed herein produce such multi-acid membranes. Some methods link various amino acids having multiple sulfonic acids or phosphonic acids with monomers, copolymers or polymers in sulfonyl fluoride or sulfonyl chloride (SO2F/Cl) form to produce polymer electrolyte membranes or materials with high acid content for application in PEMFCs. An amino acid with more than one acid group is linked with a monomer, copolymer or polymer in SO2F/Cl form to produce multi-acid membranes. Methods disclosed herein use amino acid compounds that have a primary amine group (—NH2) attached to multiple sulfonic acids or phosphonic acids. The methods incorporate varieties of amino sulfonic acids or amino phosphonic acids or amino sulfonyl halides that are highly acidic.

Embodiments of the multi-acid membranes disclosed herein can be synthesized at mild reaction conditions using inexpensive, commercially available amino sulfonic or amino phosphonic acids. Other embodiments of the multi-acid membranes disclosed herein are synthesized using ammonolysis and sulfonyl halide compounds, with the side group in the polymer chain extended to incorporate many acid groups that will result in very high acidic polymer electrolyte membranes. These multi-acid polymers produce robust, highly acidic, and highly efficient polymer electrolyte membranes with extremely low EW for applications, including applications in low RH %.

The methods and materials disclosed herein can be used to produce polymer electrolyte membranes for direct alcohol PEMFCs, direct hydrocarbons PEMFCs, other PEMFCs, for various ion-exchange processes such as Chlor-Alkali processes, water purification, desalination processes, electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries and redox flow batteries and for acid catalysis in organic synthesis.

The monomers, polymers, or copolymers in SO2F/Cl form and various sulfonyl halide compounds discussed herein are converted into new types of monomers, polymers or copolymers having multiple sulfonyl halide groups. These new monomers, polymers or copolymers can be copolymerized with other compatible monomers, polymers or copolymers to create varieties of new families of copolymers.

There are a variety of monomers, polymers or copolymers in SO2F/Cl form that can be converted into corresponding monomers, polymers or copolymers having multiple sulfonic acids, imide acids and/or phosphonic acids. As used herein, “polymer precursors in SO2F/Cl form” includes monomers, polymers, copolymers, resins and membranes in SO2F/Cl form that can be used as a starting material to produce the multi-acid polymers and membranes disclosed herein. Any fluorinated, partially fluorinated, chlorinated, partially chlorinated or hydrocarbon polymer, copolymer or monomer can be used. Non-limiting examples include: Nafion™ polymer or resins in SO2F form; Aquivion™ polymer or resins in SO2F form; polymer, copolymer or monomer of 2-allyloxy-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro ethane sulfonyl fluoride; polymer, copolymer or monomer of 4-(trifluorovinyl) benzene sulfonyl fluoride; polymer, copolymer or monomer of p-styrene sulfonyl fluoride/chloride; polymer, copolymer or monomer of perfluoro (3-oxapent-4-ene) sulfonyl fluoride; polymer, copolymer or monomer of ethene sulfonyl fluoride; polymer, copolymer or monomer of 2-propene-1-sulfonyl chloride; and polymer, copolymer or monomer of perfluoro (4-methyl-3,6-dioxaoct-7-ene) sulfonyl fluoride.

One embodiment of a multi-acid polymer disclosed herein has the following formula (1): R—SO2—NH—R′—(SO3H)n, wherein R=one or more units of the polymer precursor without sulfonyl fluoride or sulfonyl chloride, R′=the portion of the amino sulfonic acid without the SO3H and NH, and n=the number of acid sites from the amino acid having sulfonic acids used to make the multi-acid polymer. The multi-acid polymers are multi-sulfonic acid fluorinated polymers.

For example, when the amino acid used is 7-aminonaphthalene 1,3,5-trisulfonic acid, having the following formula:

the multi-acid polymer has n=3, four proton conducting groups, and the following formula (2):

R has, for example, the following formula:

wherein Rf═—CF2—CF(CF3)—O—(CF2)2—, —(CF2)4—, or —(CF2)2—, n=1 or more and m=3-13.5. For example, when the polymer precursor is Nafion™, n=1 and m=5-13.5. When the polymer precursor is Aquivion™, n=1 and m=3-7.

A method of making the multi-acid polymer in formula (1) is also disclosed. The method comprises reacting an amino acid having multiple sulfonic acids with a polymer precursor in SO2F/Cl form in a mild base condition. To produce the multi-acid polymer of formula (2), which has four proton conducting groups, the amino acid used is 7-aminonaphthalene 1,3,5-trisulfonic acid, with n=3, the equation shown below.

The formulas of examples of polymer precursors R—SO2F/Cl that will produce the multi-acid polymer shown in formula (2) are shown below:

    • 2-allyloxy-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro ethane sulfonyl fluoride

    • 4-(trifluorovinyl) benzene sulfonyl fluoride

    • p-styrene sulfonyl fluoride/chloride

    • perfluoro (3-oxapent-4-ene) sulfonyl fluoride

    • ethene sulfonyl fluoride

    • 2-propene-1-sulfonyl chloride

    • perfluoro (4-methyl-3,6-dioxaoct-7-ene) sulfonyl fluoride

The method of making the multi-acid polymer can be performed in various orders. For example, the polymer precursor can be a polymer or co-polymer that does not need to be polymerized. The polymer precursor can be a polymer or co-polymer that requires additional polymerization. The polymer precursor can be a monomer that will require polymerization, such as when R is one unit. Polymerization can occur prior to producing the multi-acid groups. The polymer precursor can be reacted to form the multi-acid groups and then polymerized. The polymer precursor can be polymerized or not, and formed into a membrane, with the membrane reacted to form the multi-acid groups. Any combination of steps is contemplated herein.

Using this one step synthesis shown in FIG. 1, the polymer precursor having only one SO2F/Cl group in the side group in step 10 can be converted into the multi-acid polymer in step 12 shown in formula (1) and membranes having many sulfonic acid groups. In addition to 7-aminonaphthalene 1,3,5-trisulfonic acid mentioned above, there are other amino acid compounds having multiple sulfonyl acids that can be used to produce the multi-acid polymers. Non-limiting examples include: 2-naphthylamine-3,6,8-trisulfonic acid; sulfanilamide; 1-naphthylamine-3,6,8,-trisulfonic acid disodium salt hydrate; 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid disodium salt; 5-amino naphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid; 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid tri sodium salt; sodium 2-amino-4-sulfobenzene 1-sulfonate; sodium 3-amino-4-sulfobenzene-1-sulfonate; sodium 2-amino-5-sulfobenzene-1-sulfonate; 4-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid monosodium salt hydrate; disodium 4-amino-5-sulfonaphthalene-2,7-disulfonate; 3-aminonaphthalene-1,5-disulfonic acid; 2-amino-4,8-naphthalenedisulfonic acid; 4-amino-6-chlorobenzene-1,3-disulfonyl dichloride; 4-(aminosulfonyl) benzene sulfonyl chloride; 6-aminopyridine-3-sulfonic acid; 4-aminopyridine-3-sulfonic acid; 2-aminopyridine-5-sulfonic acid; 2-aminopyridine-3-sulfonic acid; 7-amino-1,3-naphthalenedisulfonic acid monopotassium salt monohydrate; 1-amino-8-hydroxynaphthalene-3,6-disulfonic acid; and 2,4,6-tris chlorosulfonyl aniline.

Another embodiment of a multi-acid polymer disclosed herein has the following formula (3): R—SO2—NH—R′—(PO3H2)n, wherein R=one or more units of the polymer precursor without sulfonyl fluoride or sulfonyl chloride, R′=the portion of the amino phosphonic acid without the PO3H2 and NH, and n=the number of acid sites from the amino acid having phosphonic acids used to make the multi-acid polymer. The multi-acid polymer is a multi-phosphonic acid fluorinated polymer. Multi-phosphonic acid fluorinated polymers are beneficial in making membranes that can operate at high temperatures because phosphoric acid becomes more proton conductive at high temperatures.

For example, when the amino acid used is 1-aminopropane-1,1,3-triphosphonic acid, the multi-acid polymer has n=3, seven proton conducting groups, and the following formula (4):

R has, for example, the following formula:

wherein Rf═—CF2—CF(CF3)—O—(CF2)2—, —(CF2)4—, or —(CF2)2—, n=1 or more and m=3-13.5.

A method of making the multi-acid polymer in formula (3) is also disclosed. The method comprises reacting an amino acid having multiple phosphonic acids with a polymer precursor in SO2F/Cl form in a mild base condition.

To produce the multi-acid polymer of formula (4), which has seven proton conducting groups, the amino acid used is 1-aminopropane-1,1,3-triphosphonic acid, with n=3, with the equation shown below.

Using this one step synthesis shown in FIG. 1, the polymer precursor having only one SO2F/Cl group in the side group in step 10 can be converted into the multi-acid polymer in step 12 shown in formula (3) and membranes having many phosphonic acid groups. In addition to 1-aminopropane-1,1,3-triphosphonic acid mentioned above, there are other amino acid compounds having multiple sulfonyl acids that can be used to produce the multi-acid polymers. Non-limiting examples include (4-Amino-1-hydroxybutane-1,1-diyl) diphosphonic acid, 1-Amino-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphonic acid and 1-amino propane-1,1-diphosphonic acid.

As noted, the method of making the multi-acid polymer can be performed in various orders. For example, the polymer precursor can be a polymer or co-polymer that does not need to be polymerized. The polymer precursor can be a polymer or co-polymer that requires additional polymerization. The polymer precursor can be a monomer that will require polymerization, such as when R is one unit. Polymerization can occur prior to producing the multi-acid groups. The polymer precursor can be reacted to form the multi-acid groups and then polymerized. The polymer precursor can be polymerized or not, and formed into a membrane, with the membrane reacted to form the multi-acid groups. Any combination of steps is contemplated herein.

The reaction between sulfonyl halides and secondary amine groups is facile under mild basic conditions. As shown in FIG. 2, the polymer precursor in SO2F/Cl form can be soaked in a solvent such as acetonitrile, water or any other organic solvent in step 20. A mild base condition is formed by adding a base in step 22 such as pyridine, K2CO3, KOH or NaOH. The amino acid is added to the mixture in step 24. In step 26, the reaction is performed below 100° C. for at least twelve hours to achieve satisfactory conversion to the multi-acid polymer. In particular, the reaction is performed at a temperature between about 90° C. and 100° C. The multi-acid polymer can be retrieved from the reaction vessel and rinsed with deionized water several times in step 28 and then boiled in deionized water to remove any trace of residuals from the reaction in step 30.

A membrane for a PEMFC can be made from the multi-acid polymer. The multi-acid polymer is shaped into membrane form. To fully convert the multi-acid polymer to a membrane in acid form, the multi-acid polymer is ion-exchanged in step 32. For example, the multi-acid polymer can be ion-exchanged twice with 1-2 M aqueous sulfuric acid solution for a minimum of two hours at 80-100° C. and then rinsed with deionized water several times and boiled in deionized water to obtain the membrane in complete multi-acid form.

Another multi-acid polymer as disclosed herein is produced from the same polymer precursors discussed above. The multi-acid polymer has the following formula (5):

wherein R is one or more units of a non-SO2F or non-SO2Cl portion of the polymer precursor in sulfonyl fluoride or sulfonyl chloride form. The multi-acid polymer is an imide and sulfonic acid fluorinated polymer.

Another multi-acid polymer as disclosed herein has the following formula (6):

wherein R is one or more units of a non-SO2F or non-SO2Cl portion of the polymer precursor in sulfonyl fluoride or sulfonyl chloride form. The multi-acid polymer is an imide and phosphonic acid fluorinated polymer.

A method of making the multi-acid polymers shown in formulas (5) and (6) is illustrated in FIG. 3. The method comprises reacting a polymer precursor in sulfonyl fluoride or sulfonyl chloride form with anhydrous ammonia to obtain a sulfonamide in step 100. The polymer precursor in sulfonyl fluoride or sulfonyl chloride form has a formula R—SO2F or R—SO2Cl, respectively, with R being one of more units of the polymer precursor without sulfonyl fluoride or sulfonyl chloride, as discussed herein with reference to the multi-sulfonic acid fluorinated polymer and the multi-phosphonic acid fluorinated polymer. The sulfonamide has a formula R—SO2—NH2. The sulfonamide is reacted with a compound of a formula COOH—X-AGG under a mild base condition in step 102, wherein X is one of C6H3 or N(CH2)3 and AGG is an acid giving group. This reaction forms the multi-acid polymer having an imide base and more than two proton conducting groups.

To react the sulfonamide with the compound in step 102, the sulfonamide is soaked in a solvent such as acetonitrile, water or any other organic solvent. A mild base condition is formed by adding a base such as pyridine, K2CO3, KOH or NaOH. The compound is added to the mixture and reacted below 100° C. for at least twelve hours to achieve satisfactory conversion to the multi-acid polymer. In particular, the reaction is performed at a temperature between about 90° C. and 100° C. The multi-imide and sulfonic acid fluorinated polymer can be retrieved from the reaction vessel, rinsed with deionized water several times and then boiled in deionized water to remove any trace of residuals from the reaction.

As noted, the method of making the multi-acid polymer can be performed in various orders. For example, the polymer precursor can be a polymer or co-polymer that does not need to be polymerized. The polymer precursor can be a polymer or co-polymer that requires additional polymerization. The polymer precursor can be a monomer that will require polymerization, such as when R is one unit. Polymerization can occur prior to producing the multi-acid groups. The polymer precursor can be reacted to form the multi-acid groups and then polymerized. The polymer precursor can be polymerized or not, and formed into a membrane, with the membrane reacted to form the multi-acid groups. Any combination of steps is contemplated herein.

One example of the method disclosed above produces an imide and sulfonic acid fluorinated polymer using the compound 3,5-bis(fluorosulfonyl) benzoic acid having a formula of HOOC═C6H3—(SO2F)2, where X═C6H3 and AGG=(SO2F)2. This is illustrated in FIG. 4. In step 110, a polymer precursor in sulfonyl fluoride form is reacted with ammonia to produce a sulfonamide. Reacting the sulfonamide in step 112 with 3,5-bis(fluorosulfonyl) benzoic acid produces an intermediate product:

The intermediate product is hydrolyzed with a base and an alcohol in step 114 and then ion exchanged with an acid in step 116 to form the multi-acid polymer with three proton conducting groups and having the following formula, with R being the one of more units of the polymer precursor without sulfonyl fluoride or sulfonyl chloride:

A membrane for a fuel cell can be formed from the multi-acid polymer by converting any remaining sites of the multi-acid polymer to acid form by ion-exchanging the multi-acid polymer with sulfuric acid solution to form the multi-acid membrane.

Other compounds of the formula COOH—X-AGG that can be used in the method of FIG. 4 include, but are not limited to, Tris(phosphonomethyl) cyclen; 8-Acetoxy-pyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonyl chloride; 3,6,8-tris chlorosulfonyl pyrene-1-yl-acetate; 7-ethoxycarbonyloxy-naphthaline-1,3,6-trisulfonyl chloride; 3,5-bis(chlorosulfonyl) benzoic acid; 3,5-bis(chlorosulfonyl)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid; and 3,5-bis(chlorosulfonyl)-,methyl ester benzoic acid.

One example of the method disclosed above to produce an imide and phosphonic acid fluorinated polymer is shown in FIG. 5. The polymer precursor in sulfonyl halide form is reacted with ammonia in step 120 to produce sulfonamide. The method uses the compound N,N-Bis (phosphono methyl) glycine having a following formula, wherein X═N(CH2)2 and AGG=(PO2H2+)2:

Reacting the sulfonamide with the N,N-bis (phosphono methyl) glycine in step 122 produces the multi-acid polymer having five proton conducting groups and having the following formula, with R being one of more units of the polymer precursor without sulfonyl fluoride or sulfonyl chloride:

A membrane for a fuel cell can be formed from the multi-acid polymer by converting any remaining sites of the multi-acid polymer to acid form by ion-exchanging the multi-acid polymer with sulfuric acid solution to form the multi-acid membrane.

Other compounds of the formula COOH—X-AGG that can be used in the method of FIG. 5 include, but are not limited to, 4-hydroxy-4,4-diphosphonobutanoic acid; 1-amino-1,1-diphosphono-2-carboxy ethane; 2,3-diphosphono-propionsaeure; acetic acid,diphosphono-,1-ethyl ester; 2-hydroxy-2,3,4-triphosphonobutanoic acid; 2-hydroxy-2,3,4-triphosphonobutanoic acid; 4-hydroxy-4,4-diphosphonobutanoic acid; 2-hydroxy-2,3-diphosphonopropanoic acid; 3-(1,1-diphosphonoethylamino)-2-hydroxypropanoic acid; 3-amino-2-methyl-3,3-diphosphonopropanoic acid; 2-hydroxy-2,3-diphosphonopropanoic acid; 4,4-diphosphonobutanoic acid; 4-hydroxy-4,4-diphosphonobutanoic acid; propanoic acid,3,3-diphosphono-,1-ethyl ester; 1-amino-1,1-diphosphono-2-carboxy ethane.

Another multi-acid polymer disclosed herein has the following formula (7):

R is one or more units of a non-SO2F or non-SO2Cl portion of the polymer precursor in sulfonyl fluoride or sulfonyl chloride form, X is a non-sulfonyl halide group of a multi-sulfonyl halide compound having a minimum of two acid giving groups, and Y is remaining sulfonyl halide groups of the multi-sulfonyl halide compound. The multi-acid polymer is a multi-imide and sulfonic acid fluorinated polymer.

A method of making the multi-acid polymer in formula (7) is shown in FIG. 6 and comprises reacting the polymer precursor in sulfonyl fluoride or sulfonyl chloride form with anhydrous ammonia to obtain a sulfonamide in step 200, wherein the polymer precursor in sulfonyl fluoride or sulfonyl chloride form has a formula R—SO2F or R—SO2Cl, respectively, with R being one of more units of the polymer precursor without sulfonyl fluoride or sulfonyl chloride, and wherein the sulfonamide has a formula R—SO2—NH2. In step 202, the sulfonamide is reacted with a multi-sulfonyl halide compound having a minimum of two acid giving groups under a mild base condition to form an intermediate polymer in sulfonyl halide form. The intermediate polymer is hydrolyzed with a base and alcohol in step 204 and is ion exchanged with an acid in step 206 to produce the multi-acid polymer of formula (7), wherein R is the one of more units of the polymer precursor without sulfonyl fluoride or sulfonyl chloride, X is the non-sulfonyl halide group of the multi-sulfonyl halide compound, and Y is the remaining sulfonyl halide groups of the multi-sulfonyl halide compound.

To react the sulfonamide with the multi-sulfonyl halide compound in step 202, the sulfonamide is soaked in a solvent such as acetonitrile, water or any other organic solvent. A mild base condition is formed by adding a base such as pyridine, K2CO3, KOH or NaOH. The multi-sulfonyl halide compound is added to the mixture and reacted below 100° C. for at least twelve hours to achieve satisfactory conversion to the multi-acid polymer. In particular, the reaction is performed at a temperature between about 90° C. and 100° C. The multi-imide and sulfonic acid fluorinated polymer can be retrieved from the reaction vessel, rinsed with deionized water several times and then boiled in deionized water to remove any trace of residuals from the reaction.

As noted, the method of making the multi-acid polymer can be performed in various orders. For example, the polymer precursor can be a polymer or co-polymer that does not need to be polymerized. The polymer precursor can be a polymer or co-polymer that requires additional polymerization. The polymer precursor can be a monomer that will require polymerization, such as when R is one unit. Polymerization can occur prior to producing the multi-acid groups. The polymer precursor can be reacted to form the multi-acid groups and then polymerized. The polymer precursor can be polymerized or not, and formed into a membrane, with the membrane reacted to form the multi-acid groups. Any combination of steps is contemplated herein.

A membrane for a fuel cell can be formed from the multi-acid polymer by converting any remaining sites of the multi-acid polymer to acid form by ion-exchanging the multi-acid polymer with sulfuric acid solution to form the multi-acid membrane.

Examples of the multi-sulfonyl halide compound include, but are not limited to, 1,3,5-benzene trisulfonyl chloride, benzene-1,3-disulfonyl chloride, benzene-1,2-disulfonyl chloride, perfluorobutane-1,4-bis-sulfonyl chloride, perfluorobutane-1,4-bis-sulfonyl fluoride, 1,4-bis(fluorosulfonyloxy)-octafluorobutane, and bis[2-(fluorosulfonyl)tetrafluoroethyl]ether.

When the multi-sulfonyl halide compound is 1,3,5-benzene trisulfonyl chloride or 1,3,5-tris[(fluorosulfonyl)]benzene, the multi-acid polymer has the following formula:

When the multi-sulfonyl halide compound is benzene-1,3-disulfonyl chloride or benzene-1,2-disulfonyl chloride, the multi-acid polymer has the following formula:

When the multi-sulfonyl halide compound is perfluorobutane-1,4-bis-sulfonyl chloride or perfluorobutane-1,4-bis-sulfonyl fluoride, the multi-acid polymer has the following formula:

When the multi-sulfonyl halide compound is 1,4-bis(fluorosulfonyloxy)-octafluorobutane, the multi-acid polymer has the following formula:

When the multi-sulfonyl halide compound is bis[2-(fluorosulfonyl)tetrafluoroethyl]ether, the multi-acid polymer has the following formula:

When the multi-sulfonyl halide compound is 1,1,2,2,3,3-hexafluoro-propane-1,3-disulfonyl difluoride, the multi-acid polymer has the following formula:

When the multi-sulfonyl halide compound is 1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6-dodecafluorohexane-1,6-disulfonyl fluoride, the multi-acid polymer has the following formula:

When the multi-sulfonyl halide compound is naphthalene-1,2,6-trisulfonyl chloride, the multi-acid polymer has the following formula:

While the invention has been described in connection with certain embodiments, it is to be understood that the invention is not to be limited to the disclosed embodiments but, on the contrary, is intended to cover various modifications and equivalent arrangements included within the scope of the appended claims, which scope is to be accorded the broadest interpretation so as to encompass all such modifications and equivalent structures as is permitted under the law.

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Citation

Patents Cited in This Cited by
Title Current Assignee Application Date Publication Date
High molecular weight aliphatic hydrocarbon sulfonic acids, sulfonyl chlorides and sulfonamides STANDARD OIL COMPANY 09 June 1971 02 March 1976
Proton-conducting membrane and use thereof BASF FUEL CELL GMBH 30 December 2004 29 December 2011
Crosslinked ion conductive membranes 3M INNOVATIVE PROPERTIES COMPANY 22 May 1998 18 July 2000
Polymerizable monomer, polymeric compound, charge control agent containing the polymeric compound, and developer bearing member and toner which contain the charge control agent CANON KABUSHIKI KAISHA 27 March 2012 09 January 2014
Process for producing a modified electrolyte and the modified electrolyte KABUSHIKI KAISHA TOYOTA CHUO KENKYUSHO 22 February 2002 31 October 2002
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