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Patent Analysis of

Contact aggregation in a social network

Updated Time 12 June 2019

Patent Registration Data

Publication Number

US10154000

Application Number

US15/800470

Application Date

01 November 2017

Publication Date

11 December 2018

Current Assignee

FACEBOOK, INC.

Original Assignee (Applicant)

FACEBOOK, INC.

International Classification

H04L12/58,G06Q50/00

Cooperative Classification

H04L51/32,H04L51/28,G06Q50/01

Inventor

TSENG, ERICK

Patent Images

This patent contains figures and images illustrating the invention and its embodiment.

US10154000 Contact aggregation social 1 US10154000 Contact aggregation social 2 US10154000 Contact aggregation social 3
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Abstract

In particular embodiments, a computing device receives from each of one or more contact-information sources a set of contact information associated with a user of a social-networking system. The set of contact information includes one or more instances of contact information in one or more categories of contact information. The computing device automatically selects, in each of the categories of contact information, one of the instances of contact information from the sets of contact information as a default for the category of contact information for a second user of the social-networking system.

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Claims

1. A method comprising:

receiving, for a first user, from a plurality of contact-information sources, a plurality of instances of contact information, each corresponding to one of a plurality of categories of contact information; automatically selecting one of the plurality of instances of contact information in each of the categories of contact information as default contact information of the first user for use by a plurality of second users connected in a social graph to the first user, wherein the social graph comprises a plurality of nodes and a plurality of edges connecting the nodes, wherein a first node of the plurality of nodes corresponds to the first user, and a plurality of second nodes of the plurality of nodes each corresponds to a respective one of the plurality of second users, wherein:the default contact information is selected based at least in part on:

a frequency with which the selected instance of contact information was used for previous contact between the plurality of second users and the first user; and the selected instance of contact information corresponding to contact information used by a subset of the plurality of second users each of whom has a high affinity coefficient calculated with respect to the first user, wherein each of the affinity coefficients is calculated from information contained in the social graph, wherein each of the affinity coefficients represents the strength of an edge between the first node and a second node representing a respective one of the second users in the subset; updating contact information for the first user to specify default contact information in each category of the plurality of categories, wherein the default contact information in each category of the plurality of categories is the selected one of the plurality of instances of contact information; and providing, to each of a plurality of second computing devices corresponding to respective ones of the plurality of second users, the default contact information selected for each of the categories of contact information.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein one or more of the contact-information sources comprises a third-party system.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein the plurality of contact-information sources comprises a client device associated with the first user.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein one or more of the categories of contact information comprises:

e-mail address; phone number; or address.

5. The method of claim 1, wherein the default contact information has been specified by the first user as a preferred contact information.

6. The method of claim 1, wherein selecting one of the plurality of instances of contact information in each of the categories of contact information as default contact information is based at least in part on a recency of the instances of contact information in a category of the plurality of categories.

7. The method of claim 1, wherein the affinity coefficient is based at least in part on one or actions performed on a communication network by one or more second users with regard to the first user.

8. One or more computer-readable non-transitory storage media embodying software that is operable when executed to:

receive, for a first user, from a plurality of contact-information sources, a plurality of instances of contact information, each corresponding to one of a plurality of categories of contact information;automatically select one of the plurality of instances of contact information in each of the categories of contact information as default contact information of the first user for use by a plurality of second users connected in a social graph to the first user, wherein the social graph comprises a plurality of nodes and a plurality of edges connecting the nodes, wherein a first node of the plurality of nodes corresponds to the first user, and a plurality of second nodes of the plurality of nodes each corresponds to a respective one of the plurality of second users, wherein the default contact information is selected based at least in part on:

a frequency with which the selected instance of contact information was used for previous contact between the plurality of second users and the first user; and the selected instance of contact information corresponding to contact information used by a subset of the plurality of second users each of whom has a high affinity coefficient calculated with respect to the first user, wherein each of the affinity coefficients is calculated from information contained in the social graph, wherein each of the affinity coefficients represents the strength of an edge between the first node and a second node representing a respective one of the second users in the subset; update contact information for the first user to specify default contact information in each category of the plurality of categories, wherein the default contact information in each category of the plurality of categories is the selected one of the plurality of instances of contact information; and provide, to each of a plurality of second computing devices corresponding to respective ones of the plurality of second users, the default contact information selected for each of the categories of contact information.

9. The media of claim 8, wherein one or more of the contact-information sources comprises a third-party system.

10. The media of claim 8, wherein the plurality of contact-information sources comprises a client device associated with the first user.

11. The media of claim 8, wherein one or more of the categories of contact information comprises:

e-mail address; phone number, or address.

12. The media of claim 8, wherein the default contact information has been specified by the first user as a preferred contact information.

13. The media of claim 8, wherein selecting one of the plurality of instances of contact information in each of the categories of contact information as default contact information is based at least in part on a recency of the instances of contact information in a category of the plurality of categories.

14. The media of claim 8, wherein the affinity coefficient is based at least in part on one or actions performed on a communication network by one or more second users with regard to the first user.

15. A system comprising:

one or more processors; and a memory coupled to the processors comprising instructions executable by the processors, the processors operable when executing the instructions to: receive, for a first user, from a plurality of contact-information sources, a plurality of instances of contact information, each corresponding to one of a plurality of categories of contact information; automatically select one of the plurality of instances of contact information in each of the categories of contact information as default contact information of the first user for use by a plurality of second users connected in a social graph to the first user, wherein the social graph comprises a plurality of nodes and a plurality of edges connecting the nodes, wherein a first node of the plurality of nodes corresponds to the first user, and a plurality of second nodes of the plurality of nodes each corresponds to a respective one of the plurality of second users;wherein the default contact information is selected based at least in part on:

a frequency with which the selected instance of contact information was used for previous contact between the plurality of second users and the first user; and the selected instance of contact information corresponding to contact information used by a subset of the plurality of second users each of whom has a high affinity coefficient calculated with respect to the first user, wherein each of the affinity coefficients is calculated from information contained in the social graph, wherein each of the affinity coefficients represents the strength of an edge between the first node and a second node representing a respective one of the second users in the subset; update contact information for the first user to specify default contact information in each category of the plurality of categories, wherein the default contact information in each category of the plurality of categories is the selected one of the plurality of instances of contact information; and provide, to each of a plurality of second computing devices corresponding to respective ones of the plurality of second users, the default contact information selected for each of the categories of contact information.

16. The system of claim 15, wherein one or more of the contact-information sources comprises a third-party system.

17. The system of claim 15, wherein the plurality of contact-information sources comprises a client device associated with the first user.

18. The system of claim 15, wherein one or more of the categories of contact information comprises:

e-mail address; phone number; or address.

19. The system of claim 15, wherein the default contact information has been specified by the first user as a preferred contact information.

20. The system of claim 15, wherein selecting one of the plurality of instances of contact information in each of the categories of contact information as default contact information is based at least in part on a recency of the instances of contact information in a category of the plurality of categories.

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Claim Tree

  • 1
    1. A method comprising:
    • receiving, for a first user, from a plurality of contact-information sources, a plurality of instances of contact information, each corresponding to one of a plurality of categories of contact information
    • automatically selecting one of the plurality of instances of contact information in each of the categories of contact information as default contact information of the first user for use by a plurality of second users connected in a social graph to the first user, wherein the social graph comprises a plurality of nodes and a plurality of edges connecting the nodes, wherein a first node of the plurality of nodes corresponds to the first user, and a plurality of second nodes of the plurality of nodes each corresponds to a respective one of the plurality of second users, wherein:the default contact information is selected based at least in part on: a frequency with which the selected instance of contact information was used for previous contact between the plurality of second users and the first user
    • and the selected instance of contact information corresponding to contact information used by a subset of the plurality of second users each of whom has a high affinity coefficient calculated with respect to the first user, wherein each of the affinity coefficients is calculated from information contained in the social graph, wherein each of the affinity coefficients represents the strength of an edge between the first node and a second node representing a respective one of the second users in the subset
    • updating contact information for the first user to specify default contact information in each category of the plurality of categories, wherein the default contact information in each category of the plurality of categories is the selected one of the plurality of instances of contact information
    • and providing, to each of a plurality of second computing devices corresponding to respective ones of the plurality of second users, the default contact information selected for each of the categories of contact information.
    • 2. The method of claim 1, wherein
      • one or more of the contact-information sources comprises
    • 3. The method of claim 1, wherein
      • the plurality of contact-information sources comprises
    • 4. The method of claim 1, wherein
      • one or more of the categories of contact information comprises:
    • 5. The method of claim 1, wherein
      • the default contact information has been specified by the first user as a preferred contact information.
    • 6. The method of claim 1, wherein
      • selecting one of the plurality of instances of contact information in each of the categories of contact information as default contact information is based at least in part on a recency of the instances of contact information in a category of the plurality of categories.
    • 7. The method of claim 1, wherein
      • the affinity coefficient is based at least in part on one or actions performed on a communication network by one or more second users with regard to the first user.
  • 8
    8. One or more computer-readable non-transitory storage media embodying software that is operable when executed to: receive, for a first user, from a plurality of contact-information sources, a plurality of instances of contact information, each corresponding to one of a plurality of categories of contact information;automatically select one of the plurality of instances of contact information in each of the categories of contact information as default contact information of the first user for use by a plurality of second users connected in a social graph to the first user, wherein
    • the social graph comprises
    • 9. The media of claim 8, wherein
      • one or more of the contact-information sources comprises
    • 10. The media of claim 8, wherein
      • the plurality of contact-information sources comprises
    • 11. The media of claim 8, wherein
      • one or more of the categories of contact information comprises:
    • 12. The media of claim 8, wherein
      • the default contact information has been specified by the first user as a preferred contact information.
    • 13. The media of claim 8, wherein
      • selecting one of the plurality of instances of contact information in each of the categories of contact information as default contact information is based at least in part on a recency of the instances of contact information in a category of the plurality of categories.
    • 14. The media of claim 8, wherein
      • the affinity coefficient is based at least in part on one or actions performed on a communication network by one or more second users with regard to the first user.
  • 15
    15. A system comprising:
    • one or more processors
    • and a memory coupled to the processors comprising instructions executable by the processors, the processors operable when executing the instructions to: receive, for a first user, from a plurality of contact-information sources, a plurality of instances of contact information, each corresponding to one of a plurality of categories of contact information
    • automatically select one of the plurality of instances of contact information in each of the categories of contact information as default contact information of the first user for use by a plurality of second users connected in a social graph to the first user, wherein the social graph comprises a plurality of nodes and a plurality of edges connecting the nodes, wherein a first node of the plurality of nodes corresponds to the first user, and a plurality of second nodes of the plurality of nodes each corresponds to a respective one of the plurality of second users
    • wherein the default contact information is selected based at least in part on: a frequency with which the selected instance of contact information was used for previous contact between the plurality of second users and the first user
    • and the selected instance of contact information corresponding to contact information used by a subset of the plurality of second users each of whom has a high affinity coefficient calculated with respect to the first user, wherein each of the affinity coefficients is calculated from information contained in the social graph, wherein each of the affinity coefficients represents the strength of an edge between the first node and a second node representing a respective one of the second users in the subset
    • update contact information for the first user to specify default contact information in each category of the plurality of categories, wherein the default contact information in each category of the plurality of categories is the selected one of the plurality of instances of contact information
    • and provide, to each of a plurality of second computing devices corresponding to respective ones of the plurality of second users, the default contact information selected for each of the categories of contact information.
    • 16. The system of claim 15, wherein
      • one or more of the contact-information sources comprises
    • 17. The system of claim 15, wherein
      • the plurality of contact-information sources comprises
    • 18. The system of claim 15, wherein
      • one or more of the categories of contact information comprises:
    • 19. The system of claim 15, wherein
      • the default contact information has been specified by the first user as a preferred contact information.
    • 20. The system of claim 15, wherein
      • selecting one of the plurality of instances of contact information in each of the categories of contact information as default contact information is based at least in part on a recency of the instances of contact information in a category of the plurality of categories.
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Description

TECHNICAL FIELD

This disclosure generally relates to a social-networking system.

BACKGROUND

A social-networking system, which may include a social-networking website, may enable its users (such as persons or organizations) to interact with it and with each other through it. The social-networking system may, with input from a user, create and store in the social-networking system a user profile associated with the user. The user profile may include contact information, demographic information, communication-channel information, and information on personal interests of the user. The social-networking system may also, with input from a user, create and store a record of relationships of the user with other users of the social-networking system, as well as provide services (e.g. wall posts, photo-sharing, event organization, messaging, games, or advertisements) to facilitate social interaction between or among users.

The social-networking system may send over one or more networks content or messages related to its services to a mobile or other computing device of a user. A user may also install software applications on a mobile or other computing device of the user for accessing a user profile of the user and other data within the social-networking system. The social-networking system may generate a personalized set of content objects to display to a user, such as a newsfeed of aggregated stories of other users connected to the user.

SUMMARY OF PARTICULAR EMBODIMENTS

In particular embodiments, a social-networking system may receive a set of contact information associated with a user from each of one or more contact-information sources. Each set of contact information may include one or more instances of contact information in one or more categories of contact information. The social-networking system may select, for the user, in each of the categories of contact information, one of the instances of contact information as a default for the category of contact information. The default contact information for a category may, in particular embodiments, be selected based on: an indication by the user of preferred contact information, a recency of the instances of contact information in the category, or activity of one or more other users of the social-networking system. A second user of the social-networking system may be provided the default contact information to contact the user.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 illustrates an example network environment associated with a social-networking system.

FIG. 2 illustrates an example social graph.

FIG. 3 illustrates an example method for selecting default contact information.

FIG. 4 illustrates an example computer system.

DESCRIPTION OF EXAMPLE EMBODIMENTS

FIG. 1 illustrates an example network environment 100 associated with a social-networking system. Network environment 100 includes a client device or client system 130, a social-networking system 160, and a third-party system 170 connected to each other by a network 110. Although FIG. 1 illustrates a particular arrangement of client system 130, social-networking system 160, third-party system 170, and network 110, this disclosure contemplates any suitable arrangement of client system 130, social-networking system 160, third-party system 170, and network 110. As an example and not by way of limitation, two or more of client system 130, social-networking system 160, and third-party system 170 may be connected to each other directly, bypassing network 110. As another example, two or more of client system 130, social-networking system 160, and third-party system 170 may be physically or logically co-located with each other in whole or in part. Moreover, although FIG. 1 illustrates a particular number of client systems 130, social-networking systems 160, third-party systems 170, and networks 110, this disclosure contemplates any suitable number of client systems 130, social-networking systems 160, third-party systems 170, and networks 110. As an example and not by way of limitation, network environment 100 may include multiple client system 130, social-networking systems 160, third-party systems 170, and networks 110.

This disclosure contemplates any suitable network 110. As an example and not by way of limitation, one or more portions of network 110 may include an ad hoc network, an intranet, an extranet, a virtual private network (VPN), a local area network (LAN), a wireless LAN (WLAN), a wide area network (WAN), a wireless WAN (WWAN), a metropolitan area network (MAN), a portion of the Internet, a portion of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), a cellular telephone network, or a combination of two or more of these. Network 110 may include one or more networks 110.

Links 150 may connect client system 130, social-networking system 160, and third-party system 170 to communication network 110 or to each other. This disclosure contemplates any suitable links 150. In particular embodiments, one or more links 150 include one or more wireline (such as for example Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) or Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS)), wireless (such as for example Wi-Fi or Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX)), or optical (such as for example Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) or Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)) links. In particular embodiments, one or more links 150 each include an ad hoc network, an intranet, an extranet, a VPN, a LAN, a WLAN, a WAN, a WWAN, a MAN, a portion of the Internet, a portion of the PSTN, a cellular technology-based network, a satellite communications technology-based network, another link 150, or a combination of two or more such links 150. Links 150 need not necessarily be the same throughout network environment 100. One or more first links 150 may differ in one or more respects from one or more second links 150.

In particular embodiments, client system 130 may be an electronic device including hardware, software, or embedded logic components or a combination of two or more such components and capable of carrying out the appropriate functionalities implemented or supported by client system 130. As an example and not by way of limitation, a client system 130 may include a computer system such as a desktop computer, notebook or laptop computer, netbook, a tablet computer, e-book reader, GPS device, camera, personal digital assistant (PDA), handheld electronic device, cellular telephone, smartphone, other suitable electronic device, or any suitable combination thereof. This disclosure contemplates any suitable client systems 130. A client system 130 may enable a network user at client system 130 to access network 110. A client system 130 may enable its user to communicate with other users at other client systems 130.

In particular embodiments, client system 130 may include a web browser 132, such as MICROSOFT INTERNET EXPLORER, GOOGLE CHROME or MOZILLA FIREFOX, and may have one or more add-ons, plug-ins, or other extensions, such as TOOLBAR or YAHOO TOOLBAR. A user at client system 130 may enter a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or other address directing the web browser 132 to a particular server (such as server 162, or a server associated with a third-party system 170), and the web browser 132 may generate a Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) request and communicate the HTTP request to server. The server may accept the HTTP request and communicate to client system 130 one or more Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) files responsive to the HTTP request. Client system 130 may render a webpage based on the HTML files from the server for presentation to the user. This disclosure contemplates any suitable webpage files. As an example and not by way of limitation, webpages may render from HTML files, Extensible Hyper Text Markup Language (XHTML) files, or Extensible Markup Language (XML) files, according to particular needs. Such pages may also execute scripts such as, for example and without limitation, those written in JAVASCRIPT, JAVA, MICROSOFT SILVERLIGHT, combinations of markup language and scripts such as AJAX (Asynchronous JAVASCRIPT and XML), and the like. Herein, reference to a webpage encompasses one or more corresponding webpage files (which a browser may use to render the webpage) and vice versa, where appropriate.

In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may be a network-addressable computing system that can host an online social network. Social-networking system 160 may generate, store, receive, and send social-networking data, such as, for example, user-profile data, concept-profile data, social-graph information, or other suitable data related to the online social network. Social-networking system 160 may be accessed by the other components of network environment 100 either directly or via network 110. In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may include one or more servers 162. Each server 162 may be a unitary server or a distributed server spanning multiple computers or multiple datacenters. Servers 162 may be of various types, such as, for example and without limitation, web server, news server, mail server, message server, advertising server, file server, application server, exchange server, database server, proxy server, another server suitable for performing functions or processes described herein, or any combination thereof. In particular embodiments, each server 162 may include hardware, software, or embedded logic components or a combination of two or more such components for carrying out the appropriate functionalities implemented or supported by server 162. In particular embodiments, social-networking system 164 may include one or more data stores 164. Data stores 164 may be used to store various types of information. In particular embodiments, the information stored in data stores 164 may be organized according to specific data structures. In particular embodiments, each data store 164 may be a relational, columnar, correlation, or other suitable database. Although this disclosure describes or illustrates particular types of databases, this disclosure contemplates any suitable types of databases. Particular embodiments may provide interfaces that enable a client system 130, a social-networking system 160, or a third-party system 170 to manage, retrieve, modify, add, or delete, the information stored in data store 164.

In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may store one or more social graphs in one or more data stores 164. In particular embodiments, a social graph may include multiple nodes—which may include multiple user nodes (each corresponding to a particular user) or multiple concept nodes (each corresponding to a particular concept)—and multiple edges connecting the nodes. Social-networking system 160 may provide users of the online social network the ability to communicate and interact with other users. In particular embodiments, users may join the online social network via social-networking system 160 and then add connections (e.g. relationships) to a number of other users of social-networking system 160 whom they want to be connected to. Herein, the term “friend” may refer to any other user of social-networking system 160 with whom a user has formed a connection, association, or relationship via social-networking system 160.

In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may provide users with the ability to take actions on various types of items or objects, supported by social-networking system 160. As an example and not by way of limitation, the items and objects may include groups or social networks to which users of social-networking system 160 may belong, events or calendar entries in which a user might be interested, computer-based applications that a user may use, transactions that allow users to buy or sell items via the service, interactions with advertisements that a user may perform, or other suitable items or objects. A user may interact with anything that is capable of being represented in social-networking system 160 or by an external system of third-party system 170, which is separate from social-networking system 160 and coupled to social-networking system 160 via a network 110.

In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may be capable of linking a variety of entities. As an example and not by way of limitation, social-networking system 160 may enable users to interact with each other as well as receive content from third-party systems 170 or other entities, or to allow users to interact with these entities through an application programming interfaces (API) or other communication channels.

In particular embodiments, a third-party system 170 may include one or more types of servers, one or more data stores, one or more interfaces, including but not limited to APIs, one or more web services, one or more content sources, one or more networks, or any other suitable components, e.g., that servers may communicate with. A third-party system 170 may be operated by a different entity from an entity operating social-networking system 160. In particular embodiments, however, social-networking system 160 and third-party systems 170 may operate in conjunction with each other to provide social-networking services to users of social-networking system 160 or third-party systems 170. In this sense, social-networking system 160 may provide a platform, or backbone, which other systems, such as third-party systems 170, may use to provide social-networking services and functionality to users across the Internet.

In particular embodiments, a third-party system 170 may include a third-party content object provider. A third-party content object provider may include one or more sources of content objects, which may be communicated to a client system 130. As an example and not by way of limitation, content objects may include information regarding things or activities of interest to the user, such as, for example, movie show times, movie reviews, restaurant reviews, restaurant menus, product information and reviews, or other suitable information. As another example and not by way of limitation, content objects may include incentive content objects, such as coupons, discount tickets, gift certificates, or other suitable incentive objects.

In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 also includes user-generated content objects, which may enhance a user's interactions with social-networking system 160. User-generated content may include anything a user can add, upload, send, or “post” to social-networking system 160. As an example and not by way of limitation, a user communicates posts to social-networking system 160 from a client system 130. Posts may include data such as status updates or other textual data, location information, photos, videos, links, music or other similar data or media. Content may also be added to social-networking system 160 by a third-party through a “communication channel,” such as a newsfeed or stream.

In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may include a variety of servers, sub-systems, programs, modules, logs, and data stores. In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may include one or more of the following: a web server, action logger, API-request server, relevance-and-ranking engine, content-object classifier, notification controller, action log, third-party-content-object-exposure log, inference module, authorization/privacy server, search module, advertisement-targeting module, user-interface module, user-profile store, connection store, third-party content store, or location store. Social-networking system 160 may also include suitable components such as network interfaces, security mechanisms, load balancers, failover servers, management-and-network-operations consoles, other suitable components, or any suitable combination thereof. In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may include one or more user-profile stores for storing user profiles. A user profile may include, for example, biographic information, demographic information, behavioral information, social information, or other types of descriptive information, such as work experience, educational history, hobbies or preferences, interests, affinities, or location. Interest information may include interests related to one or more categories. Categories may be general or specific. As an example and not by way of limitation, if a user “likes” an article about a brand of shoes the category may be the brand, or the general category of “shoes” or “clothing.” A connection store may be used for storing connection information about users. The connection information may indicate users who have similar or common work experience, group memberships, hobbies, educational history, or are in any way related or share common attributes. The connection information may also include user-defined connections between different users and content (both internal and external). A web server may be used for linking social-networking system 160 to one or more client systems 130 or one or more third-party system 170 via network 110. The web server may include a mail server or other messaging functionality for receiving and routing messages between social-networking system 160 and one or more client systems 130. An API-request server may allow a third-party system 170 to access information from social-networking system 160 by calling one or more APIs. An action logger may be used to receive communications from a web server about a user's actions on or off social-networking system 160. In conjunction with the action log, a third-party-content-object log may be maintained of user exposures to third-party-content objects. A notification controller may provide information regarding content objects to a client system 130. Information may be pushed to a client system 130 as notifications, or information may be pulled from client system 130 responsive to a request received from client system 130. Authorization servers may be used to enforce one or more privacy settings of the users of social-networking system 160. A privacy setting of a user determines how particular information associated with a user can be shared. The authorization server may allow users to opt in to or opt out of having their actions logged by social-networking system 160 or shared with other systems (e.g. third-party system 170), such as, for example, by setting appropriate privacy settings. Third-party-content-object stores may be used to store content objects received from third parties, such as a third-party system 170. Location stores may be used for storing location information received from client systems 130 associated with users. Advertisement-pricing modules may combine social information, the current time, location information, or other suitable information to provide relevant advertisements, in the form of notifications, to a user.

FIG. 2 illustrates example social graph 200. In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may store one or more social graphs 200 in one or more data stores. In particular embodiments, social graph 200 may include multiple nodes—which may include multiple user nodes 202 or multiple concept nodes 204—and multiple edges 206 connecting the nodes. Example social graph 200 illustrated in FIG. 2 is shown, for didactic purposes, in a two-dimensional visual map representation. In particular embodiments, a social-networking system 160, client system 130, or third-party system 170 may access social graph 200 and related social-graph information for suitable applications. The nodes and edges of social graph 200 may be stored as data objects, for example, in a data store (such as a social-graph database). Such a data store may include one or more searchable or queryable indexes of nodes or edges of social graph 200.

In particular embodiments, a user node 202 may correspond to a user of social-networking system 160. As an example and not by way of limitation, a user may be an individual (human user), an entity (e.g. an enterprise, business, or third-party application), or a group (e.g. of individuals or entities) that interacts or communicates with or over social-networking system 160. In particular embodiments, when a user registers for an account with social-networking system 160, social-networking system 160 may create a user node 202 corresponding to the user, and store the user node 202 in one or more data stores. Users and user nodes 202 described herein may, where appropriate, refer to registered users and user nodes 202 associated with registered users. In addition or as an alternative, users and user nodes 202 described herein may, where appropriate, refer to users that have not registered with social-networking system 160. In particular embodiments, a user node 202 may be associated with information provided by a user or information gathered by various systems, including social-networking system 160. As an example and not by way of limitation, a user may provide his or her name, profile picture, contact information, birth date, sex, marital status, family status, employment, education background, preferences, interests, or other demographic information. In particular embodiments, a user node 202 may be associated with one or more data objects corresponding to information associated with a user. In particular embodiments, a user node 202 may correspond to one or more webpages.

In particular embodiments, a concept node 204 may correspond to a concept. As an example and not by way of limitation, a concept may correspond to a place (such as, for example, a movie theater, restaurant, landmark, or city); a website (such as, for example, a website associated with social-network system 160 or a third-party website associated with a web-application server); an entity (such as, for example, a person, business, group, sports team, or celebrity); a resource (such as, for example, an audio file, video file, digital photo, text file, structured document, or application) which may be located within social-networking system 160 or on an external server, such as a web-application server; real or intellectual property (such as, for example, a sculpture, painting, movie, game, song, idea, photograph, or written work); a game; an activity; an idea or theory; another suitable concept; or two or more such concepts. A concept node 204 may be associated with information of a concept provided by a user or information gathered by various systems, including social-networking system 160. As an example and not by way of limitation, information of a concept may include a name or a title; one or more images (e.g. an image of the cover page of a book); a location (e.g. an address or a geographical location); a website (which may be associated with a URL); contact information (e.g. a phone number or an e-mail address); other suitable concept information; or any suitable combination of such information. In particular embodiments, a concept node 204 may be associated with one or more data objects corresponding to information associated with concept node 204. In particular embodiments, a concept node 204 may correspond to one or more webpages.

In particular embodiments, a node in social graph 200 may represent or be represented by a webpage (which may be referred to as a “profile page”). Profile pages may be hosted by or accessible to social-networking system 160. Profile pages may also be hosted on third-party websites associated with a third-party server 170. As an example and not by way of limitation, a profile page corresponding to a particular external webpage may be the particular external webpage and the profile page may correspond to a particular concept node 204. Profile pages may be viewable by all or a selected subset of other users. As an example and not by way of limitation, a user node 202 may have a corresponding user-profile page in which the corresponding user may add content, make declarations, or otherwise express himself or herself. As another example and not by way of limitation, a concept node 204 may have a corresponding concept-profile page in which one or more users may add content, make declarations, or express themselves, particularly in relation to the concept corresponding to concept node 204.

In particular embodiments, a concept node 204 may represent a third-party webpage or resource hosted by a third-party system 170. The third-party webpage or resource may include, among other elements, content, a selectable or other icon, or other inter-actable object (which may be implemented, for example, in JavaScript, AJAX, or PHP codes) representing an action or activity. As an example and not by way of limitation, a third-party webpage may include a selectable icon such as “like,”“check in,”“eat,”“recommend,” or another suitable action or activity. A user viewing the third-party webpage may perform an action by selecting one of the icons (e.g. “eat”), causing a client system 130 to send to social-networking system 160 a message indicating the user's action. In response to the message, social-networking system 160 may create an edge (e.g. an “eat” edge) between a user node 202 corresponding to the user and a concept node 204 corresponding to the third-party webpage or resource and store edge 206 in one or more data stores.

In particular embodiments, a pair of nodes in social graph 200 may be connected to each other by one or more edges 206. An edge 206 connecting a pair of nodes may represent a relationship between the pair of nodes. In particular embodiments, an edge 206 may include or represent one or more data objects or attributes corresponding to the relationship between a pair of nodes. As an example and not by way of limitation, a first user may indicate that a second user is a “friend” of the first user. In response to this indication, social-networking system 160 may send a “friend request” to the second user. If the second user confirms the “friend request,” social-networking system 160 may create an edge 206 connecting the first user's user node 202 to the second user's user node 202 in social graph 200 and store edge 206 as social-graph information in one or more of data stores 24. In the example of FIG. 2, social graph 200 includes an edge 206 indicating a friend relation between user nodes 202 of user “A” and user “B” and an edge indicating a friend relation between user nodes 202 of user “C” and user “B.” Although this disclosure describes or illustrates particular edges 206 with particular attributes connecting particular user nodes 202, this disclosure contemplates any suitable edges 206 with any suitable attributes connecting user nodes 202. As an example and not by way of limitation, an edge 206 may represent a friendship, family relationship, business or employment relationship, fan relationship, follower relationship, visitor relationship, sub scriber relationship, superior/subordinate relationship, reciprocal relationship, non-reciprocal relationship, another suitable type of relationship, or two or more such relationships. Moreover, although this disclosure generally describes nodes as being connected, this disclosure also describes users or concepts as being connected. Herein, references to users or concepts being connected may, where appropriate, refer to the nodes corresponding to those users or concepts being connected in social graph 200 by one or more edges 206.

In particular embodiments, an edge 206 between a user node 202 and a concept node 204 may represent a particular action or activity performed by a user associated with user node 202 toward a concept associated with a concept node 204. As an example and not by way of limitation, as illustrated in FIG. 2, a user may “like,”“attended,”“played,”“listened,”“cooked,”“worked at,” or “watched” a concept, each of which may correspond to a edge type or subtype. A concept-profile page corresponding to a concept node 204 may include, for example, a selectable “check in” icon (such as, for example, a clickable “check in” icon) or a selectable “add to favorites” icon. Similarly, after a user clicks these icons, social-networking system 160 may create a “favorite” edge or a “check in” edge in response to a user's action corresponding to a respective action. As another example and not by way of limitation, a user (user “C”) may listen to a particular song (“Ramble On”) using a particular application (SPOTIFY, which is an online music application). In this case, social-networking system 160 may create a “listened” edge 206 and a “used” edge (as illustrated in FIG. 2) between user nodes 202 corresponding to the user and concept nodes 204 corresponding to the song and application to indicate that the user listened to the song and used the application. Moreover, social-networking system 160 may create a “played” edge 206 (as illustrated in FIG. 2) between concept nodes 204 corresponding to the song and the application to indicate that the particular song was played by the particular application. In this case, “played” edge 206 corresponds to an action performed by an external application (SPOTIFY) on an external audio file (the song “Imagine”). Although this disclosure describes particular edges 206 with particular attributes connecting user nodes 202 and concept nodes 204, this disclosure contemplates any suitable edges 206 with any suitable attributes connecting user nodes 202 and concept nodes 204. Moreover, although this disclosure describes edges between a user node 202 and a concept node 204 representing a single relationship, this disclosure contemplates edges between a user node 202 and a concept node 204 representing one or more relationships. As an example and not by way of limitation, an edge 206 may represent both that a user likes and has used at a particular concept. Alternatively, another edge 206 may represent each type of relationship (or multiples of a single relationship) between a user node 202 and a concept node 204 (as illustrated in FIG. 2 between user node 202 for user “E” and concept node 204 for “SPOTIFY”).

In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may create an edge 206 between a user node 202 and a concept node 204 in social graph 200. As an example and not by way of limitation, a user viewing a concept-profile page (such as, for example, by using a web browser or a special-purpose application hosted by the user's client system 130) may indicate that he or she likes the concept represented by the concept node 204 by clicking or selecting a “Like” icon, which may cause the user's client system 130 to send to social-networking system 160 a message indicating the user's liking of the concept associated with the concept-profile page. In response to the message, social-networking system 160 may create an edge 206 between user node 202 associated with the user and concept node 204, as illustrated by “like” edge 206 between the user and concept node 204. In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may store an edge 206 in one or more data stores. In particular embodiments, an edge 206 may be automatically formed by social-networking system 160 in response to a particular user action. As an example and not by way of limitation, if a first user uploads a picture, watches a movie, or listens to a song, an edge 206 may be formed between user node 202 corresponding to the first user and concept nodes 204 corresponding to those concepts. Although this disclosure describes forming particular edges 206 in particular manners, this disclosure contemplates forming any suitable edges 206 in any suitable manner.

In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may determine the social-graph affinity (which may be referred to herein as “affinity”) of various social-graph entities for each other. Affinity may represent the strength of a relationship or level of interest between particular objects associated with the online social network, such as users, concepts, content, actions, advertisements, other objects associated with the online social network, or any suitable combination thereof. Affinity may also be determined with respect to objects associated with third-party systems 170 or other suitable systems. An overall affinity for a social-graph entity for each user, subject matter, or type of content may be established. The overall affinity may change based on continued monitoring of the actions or relationships associated with the social-graph entity. Although this disclosure describes determining particular affinities in a particular manner, this disclosure contemplates determining any suitable affinities in any suitable manner.

In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may measure or quantify social-graph affinity using an affinity coefficient (which may be referred to herein as “coefficient”). The coefficient may represent or quantify the strength of a relationship between particular objects associated with the online social network. The coefficient may also represent a probability or function that measures a predicted probability that a user will perform a particular action based on the user's interest in the action. In this way, a user's future actions may be predicted based on the user's prior actions, where the coefficient may be calculated at least in part a the history of the user's actions. Coefficients may be used to predict any number of actions, which may be within or outside of the online social network. As an example and not by way of limitation, these actions may include various types of communications, such as sending messages, posting content, or commenting on content; various types of a observation actions, such as accessing or viewing profile pages, media, or other suitable content; various types of coincidence information about two or more social-graph entities, such as being in the same group, tagged in the same photograph, checked-in at the same location, or attending the same event; or other suitable actions. Although this disclosure describes measuring affinity in a particular manner, this disclosure contemplates measuring affinity in any suitable manner.

In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may use a variety of factors to calculate a coefficient. These factors may include, for example, user actions, types of relationships between objects, location information, other suitable factors, or any combination thereof. In particular embodiments, different factors may be weighted differently when calculating the coefficient. The weights for each factor may be static or the weights may change according to, for example, the user, the type of relationship, the type of action, the user's location, and so forth. Ratings for the factors may be combined according to their weights to determine an overall coefficient for the user. As an example and not by way of limitation, particular user actions may be assigned both a rating and a weight while a relationship associated with the particular user action is assigned a rating and a correlating weight (e.g., so the weights total 100%). To calculate the coefficient of a user towards a particular object, the rating assigned to the user's actions may comprise, for example, 60% of the overall coefficient, while the relationship between the user and the object may comprise 40% of the overall coefficient. In particular embodiments, the social-networking system 160 may consider a variety of variables when determining weights for various factors used to calculate a coefficient, such as, for example, the time since information was accessed, decay factors, frequency of access, relationship to information or relationship to the object about which information was accessed, relationship to social-graph entities connected to the object, short- or long-term averages of user actions, user feedback, other suitable variables, or any combination thereof. As an example and not by way of limitation, a coefficient may include a decay factor that causes the strength of the signal provided by particular actions to decay with time, such that more recent actions are more relevant when calculating the coefficient. The ratings and weights may be continuously updated based on continued tracking of the actions upon which the coefficient is based. Any type of process or algorithm may be employed for assigning, combining, averaging, and so forth the ratings for each factor and the weights assigned to the factors. In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may determine coefficients using machine-learning algorithms trained on historical actions and past user responses, or data farmed from users by exposing them to various options and measuring responses. Although this disclosure describes calculating coefficients in a particular manner, this disclosure contemplates calculating coefficients in any suitable manner.

In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may calculate a coefficient based on a user's actions. Social-networking system 160 may monitor such actions on the online social network, on a third-party system 170, on other suitable systems, or any combination thereof. Any suitable type of user actions may be tracked or monitored. Typical user actions include viewing profile pages, creating or posting content, interacting with content, joining groups, listing and confirming attendance at events, checking-in at locations, liking particular pages, creating pages, and performing other tasks that facilitate social action. In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may calculate a coefficient based on the user's actions with particular types of content. The content may be associated with the online social network, a third-party system 170, or another suitable system. The content may include users, profile pages, posts, news stories, headlines, instant messages, chat room conversations, e-mails, advertisements, pictures, video, music, other suitable objects, or any combination thereof. Social-networking system 160 may analyze a user's actions to determine whether one or more of the actions indicate an affinity for subject matter, content, other users, and so forth. As an example and not by way of limitation, if a user may make frequently posts content related to “coffee” or variants thereof, social-networking system 160 may determine the user has a high coefficient with respect to the concept “coffee”. Particular actions or types of actions may be assigned a higher weight and/or rating than other actions, which may affect the overall calculated coefficient. As an example and not by way of limitation, if a first user e-mails a second user, the weight or the rating for the action may be higher than if the first user simply views the user-profile page for the second user.

In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may calculate a coefficient based on the type of relationship between particular objects. Referencing the social graph 200, social-networking system 160 may analyze the number and/or type of edges 206 connecting particular user nodes 202 and concept nodes 204 when calculating a coefficient. As an example and not by way of limitation, user nodes 202 that are connected by a spouse-type edge (representing that the two users are married) may be assigned a higher coefficient than a user nodes 202 that are connected by a friend-type edge. In other words, depending upon the weights assigned to the actions and relationships for the particular user, the overall affinity may be determined to be higher for content about the user's spouse than for content about the user's friend. In particular embodiments, the relationships a user has with another object may affect the weights and/or the ratings of the user's actions with respect to calculating the coefficient for that object. As an example and not by way of limitation, if a user is tagged in first photo, but merely likes a second photo, social-networking system 160 may determine that the user has a higher coefficient with respect to the first photo than the second photo because having a tagged-in-type relationship with content may be assigned a higher weight and/or rating than having a like-type relationship with content. In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may calculate a coefficient for a first user based on the relationship one or more second users have with a particular object. In other words, the connections and coefficients other users have with an object may affect the first user's coefficient for the object. As an example and not by way of limitation, if a first user is connected to or has a high coefficient for one or more second users, and those second users are connected to or have a high coefficient for a particular object, social-networking system 160 may determine that the first user should also have a relatively high coefficient for the particular object. In particular embodiments, the coefficient may be based on the degree of separation between particular objects. The lower coefficient may represent the decreasing likelihood that the first user will share an interest in content objects of the user that is indirectly connected to the first user in the social graph 200. As an example and not by way of limitation, social-graph entities that are closer in the social graph 200 (i.e., fewer degrees of separation) may have a higher coefficient than entities that are further apart in the social graph 200.

In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may calculate a coefficient based on location information. Objects that are geographically closer to each other may be considered to be more related or of more interest to each other than more distant objects. In particular embodiments, the coefficient of a user towards a particular object may be based on the proximity of the object's location to a current location associated with the user (or the location of a client system 130 of the user). A first user may be more interested in other users or concepts that are closer to the first user. As an example and not by way of limitation, if a user is one mile from an airport and two miles from a gas station, social-networking system 160 may determine that the user has a higher coefficient for the airport than the gas station based on the proximity of the airport to the user.

In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may perform particular actions with respect to a user based on coefficient information. Coefficients may be used to predict whether a user will perform a particular action based on the user's interest in the action. A coefficient may be used when generating or presenting any type of objects to a user, such as advertisements, search results, news stories, media, messages, notifications, or other suitable objects. The coefficient may also be utilized to rank and order such objects, as appropriate. In this way, social-networking system 160 may provide information that is relevant to user's interests and current circumstances, increasing the likelihood that they will find such information of interest. In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may generate content based on coefficient information. Content objects may be provided or selected based on coefficients specific to a user. As an example and not by way of limitation, the coefficient may be used to generate media for the user, where the user may be presented with media for which the user has a high overall coefficient with respect to the media object. As another example and not by way of limitation, the coefficient may be used to generate advertisements for the user, where the user may be presented with advertisements for which the user has a high overall coefficient with respect to the advertised object. In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may generate search results based on coefficient information. Search results for a particular user may be scored or ranked based on the coefficient associated with the search results with respect to the querying user. As an example and not by way of limitation, search results corresponding to objects with higher coefficients may be ranked higher on a search-results page than results corresponding to objects having lower coefficients.

In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may calculate a coefficient in response to a request for a coefficient from a particular system or process. To predict the likely actions a user may take (or may be the subject of) in a given situation, any process may request a calculated coefficient for a user. The request may also include a set of weights to use for various factors used to calculate the coefficient. This request may come from a process running on the online social network, from a third-party system 170 (e.g., via an API or other communication channel), or from another suitable system. In response to the request, social-networking system 160 may calculate the coefficient (or access the coefficient information if it has previously been calculated and stored). In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may measure an affinity with respect to a particular process. Different processes (both internal and external to the online social network) may request a coefficient for a particular object or set of objects. Social-networking system 160 may provide a measure of affinity that is relevant to the particular process that requested the measure of affinity. In this way, each process receives a measure of affinity that is tailored for the different context in which the process will use the measure of affinity.

In connection with social-graph affinity and affinity coefficients, particular embodiments may utilize one or more systems, components, elements, functions, methods, operations, or steps disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/503,093, filed 11 Aug. 2006, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/977,027, filed 22 Dec. 2010, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/978,265, filed 23 Dec. 2010, and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/632,869, field 1 Oct. 2012, each of which is incorporated by reference.

In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may include contact information for one or more users of the social-networking system. The contact information associated with a user of the social-networking system may include, for example, one or more names (e.g., different spellings, nicknames, or prefixes), one or more phone numbers (e.g., mobile phone number, land-line phone number, office phone number), one or more e-mail addresses (e.g., personal e-mail address, office e-mail address), one or more addresses (e.g., home address, office address, post office box address), one or more associated companies (e.g., place of employment, personal business), one or more departments within the associated companies, one or more job titles within the associated companies, one or more websites (e.g., personal websites, external third-party websites or profiles), or instant-message contact information (e.g., instant-message username).

The contact information associated with a user may be obtained and aggregated from any number of contact-information sources. For example, the contact information associated with a user may be entered by the user directly into social-networking system 160, e.g., when the user registers with the social-networking system (or updates her information thereafter). The contact information associated with a user may also be entered by a second user of the social-networking system 160. For example, user Joe of social-networking system 160 may have an address book or contact list associated with his profile, and the address book may include contact information for his friends. User Joe may enter contact information for user Sally into this address book, thereby associating this contact information with user Sally in the social-networking system. The contact information associated with a user may also be automatically determined by the social-networking system. For example, if user Sally communicates her contact information (e.g., e-mail address) with another user of the social-networking system (e.g., via a message, instant message, chat, e-mail, or post), the social-networking system may automatically detect (e.g., based on Sally's privacy or permissions settings) this contact information and may associate this contact information with Sally. The contact information associated with a user may also be obtained by social-networking system 160 from an external or third-party system, such as a telephone network operator, a different social-networking system, an e-mail provider, a contact list or address book (e.g., on client system 130), or any other suitable external or third-party source. As an example, if user Sally uses a particular e-mail address or telephone number when contacting another user of social-networking system 160 (determined, e.g., from information obtained from an e-mail provider or telephone network operator, or from client system 130), the social-networking system may automatically detect the e-mail address or telephone number used and may associate this contact information with Sally. The contact information associated with a user in social-networking system 160 may, in particular embodiments, be visible only to particular other users based, for example, on the user's privacy or permissions settings. As an example, if user Joe enters contact information for user Sally and this contact information is associated with user Sally in social-networking system 160, only those users meeting user Sally's privacy or permissions settings may be able to view or otherwise access the contact information entered by user Joe.

The contact information obtained, aggregated, and associated with a user in social-networking system may include contact information that belongs to one or more categories. For example, the categories may be any of the types of contact information discussed in detail above (e.g., phone numbers, e-mail addresses, addresses). In particular embodiments, social-networking system 160 may include a table of contact information for its users. Each entry in the table may, for example, correspond to a set of contact information associated with a user and obtained from a source (e.g., a third-party system or a client system 130). The set of contact information may include one or more instances of contact information in one or more categories of contact information. The entry may, for example, include an identifier of the associated user, an identifier of the source of the set of contact information (e.g., the name of the third-party system or client system 130), and one or more instances of contact information in one or more categories of contact information (e.g., one or more phone numbers in the phone number category, or a phone number in the phone number category and an e-mail address in the e-mail address category). The entry may also include information related to the recency or relevance of the entry. For example, the entry may include information such as when the set of contact information corresponding to the entry was received from a third-party system or client system 130, when the set of contact information corresponding to the entry was last updated in the third-party system or client system 130, when one or more instances of contact information in the entry were added, last viewed, or last updated by the user associated with the instances or another user in social-networking system 160, or when one or more instances of contact information in the entry were last used by any user of social-networking system 160.

For a user of social-networking system 160, within a single category of contact information, there may be multiple instance of contact information (potentially from multiple contact-information sources) associated with the user. For example, user Joe may be associated with multiple, potentially different phone numbers, and these phone numbers may come from different contact-information sources. In particular embodiments, for a user of social-networking system 160, within a category of contact information, one of the instances of contact information may be selected as the default contact information for the category. As an example, one of the phone numbers associated with user Joe may be selected as the default phone number for the phone number category of contact information. In particular embodiments, the default contact information associated with a first user in a particular category may be provided to a second user of the social-networking system (e.g., based on privacy settings or preferences of the first user) as a means to contact to the first user. The second user may not be required to select from among the multiple instances of contact information (potentially from multiple contact-information sources) associated with the first user in a particular category. For example, user Sally may click a telephone icon on a profile page associated with user Joe in the social-networking system, and this may automatically provide Sally with the default phone number associated with Joe (e.g., by providing Sally the default phone number itself or by automatically placing a call to the default phone number on behalf of Sally). In particular embodiments, for a first user of social-networking system 160, one of the instances of contact information associated with the first user may be selected as the default contact information for the first user, across all categories of contact information. This default contact information for the first user may be provided to a second user of the social-networking system (e.g., based on privacy settings or preferences of the first user) as a means to contact the first user. The second user may not be required to select from among the multiple instances of contact information (potentially from multiple contact-information sources) associated with the first user in one or more categories. As an example, user Joe may be associated with one or more phone numbers, one or more addresses, and one or more e-mail addresses (e.g., from multiple contact-information sources). One of the e-mail addresses associated with Joe may be selected as the default contact information for Joe, such that if user Sally clicks on a generic contact-related icon (or a profile photograph, etc.) on a profile page associated with Joe in the social-networking system, this may automatically provide Sally with the e-mail address selected as the default contact information for Joe (e.g., by providing Sally the default e-mail address itself or by automatically creating an e-mail addressed to the default e-mail address on behalf of Sally). The default contact information associated with a user may, in particular embodiments, be indicated by a flag in the table entry containing the default contact information.

In particular embodiments, the selection of an instance of contact information associated with a user of social-networking system 160 as the default contact information associated with the user (e.g., in a particular category of contact information, or across all categories of contact information) may be based on the recency of the table entry including the instance of contact information. For example, for a given user, one entry may correspond to the set of contact information most-recently received from a third-party system or client system 130. In this entry, an instance of contact information may be selected as the default contact information associated with the user. As another example, an instance of contact information in the entry corresponding to the set of contact information most-recently updated in the third-party system or client system 130 may be selected as the default contact information associated with the user. As another example, the instance of contact information most-recently added, most-recently viewed, or most-recently updated by the user associated with the instance may be selected as the default contact information for the user. As yet another example, the instance of contact information associated with a first user that was most-recently added, most-recently updated, most-recently viewed, or most-recently used by any other user of social-networking system 160 may be selected as the default contact information for the first user.

In particular embodiments, the selection of an instance of contact information associated with a user of social-networking system 160 as the default contact information associated with the user (e.g., in a particular category of contact information, or across all categories of contact information) may be based on the relevance of the instance of contact information. For example, if user Sally indicates that a particular instance of contact information is preferred contact information for reaching her (e.g., by making a selection when registering with social-networking system 160 or when updating her contact information thereafter), then that instance of contact information may be selected as the default contact information associated with Sally. Similarly, if user Sally indicates that a particular instance of contact information is preferred contact information for reaching user Joe (e.g., by making a selection when she contacts Joe for the first time or when she updates contact information for Joe thereafter), then that instance of contact information may be selected as the default contact information associated with Joe. It is contemplated by this disclosure that the default contact information associated with a first user may be different depending on which second user is seeking to contact the first user. For example, user Sally may indicate that her home phone number is default contact information for friends who would like to call her, but she may also indicate that her work phone number is default contact information for co-workers who would like to call her. As another example, even if Sally indicates that a particular phone number is the default phone number for calling Joe, Joe may have multiple default phone numbers associated with him in the social-networking system, each default phone number potentially associated with a different user. In particular embodiments, the social-networking system may determine which instance of contact information associated with a first user (e.g., in a particular category of contact information, or across all categories of contact information) to select as the default based on the activity of other users. For example, the social-networking system may determine which instance is most-frequently used by other users to contact the first user. If a particular phone number for Sally is selected and used by others to contact Sally most often, then this phone number may be selected as the default phone number associated with Sally. Furthermore, the activity of users with higher affinity to Sally may be weighted more heavily than the activity of users with lower affinity to Sally in determining which instance of contact information associated with Sally to select as the default.

FIG. 3 illustrates an example method 300 for selecting default contact information. The method may begin at step 310, where a set of contact information associated with a first user of a social-networking system is received from each of one or more contact-information sources. The set of contact information may include one or more instances of contact information in one or more categories of contact information. At step 320, in each of the categories of contact information, one of the instances of contact information is selected as a default for the category of contact information. This default may be determined with respect to a second user of the social-networking system so that the second user may contact the first user using the default contact information. Particular embodiments may repeat one or more steps of the method of FIG. 3, where appropriate. Although this disclosure describes and illustrates particular steps of the method of FIG. 3 as occurring in a particular order, this disclosure contemplates any suitable steps of the method of FIG. 3 occurring in any suitable order. Moreover, although this disclosure describes and illustrates particular components, devices, or systems carrying out particular steps of the method of FIG. 3, this disclosure contemplates any suitable combination of any suitable components, devices, or systems carrying out any suitable steps of the method of FIG. 3.

FIG. 4 illustrates an example computer system 400. In particular embodiments, one or more computer systems 400 perform one or more steps of one or more methods described or illustrated herein. In particular embodiments, one or more computer systems 400 provide functionality described or illustrated herein. In particular embodiments, software running on one or more computer systems 400 performs one or more steps of one or more methods described or illustrated herein or provides functionality described or illustrated herein. Particular embodiments include one or more portions of one or more computer systems 400. Herein, reference to a computer system may encompass a computing device, and vice versa, where appropriate. Moreover, reference to a computer system may encompass one or more computer systems, where appropriate.

This disclosure contemplates any suitable number of computer systems 400. This disclosure contemplates computer system 400 taking any suitable physical form. As example and not by way of limitation, computer system 400 may be an embedded computer system, a system-on-chip (SOC), a single-board computer system (SBC) (such as, for example, a computer-on-module (COM) or system-on-module (SOM)), a desktop computer system, a laptop or notebook computer system, an interactive kiosk, a mainframe, a mesh of computer systems, a mobile telephone, a personal digital assistant (PDA), a server, a tablet computer system, or a combination of two or more of these. Where appropriate, computer system 400 may include one or more computer systems 400; be unitary or distributed; span multiple locations; span multiple machines; span multiple data centers; or reside in a cloud, which may include one or more cloud components in one or more networks. Where appropriate, one or more computer systems 400 may perform without substantial spatial or temporal limitation one or more steps of one or more methods described or illustrated herein. As an example and not by way of limitation, one or more computer systems 400 may perform in real time or in batch mode one or more steps of one or more methods described or illustrated herein. One or more computer systems 400 may perform at different times or at different locations one or more steps of one or more methods described or illustrated herein, where appropriate.

In particular embodiments, computer system 400 includes a processor 402, memory 404, storage 406, an input/output (I/O) interface 408, a communication interface 410, and a bus 412. Although this disclosure describes and illustrates a particular computer system having a particular number of particular components in a particular arrangement, this disclosure contemplates any suitable computer system having any suitable number of any suitable components in any suitable arrangement.

In particular embodiments, processor 402 includes hardware for executing instructions, such as those making up a computer program. As an example and not by way of limitation, to execute instructions, processor 402 may retrieve (or fetch) the instructions from an internal register, an internal cache, memory 404, or storage 406; decode and execute them; and then write one or more results to an internal register, an internal cache, memory 404, or storage 406. In particular embodiments, processor 402 may include one or more internal caches for data, instructions, or addresses. This disclosure contemplates processor 402 including any suitable number of any suitable internal caches, where appropriate. As an example and not by way of limitation, processor 402 may include one or more instruction caches, one or more data caches, and one or more translation lookaside buffers (TLBs). Instructions in the instruction caches may be copies of instructions in memory 404 or storage 406, and the instruction caches may speed up retrieval of those instructions by processor 402. Data in the data caches may be copies of data in memory 404 or storage 406 for instructions executing at processor 402 to operate on; the results of previous instructions executed at processor 402 for access by subsequent instructions executing at processor 402 or for writing to memory 404 or storage 406; or other suitable data. The data caches may speed up read or write operations by processor 402. The TLBs may speed up virtual-address translation for processor 402. In particular embodiments, processor 402 may include one or more internal registers for data, instructions, or addresses. This disclosure contemplates processor 402 including any suitable number of any suitable internal registers, where appropriate. Where appropriate, processor 402 may include one or more arithmetic logic units (ALUs); be a multi-core processor; or include one or more processors 402. Although this disclosure describes and illustrates a particular processor, this disclosure contemplates any suitable processor.

In particular embodiments, memory 404 includes main memory for storing instructions for processor 402 to execute or data for processor 402 to operate on. As an example and not by way of limitation, computer system 400 may load instructions from storage 406 or another source (such as, for example, another computer system 400) to memory 404. Processor 402 may then load the instructions from memory 404 to an internal register or internal cache. To execute the instructions, processor 402 may retrieve the instructions from the internal register or internal cache and decode them. During or after execution of the instructions, processor 402 may write one or more results (which may be intermediate or final results) to the internal register or internal cache. Processor 402 may then write one or more of those results to memory 404. In particular embodiments, processor 402 executes only instructions in one or more internal registers or internal caches or in memory 404 (as opposed to storage 406 or elsewhere) and operates only on data in one or more internal registers or internal caches or in memory 404 (as opposed to storage 406 or elsewhere). One or more memory buses (which may each include an address bus and a data bus) may couple processor 402 to memory 404. Bus 412 may include one or more memory buses, as described below. In particular embodiments, one or more memory management units (MMUs) reside between processor 402 and memory 404 and facilitate accesses to memory 404 requested by processor 402. In particular embodiments, memory 404 includes random access memory (RAM). This RAM may be volatile memory, where appropriate Where appropriate, this RAM may be dynamic RAM (DRAM) or static RAM (SRAM). Moreover, where appropriate, this RAM may be single-ported or multi-ported RAM. This disclosure contemplates any suitable RAM. Memory 404 may include one or more memories 404, where appropriate. Although this disclosure describes and illustrates particular memory, this disclosure contemplates any suitable memory.

In particular embodiments, storage 406 includes mass storage for data or instructions. As an example and not by way of limitation, storage 406 may include a hard disk drive (HDD), a floppy disk drive, flash memory, an optical disc, a magneto-optical disc, magnetic tape, or a Universal Serial Bus (USB) drive or a combination of two or more of these. Storage 406 may include removable or non-removable (or fixed) media, where appropriate. Storage 406 may be internal or external to computer system 400, where appropriate. In particular embodiments, storage 406 is non-volatile, solid-state memory. In particular embodiments, storage 406 includes read-only memory (ROM). Where appropriate, this ROM may be mask-programmed ROM, programmable ROM (PROM), erasable PROM (EPROM), electrically erasable PROM (EEPROM), electrically alterable ROM (EAROM), or flash memory or a combination of two or more of these. This disclosure contemplates mass storage 406 taking any suitable physical form. Storage 406 may include one or more storage control units facilitating communication between processor 402 and storage 406, where appropriate. Where appropriate, storage 406 may include one or more storages 406. Although this disclosure describes and illustrates particular storage, this disclosure contemplates any suitable storage.

In particular embodiments, I/O interface 408 includes hardware, software, or both, providing one or more interfaces for communication between computer system 400 and one or more I/O devices. Computer system 400 may include one or more of these I/O devices, where appropriate. One or more of these I/O devices may enable communication between a person and computer system 400. As an example and not by way of limitation, an I/O device may include a keyboard, keypad, microphone, monitor, mouse, printer, scanner, speaker, still camera, stylus, tablet, touch screen, trackball, video camera, another suitable I/O device or a combination of two or more of these. An I/O device may include one or more sensors. This disclosure contemplates any suitable I/O devices and any suitable I/O interfaces 408 for them. Where appropriate, I/O interface 408 may include one or more device or software drivers enabling processor 402 to drive one or more of these I/O devices. I/O interface 408 may include one or more I/O interfaces 408, where appropriate. Although this disclosure describes and illustrates a particular I/O interface, this disclosure contemplates any suitable I/O interface.

In particular embodiments, communication interface 410 includes hardware, software, or both providing one or more interfaces for communication (such as, for example, packet-based communication) between computer system 400 and one or more other computer systems 400 or one or more networks. As an example and not by way of limitation, communication interface 410 may include a network interface controller (NIC) or network adapter for communicating with an Ethernet or other wire-based network or a wireless NIC (WNIC) or wireless adapter for communicating with a wireless network, such as a WI-FI network. This disclosure contemplates any suitable network and any suitable communication interface 410 for it. As an example and not by way of limitation, computer system 400 may communicate with an ad hoc network, a personal area network (PAN), a local area network (LAN), a wide area network (WAN), a metropolitan area network (MAN), or one or more portions of the Internet or a combination of two or more of these. One or more portions of one or more of these networks may be wired or wireless. As an example, computer system 400 may communicate with a wireless PAN (WPAN) (such as, for example, a BLUETOOTH WPAN), a WI-FI network, a WI-MAX network, a cellular telephone network (such as, for example, a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) network), or other suitable wireless network or a combination of two or more of these. Computer system 400 may include any suitable communication interface 410 for any of these networks, where appropriate. Communication interface 410 may include one or more communication interfaces 410, where appropriate. Although this disclosure describes and illustrates a particular communication interface, this disclosure contemplates any suitable communication interface.

In particular embodiments, bus 412 includes hardware, software, or both coupling components of computer system 400 to each other. As an example and not by way of limitation, bus 412 may include an Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) or other graphics bus, an Enhanced Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) bus, a front-side bus (FSB), a HYPERTRANSPORT (HT) interconnect, an Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus, an INFINIBAND interconnect, a low-pin-count (LPC) bus, a memory bus, a Micro Channel Architecture (MCA) bus, a Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus, a PCI-Express (PCIe) bus, a serial advanced technology attachment (SATA) bus, a Video Electronics Standards Association local (VLB) bus, or another suitable bus or a combination of two or more of these. Bus 412 may include one or more buses 412, where appropriate. Although this disclosure describes and illustrates a particular bus, this disclosure contemplates any suitable bus or interconnect.

Herein, a computer-readable non-transitory storage medium or media may include one or more semiconductor-based or other integrated circuits (ICs) (such, as for example, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) or application-specific ICs (ASICs)), hard disk drives (HDDs), hybrid hard drives (HHDs), optical discs, optical disc drives (ODDs), magneto-optical discs, magneto-optical drives, floppy diskettes, floppy disk drives (FDDs), magnetic tapes, solid-state drives (SSDs), RAM-drives, SECURE DIGITAL cards or drives, any other suitable computer-readable non-transitory storage media, or any suitable combination of two or more of these, where appropriate. A computer-readable non-transitory storage medium may be volatile, non-volatile, or a combination of volatile and non-volatile, where appropriate.

Herein, “or” is inclusive and not exclusive, unless expressly indicated otherwise or indicated otherwise by context. Therefore, herein, “A or B” means “A, B, or both,” unless expressly indicated otherwise or indicated otherwise by context. Moreover, “and” is both joint and several, unless expressly indicated otherwise or indicated otherwise by context. Therefore, herein, “A and B” means “A and B, jointly or severally,” unless expressly indicated otherwise or indicated otherwise by context.

The scope of this disclosure encompasses all changes, substitutions, variations, alterations, and modifications to the example embodiments described or illustrated herein that a person having ordinary skill in the art would comprehend. The scope of this disclosure is not limited to the example embodiments described or illustrated herein. Moreover, although this disclosure describes and illustrates respective embodiments herein as including particular components, elements, functions, operations, or steps, any of these embodiments may include any combination or permutation of any of the components, elements, functions, operations, or steps described or illustrated anywhere herein that a person having ordinary skill in the art would comprehend. Furthermore, reference in the appended claims to an apparatus or system or a component of an apparatus or system being adapted to, arranged to, capable of, configured to, enabled to, operable to, or operative to perform a particular function encompasses that apparatus, system, component, whether or not it or that particular function is activated, turned on, or unlocked, as long as that apparatus, system, or component is so adapted, arranged, capable, configured, enabled, operable, or operative.

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Citation

Patents Cited in This Cited by
Title Current Assignee Application Date Publication Date
Sharing social network information AOL INC. 15 March 2005 29 September 2005
Ranking and updating of contact information from multiple sources FACEBOOK, INC. 21 December 2010 21 June 2012
Preferred contact channel for user communications FACEBOOK, INC. 07 October 2010 12 April 2012
Ranking of Address Book Contacts Based on Social Proximity FACEBOOK, INC. 17 December 2010 21 June 2012
Dynamic contacts list management MICROSOFT TECHNOLOGY LICENSING, LLC 19 March 2010 22 September 2011
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