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Patent Analysis of

Semiconductor device or memory device and driving method thereof

Updated Time 12 June 2019

Patent Registration Data

Publication Number

US9905700

Application Number

US15/065156

Application Date

09 March 2016

Publication Date

27 February 2018

Current Assignee

SEMICONDUCTOR ENERGY LABORATORY CO., LTD.

Original Assignee (Applicant)

SEMICONDUCTOR ENERGY LABORATORY CO., LTD.

International Classification

G11C16/06,H01L29/04,H01L27/1156,G11C16/04,H01L29/786

Cooperative Classification

H01L29/7869,G11C16/0466,H01L27/1156,H01L29/78648,H01L29/045

Inventor

ASAMI, YOSHINOBU

Patent Images

This patent contains figures and images illustrating the invention and its embodiment.

US9905700 Semiconductor memory 1 US9905700 Semiconductor memory 2 US9905700 Semiconductor memory 3
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Abstract

A highly integrated semiconductor device that holds data and includes a first semiconductor layer, a first gate insulating film over the first semiconductor layer, a first gate electrode over the first gate insulating film, a second semiconductor layer over the first gate electrode, a conductive layer over the second semiconductor layer, a second gate insulating film covering the second semiconductor layer and the conductive layer, and a second gate electrode covering at least part of a side surface of the second semiconductor layer with the second gate insulating film interposed therebetween. An end portion of the second semiconductor layer is substantially aligned with an end portion of the conductive layer.

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Claims

1. A semiconductor device comprising: a first semiconductor layer; a first gate insulating film over the first semiconductor layer; a first electrode over the first gate insulating film; a second semiconductor layer over and in contact with the first electrode; a conductive layer over the second semiconductor layer; a second gate insulating film covering the second semiconductor layer and the conductive layer; and a second electrode covering at least part of a side surface of the second semiconductor layer with the second gate insulating film therebetween, wherein the first electrode, the second semiconductor layer, and the conductive layer overlap with each other.

2. The semiconductor device according to claim 1, further comprising: a pair of electrodes over the first semiconductor layer; and an interlayer film over the pair of electrodes, the interlayer film comprising an opening portion; wherein a top surface of the interlayer film, a top surface of the first gate insulating film, and a top surface of the first electrode are substantially aligned with each other, and wherein the first gate insulating film is in contact with a top surface of the first semiconductor layer in the opening portion.

3. The semiconductor device according to claim 1, wherein an end portion of the second semiconductor layer and an end portion of the conductive layer are substantially aligned with each other.

4. The semiconductor device according to claim 1, wherein the first electrode covers the first semiconductor layer in a channel width direction.

5. The semiconductor device according to claim 1, wherein each of the first semiconductor layer and the second semiconductor layer comprises an oxide semiconductor.

6. The semiconductor device according to claim 5, wherein the oxide semiconductor includes a crystal having c-axis alignment.

7. A semiconductor device comprising:a first transistor comprising: a first semiconductor layer; a first gate insulating film over the first semiconductor layer; and a first electrode over the first gate insulating film; anda second transistor comprising: the first electrode; a second semiconductor layer over and in contact with the first electrode; a conductive layer over the second semiconductor layer; a second gate insulating film covering the second semiconductor layer and the conductive layer; and a second electrode covering at least part of a side surface of the second semiconductor layer with the second gate insulating film therebetween, wherein the first electrode, the second semiconductor layer, and the conductive layer overlap with each other.

8. The semiconductor device according to claim 7, further comprising: a pair of electrodes over the first semiconductor layer; and an interlayer film over the pair of electrodes, the interlayer film comprising an opening portion; wherein a top surface of the interlayer film, a top surface of the first gate insulating film, and a top surface of the first electrode are substantially aligned with each other, and wherein the first gate insulating film is in contact with a top surface of the first semiconductor layer in the opening portion.

9. The semiconductor device according to claim 7, wherein an end portion of the second semiconductor layer and an end portion of the conductive layer are substantially aligned with each other.

10. The semiconductor device according to claim 7, wherein the first electrode covers the first semiconductor layer in a channel width direction.

11. The semiconductor device according to claim 7, wherein each of the first semiconductor layer and the second semiconductor layer comprises an oxide semiconductor.

12. The semiconductor device according to claim 11, wherein the oxide semiconductor includes a crystal having c-axis alignment.

13. A semiconductor device comprising: a first semiconductor layer; a first gate insulating film over the first semiconductor layer; a first electrode over the first gate insulating film; a second semiconductor layer over and in contact with the first electrode; a conductive layer over the second semiconductor layer; a second gate insulating film covering the first electrode, the second semiconductor layer, and the conductive layer; and a second electrode covering at least part of a side surface of the second semiconductor layer with the second gate insulating film therebetween, wherein the first electrode, the second semiconductor layer, and the conductive layer overlap with each other.

14. The semiconductor device according to claim 13, wherein an end portion of the first electrode, an end portion of the second semiconductor layer, and an end portion of the conductive layer are substantially aligned with each other.

15. The semiconductor device according to claim 13, wherein the first electrode covers the first semiconductor layer in a channel width direction.

16. The semiconductor device according to claim 13, wherein each of the first semiconductor layer and the second semiconductor layer comprises an oxide semiconductor.

17. The semiconductor device according to claim 16, wherein the oxide semiconductor includes a crystal having c-axis alignment.

18. A method for driving a memory device,the memory device comprising: a first semiconductor layer; a first gate insulating film over the first semiconductor layer; a first electrode over the first gate insulating film; a second semiconductor layer over and in contact with the first electrode; a conductive layer over the second semiconductor layer; a second gate insulating film covering the second semiconductor layer and the conductive layer; and a second electrode covering at least part of a side surface of the second semiconductor layer with the second gate insulating film therebetween, wherein the first electrode, the second semiconductor layer, and the conductive layer overlapping with each other, andthe method comprising: bringing the conductive layer and the first electrode into electrical contact with each other through the second semiconductor layer, so that data is written into the memory device, and breaking the electrical contact between the conductive layer and the first electrode and then changing a potential of the conductive layer, so that the data is read by capacitive coupling with the second semiconductor layer as a dielectric between the conductive layer and the first electrode.

19. The method according to claim 18, wherein the first electrode, the second semiconductor layer, and the conductive layer overlap with each other.

20. The method according to claim 18, wherein the first electrode covers the first semiconductor layer in a channel width direction.

21. The method according to claim 18, wherein each of the first semiconductor layer and the second semiconductor layer comprises an oxide semiconductor.

22. The method according to claim 21, wherein the oxide semiconductor includes a crystal having c-axis alignment.

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Claim Tree

  • 1
    1. A semiconductor device comprising:
    • a first semiconductor layer
    • a first gate insulating film over the first semiconductor layer
    • a first electrode over the first gate insulating film
    • a second semiconductor layer over and in contact with the first electrode
    • a conductive layer over the second semiconductor layer
    • a second gate insulating film covering the second semiconductor layer and the conductive layer
    • and a second electrode covering at least part of a side surface of the second semiconductor layer with the second gate insulating film therebetween, wherein the first electrode, the second semiconductor layer, and the conductive layer overlap with each other.
    • 2. The semiconductor device according to claim 1, further comprising:
      • a pair of electrodes over the first semiconductor layer
      • and an interlayer film over the pair of electrodes, the interlayer film comprising an opening portion
      • wherein a top surface of the interlayer film, a top surface of the first gate insulating film, and a top surface of the first electrode are substantially aligned with each other, and wherein the first gate insulating film is in contact with a top surface of the first semiconductor layer in the opening portion.
    • 3. The semiconductor device according to claim 1, wherein
      • an end portion of the second semiconductor layer and an end portion of the conductive layer are substantially aligned with each other.
    • 4. The semiconductor device according to claim 1, wherein
      • the first electrode covers the first semiconductor layer in a channel width direction.
    • 5. The semiconductor device according to claim 1, wherein
      • each of the first semiconductor layer and the second semiconductor layer comprises
  • 7
    7. A semiconductor device comprising:
    • a first transistor comprising: a first semiconductor layer
    • a first gate insulating film over the first semiconductor layer
    • and a first electrode over the first gate insulating film
    • anda second transistor comprising: the first electrode
    • a second semiconductor layer over and in contact with the first electrode
    • a conductive layer over the second semiconductor layer
    • a second gate insulating film covering the second semiconductor layer and the conductive layer
    • and a second electrode covering at least part of a side surface of the second semiconductor layer with the second gate insulating film therebetween, wherein the first electrode, the second semiconductor layer, and the conductive layer overlap with each other.
    • 8. The semiconductor device according to claim 7, further comprising:
      • a pair of electrodes over the first semiconductor layer
      • and an interlayer film over the pair of electrodes, the interlayer film comprising an opening portion
      • wherein a top surface of the interlayer film, a top surface of the first gate insulating film, and a top surface of the first electrode are substantially aligned with each other, and wherein the first gate insulating film is in contact with a top surface of the first semiconductor layer in the opening portion.
    • 9. The semiconductor device according to claim 7, wherein
      • an end portion of the second semiconductor layer and an end portion of the conductive layer are substantially aligned with each other.
    • 10. The semiconductor device according to claim 7, wherein
      • the first electrode covers the first semiconductor layer in a channel width direction.
    • 11. The semiconductor device according to claim 7, wherein
      • each of the first semiconductor layer and the second semiconductor layer comprises
  • 13
    13. A semiconductor device comprising:
    • a first semiconductor layer
    • a first gate insulating film over the first semiconductor layer
    • a first electrode over the first gate insulating film
    • a second semiconductor layer over and in contact with the first electrode
    • a conductive layer over the second semiconductor layer
    • a second gate insulating film covering the first electrode, the second semiconductor layer, and the conductive layer
    • and a second electrode covering at least part of a side surface of the second semiconductor layer with the second gate insulating film therebetween, wherein the first electrode, the second semiconductor layer, and the conductive layer overlap with each other.
    • 14. The semiconductor device according to claim 13, wherein
      • an end portion of the first electrode, an end portion of the second semiconductor layer, and an end portion of the conductive layer are substantially aligned with each other.
    • 15. The semiconductor device according to claim 13, wherein
      • the first electrode covers the first semiconductor layer in a channel width direction.
    • 16. The semiconductor device according to claim 13, wherein
      • each of the first semiconductor layer and the second semiconductor layer comprises
  • 18
    18. A method for driving a memory device,the memory device comprising:
    • a first semiconductor layer
    • a first gate insulating film over the first semiconductor layer
    • a first electrode over the first gate insulating film
    • a second semiconductor layer over and in contact with the first electrode
    • a conductive layer over the second semiconductor layer
    • a second gate insulating film covering the second semiconductor layer and the conductive layer
    • and a second electrode covering at least part of a side surface of the second semiconductor layer with the second gate insulating film therebetween, wherein the first electrode, the second semiconductor layer, and the conductive layer overlapping with each other, andthe method comprising: bringing the conductive layer and the first electrode into electrical contact with each other through the second semiconductor layer, so that data is written into the memory device, and breaking the electrical contact between the conductive layer and the first electrode and then changing a potential of the conductive layer, so that the data is read by capacitive coupling with the second semiconductor layer as a dielectric between the conductive layer and the first electrode.
    • 19. The method according to claim 18, wherein
      • the first electrode, the second semiconductor layer, and the conductive layer overlap with each other.
    • 20. The method according to claim 18, wherein
      • the first electrode covers the first semiconductor layer in a channel width direction.
    • 21. The method according to claim 18, wherein
      • each of the first semiconductor layer and the second semiconductor layer comprises
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Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

One embodiment of the present invention relates to a semiconductor device.

Note that one embodiment of the present invention is not limited to the above technical field. The technical field of one embodiment of the invention disclosed in this specification and the like relates to an object, a method, or a manufacturing method. One embodiment of the present invention also relates to a process, a machine, manufacture, or a composition of matter. Specifically, examples of the technical field of one embodiment of the present invention disclosed in this specification include a semiconductor device, a display device, a liquid crystal display device, a light-emitting device, a lighting device, a power memory device, a memory device, a method of driving any of them, and a method of manufacturing any of them.

In this specification and the like, a semiconductor device generally means a device that can function by utilizing semiconductor characteristics. A transistor and a semiconductor circuit are embodiments of semiconductor devices. In some cases, a memory device, a display device, or an electronic device includes a semiconductor device.

2. Description of the Related Art

Flash memories have been widely used as non-volatile memory devices (e.g., see Patent Document 1).

In recent years, new non-volatile memory devices have been suggested in which a transistor including an oxide semiconductor in the channel formation region (hereinafter, referred to as OS transistor) and a transistor including silicon in the channel formation region (hereinafter, referred to as Si transistor) are used in combination (e.g., see Patent Documents 2 and 3).

REFERENCES

Patent Documents

  • [Patent Document 1] Japanese Published Patent Application No. S57-105889
  • [Patent Document 2] United States Published Patent Application No. 2013/0228839
  • [Patent Document 3] United States Published Patent Application No. 2013/0221356

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Flash memories need high voltage for injection of electric charge to the floating gate or for removal of the electric charge and also need a circuit for generating the high voltage. The injection or removal of electric charge takes a relatively long time, and accordingly data cannot be easily written or erased at high speed.

Furthermore, for a circuit configuration including an OS transistor and a Si transistor, a reduction in cell size and an increase in integration are demanded.

In view of the above problems, an object of one embodiment of the present invention is to provide a semiconductor device that can hold data. Another object is to provide a highly integrated semiconductor device. Another object is to provide a semiconductor device having a substantially unlimited number of write cycles. Another object is to provide a semiconductor device with low power consumption. Another object is to provide a semiconductor device with high reliability. Another object is to provide a semiconductor device with excellent data retention capability. Another object is to provide a semiconductor device in which data is written or read at high speed. Another object is to provide a novel semiconductor device or the like or a driving method thereof.

Note that the above objects do not exclude the existence of other objects. In one embodiment of the present invention, there is no need to achieve all the objects. Other objects will be apparent from and can be derived from the description of the specification, the drawings, the claims, and the like.

One embodiment of the present invention is a semiconductor device including a first semiconductor layer, a first gate insulating film over the first semiconductor layer, a first gate electrode over the first gate insulating film, a second semiconductor layer over the first gate electrode, a conductive layer over the second semiconductor layer, a second gate insulating film covering the second semiconductor layer and the conductive layer, and a second gate electrode covering at least part of a side surface of the second semiconductor layer with the second gate insulating film interposed therebetween. An end portion of the second semiconductor layer and an end portion of the conductive layer are substantially aligned with each other.

Another embodiment of the present invention is a semiconductor device including a first semiconductor layer, a pair of electrodes over the first semiconductor layer, an interlayer film including an opening portion over the pair of electrodes, a first gate insulating film in contact with a top surface of the first semiconductor layer in the opening portion, a first gate electrode over the first gate insulating film, a second semiconductor layer over the first gate electrode, a conductive layer over the second semiconductor layer, a second gate insulating film covering the second semiconductor layer and the conductive layer, and a second gate electrode covering at least part of a side surface of the second semiconductor layer with the second gate insulating film interposed therebetween. A top surface of the interlayer film, a top surface of the first gate insulating film, and a top surface of the first gate electrode are substantially aligned with each other. An end portion of the second semiconductor layer and an end portion of the conductive layer are substantially aligned with each other.

Another embodiment of the present invention is a semiconductor device including a first semiconductor layer, a first gate insulating film over the first semiconductor layer, a first gate electrode over the first gate insulating film, a second semiconductor layer over the first gate electrode, a conductive layer over the second semiconductor layer, a second gate insulating film covering the first gate electrode, the second semiconductor layer, and the conductive layer, and a second gate electrode covers at least part of a side surface of the second semiconductor layer with the second gate insulating film interposed therebetween. An end portion of the first gate electrode, an end portion of the second semiconductor layer, and an end portion of the conductive layer are substantially aligned with each other.

Another embodiment of the present invention is a method of driving a memory device including a first semiconductor layer, a first gate insulating film over the first semiconductor layer, a first gate electrode over the first gate insulating film, a second semiconductor layer over the first gate electrode, a conductive layer over the second semiconductor layer, a second gate insulating film covering the second semiconductor layer and the conductive layer, and a second gate electrode covering at least part of a side surface of the second semiconductor layer with the second gate insulating film interposed therebetween. The first gate electrode, the second semiconductor layer, and the conductive layer overlap with each other. In the method of driving the memory device, the conductive layer and the first gate electrode are brought into electrical contact with each other through the second semiconductor layer, so that data is written into the memory device. The electrical contact between the conductive layer and the first gate electrode are broken and then a potential of the conductive layer is changed, so that the data is read by capacitive coupling with the second semiconductor layer as a dielectric between the conductive layer and the first gate electrode.

The above semiconductor layer is preferably an oxide semiconductor layer.

The above oxide semiconductor layer preferably includes a crystal with c-axis alignment.

With one embodiment of the present invention, a semiconductor device that can hold data can be provided. Alternatively, a semiconductor device having a substantially unlimited number of write cycles can be provided. Alternatively, a semiconductor device with low power consumption can be provided. Alternatively, a semiconductor device with high reliability can be provided. Alternatively, a highly integrated semiconductor device can be provided. Alternatively, a semiconductor device with excellent data retention capability can be provided. Alternatively, a semiconductor device in which data is written or read at high speed can be provided. Alternatively, a novel semiconductor device or the like can be provided.

Note that the effects of one embodiment of the present invention are not limited to those listed above. The above effects do not exclude the existence of other effects. The other effects are the ones that are not described above and will be described below. The other effects will be apparent from and can be derived from the description of the specification, the drawings, and the like by those skilled in the art. One embodiment of the present invention has at least one of the above effects and the other effects. Hence, one embodiment of the present invention does not have all the above effects in some cases.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIGS. 1A to 1C are circuit diagrams of semiconductor devices.

FIG. 2A and FIGS. 2B and 2C are a top view and cross-sectional views of the semiconductor device.

FIGS. 3A to 3C illustrate a method of manufacturing a semiconductor device.

FIGS. 4A to 4C illustrate the method of manufacturing a semiconductor device.

FIGS. 5A and 5B illustrate the method of manufacturing a semiconductor device.

FIGS. 6A and 6B illustrate the method of manufacturing a semiconductor device.

FIGS. 7A and 7B illustrate the method of manufacturing a semiconductor device.

FIGS. 8A and 8B illustrate the method of manufacturing a semiconductor device.

FIGS. 9A and 9B illustrate a method of manufacturing a semiconductor device.

FIGS. 10A and 10B illustrate a method of manufacturing a semiconductor device.

FIGS. 11A and 11B illustrate a method of manufacturing a semiconductor device.

FIGS. 12A and 12B illustrate a method of manufacturing a semiconductor device.

FIG. 13 is a block diagram of a semiconductor device.

FIG. 14A is a flowchart showing a fabrication process of an electronic component, and FIG. 14B is a schematic perspective view of the electronic component.

FIGS. 15A to 15C illustrate electronic devices in which semiconductor devices can be used.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Embodiments are described with reference to drawings. However, the embodiments can be implemented with various modes. It will be readily appreciated by those skilled in the art that modes and details can be changed in various ways without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. Thus, the present invention should not be interpreted as being limited to the description of the embodiments.

In this specification and the like, ordinal numbers such as “first”, “second”, and “third” are used in order to avoid confusion among components. Thus, the terms do not limit the number or order of components. In the present specification and the like, a “first” component in one embodiment can be referred to as a “second” component in other embodiments or claims. Alternatively, in the present specification and the like, a “first” component in one embodiment can be referred to without the ordinal number in other embodiments or claims.

In the drawings, the same components, components having similar functions, components formed of the same material, or components formed at the same time are denoted by the same reference numerals in some cases, and the description thereof is not repeated in some cases.

(Embodiment 1)

In this embodiment, an example of a semiconductor device having a function of a memory device is described using drawings.

FIGS. 1A and 1B are circuit diagrams of a semiconductor device (memory device) of one embodiment of the present invention which can hold stored data even when power is not supplied and which has a substantially unlimited number of write cycles.

A memory cell 100 in FIGS. 1A and 1B includes a first transistor 110 and a second transistor 120. A gate electrode of the first transistor 110 is connected to one of a source electrode and a drain electrode of the second transistor 120. One of a source electrode and a drain electrode of the first transistor 110 is connected to a first wiring 101. The other of the source electrode and the drain electrode of the first transistor 110 is connected to a second wiring 102. The other of the source electrode and the drain electrode of the second transistor 120 is connected to a third wiring 103. A gate electrode of the second transistor 120 is connected to a fourth wiring 104.

As the first transistor 110, any of a variety of field effect transistors such as a Si transistor and an OS transistor can be used. As the second transistor 120, a transistor having an extremely low off-state current can be used, and, for example, an OS transistor is preferably used.

Although detailed later, the second transistor 120 is turned on to charge carrier from the third wiring 103 to FG as schematically shown in FIG. 1A, and the second transistor 120 is turned off to serve as a capacitor as schematically shown in FIG. 1B.

Note that functions of a “source” and a “drain” of a transistor are sometimes replaced with each other when the transistor of opposite polarity is used or when the direction of flow of current is changed in circuit operation, for example. Therefore, the terms “source” and “drain” can be used to denote the drain and the source, respectively, in this specification.

FIG. 1C shows an example of a circuit diagram of a semiconductor device formed using a plurality of memory cells 100 in FIGS. 1A and 1B.

The semiconductor device in FIG. 1C includes a memory cell array including the plurality of memory cells 100 arranged in a matrix, a driver 130, a driver 140, a driver 150, a driver 160, a plurality of first wirings 101 electrically connected to the driver 130, a plurality of second wirings 102 electrically connected to the driver 140, a plurality of third wirings 103 electrically connected to the driver 150, and a plurality of fourth wirings 104 electrically connected to the driver 160.

As shown in FIG. 1C, the first wiring 101, the second wiring 102, the third wiring 103, and the fourth wiring 104 are electrically connected to each memory cell 100. Thus, operation of each memory cell 100 can be controlled with the driver 130, the driver 140, the driver 150, and the driver 160.

When data is written into the memory cell 100, the driver 160 selects any fourth wiring 104, the driver 130 and the driver 140 apply equal voltages to any first wiring 101 and any second wiring 102, respectively, and the driver 150 applies, to any third wiring 103, a voltage lower than the equal voltages.

When data is read in the memory cell 100, the driver 130 outputs a potential suitable for reading to the third wiring 103, with the fourth wirings 104 unselected by the driver 140.

The driver 130 and the driver 140 may include a decoder.

Each of the memory cells 100 in FIG. 1C is electrically connected to the wirings that are from the respective drivers 130, 140, 150, and 160; the disclosed invention is not limited thereto. A plurality of wirings from any one or more of the driver circuits may be electrically connected to the memory cell 100. Alternatively, a structure may be employed in which a wiring from any one of the driver circuits is not electrically connected to any one or more of the memory cells 100.

FIG. 2A is a top view of the semiconductor device described with reference to FIGS. 1A to 1C, and FIGS. 2B and 2C are cross-sectional views thereof. In the following description, common components in the semiconductor device in FIGS. 1A to 2C are denoted by the same reference numerals. The relative sizes of the components of the semiconductor device are not limited to those shown in FIGS. 2A to 2C.

FIG. 2A is the top view, and FIG. 2B illustrates a cross section along the dash-dot line A1-A2 in FIG. 2A. Note that for simplification of the drawing, some components in the top view in FIG. 2A are not illustrated. The direction of the dash-dot line A1-A2 can be referred to as channel length direction.

FIG. 2C illustrates a cross section along the dash-dot line B1-B2 in FIG. 2A. The direction of the dash-dot line B1-B2 can be referred to as channel width direction.

The semiconductor device shown in FIGS. 2A to 2C includes an insulating film 202 over a substrate 201, a first oxide semiconductor layer 203 over the insulating film 202, a conductive layer 205a and a conductive layer 205b over the first oxide semiconductor layer 203, a first interlayer insulating film 204 over the conductive layer 205a and the conductive layer 205b, a first gate insulating film 206 which is formed in an opening portion in the first interlayer insulating film 204 and in contact with a top surface of the first oxide semiconductor layer 203, a first gate electrode 207 over the first gate insulating film 206, a second oxide semiconductor layer 208 over the first gate electrode 207, a conductive layer 209 over the second oxide semiconductor layer 208, a second gate insulating film 210 over the conductive layer 209, a second gate electrode 211 covering at least part of a side surface of the second oxide semiconductor layer 208 with the second gate insulating film 210 interposed therebetween, a second interlayer insulating film 212 over the second gate insulating film 210 and the second gate electrode 211, a wiring 213a and a wiring 213b over the second interlayer insulating film 212, a third interlayer insulating film 214 over the wiring 213a and the wiring 213b, and a wiring 215a and a wiring 215b over the third interlayer insulating film 214.

The wiring 213a and the wiring 213b are in contact with, respectively, the conductive layer 205a and the conductive layer 205b in opening portions in the first interlayer insulating film 204, the second gate insulating film 210, and the second interlayer insulating film 212. The wiring 215a is in contact with the conductive layer 209 in an opening portion in the second gate insulating film 210, the second interlayer insulating film 212, and the third interlayer insulating film 214. The wiring 215b is in contact with the second gate electrode 211 in an opening portion in the second interlayer insulating film 212 and the third interlayer insulating film 214.

In the first transistor 110 described in this embodiment, a region functioning as the first gate electrode 207 is formed in a self-aligned manner so as to fill the opening portion in the first interlayer insulating film 204 and the like. Such a transistor can also be referred to as self-align s-channel FET (SA s-channel FET), trench-gate s-channel FET, or trench-gate self-align (TGSA) FET.

The first gate electrode 207 of the first transistor 110 also serves as one of the source electrode and the drain electrode of the second transistor 120. In addition, the first oxide semiconductor layer 203, the first gate electrode 207, the second oxide semiconductor layer 208, and the conductive layer 209 serving as the other of the source electrode and the drain electrode of the second transistor 120 are stacked. Thus, the semiconductor device can be highly integrated.

The second oxide semiconductor layer 208 and the conductive layer 209 are formed in one etching step with one mask, and accordingly, end portions of the layers are substantially aligned with each other, as shown in FIG. 2B.

As shown in FIG. 2C, the first gate electrode 207 is formed to electrically surround the first oxide semiconductor layer 203 in the channel width direction, so that a gate electric field is applied to the first oxide semiconductor layer 203 in the side surface direction in addition to the perpendicular direction. In other words, a gate electric field is applied to the entire first oxide semiconductor layer 203. Current flows through the entire first oxide semiconductor layer 203, leading to an increase in on-state current.

Next, components of the semiconductor device illustrated in FIGS. 2A to 2C are described in detail.

The substrate 201 is not limited to a simple supporting substrate, and may be a substrate where another device such as a transistor is formed. In that case, at least one of the first gate electrode 207, the conductive layer 205a, and the conductive layer 205b may be electrically connected to the above-described device.

The insulating film 202 can have a function of supplying oxygen to the first oxide semiconductor layer 203 as well as a function of preventing diffusion of impurities from the substrate 201. For this reason, the insulating film 202 is preferably an insulating film containing oxygen and further preferably an insulating film containing oxygen in which the oxygen content is higher than that in the stoichiometric composition. In the case where the substrate 201 is provided with another device as described above, the insulating film 202 also has a function as an interlayer insulating film. In that case, the insulating film 202 is preferably subjected to planarization treatment such as chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) treatment so as to have a flat surface.

The first oxide semiconductor layer 203 and the second oxide semiconductor layer 208 preferably include a crystalline layer in which c-axes are aligned in the direction perpendicular to a surface of the insulating film 202.

The thicknesses of the first oxide semiconductor layer 203 and the second oxide semiconductor layer 208 are each greater than or equal to 1 nm and less than or equal to 200 nm, preferably greater than or equal to 3 nm and less than or equal to 60 nm.

For the first oxide semiconductor layer 203 and the second oxide semiconductor layer 208, for example, an In—Ga—Zn oxide whose atomic ratio of In to Ga and Zn is 1:1:1, 5:5:6, 3:1:2, or the like can be used. The first oxide semiconductor layer 203 and the second oxide semiconductor layer 208 may be formed using the same material or different materials and may be stacked oxide semiconductor layers.

Note that stable electrical characteristics can be effectively imparted to a transistor in which an oxide semiconductor layer serves as a channel by reducing the concentration of impurities in the oxide semiconductor layer to make the oxide semiconductor layer intrinsic or substantially intrinsic. The term “substantially intrinsic” refers to the state where an oxide semiconductor layer has a carrier density lower than 1×1017 /cm3, preferably lower than 1×1015 /cm3, further preferably lower than 1×1013 /cm3, still further preferably lower than 1×108 /cm3 and higher than or equal to 1×10−9 /cm3.

In the oxide semiconductor layer, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, silicon, and a metal element other than a main component are impurities. For example, hydrogen and nitrogen form donor levels to increase the carrier density, and silicon forms impurity levels in the oxide semiconductor layer. The impurity level becomes a trap, which might cause deterioration of the electrical characteristics of the transistor. Therefore, the concentration of the impurities at an interface between the first oxide semiconductor layer 203 and the second oxide semiconductor layer 208 is preferably reduced.

In order to make the oxide semiconductor layer intrinsic or substantially intrinsic, in SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry), for example, the concentration of silicon at a certain depth of the oxide semiconductor layer or in a region of the oxide semiconductor layer is lower than 1×1019 atoms/cm3, preferably lower than 5×1018 atoms/cm3, more preferably lower than 1×1018 atoms/cm3. Furthermore, the concentration of hydrogen at a certain depth of the oxide semiconductor layer or in a region of the oxide semiconductor layer is lower than or equal to 2×1020 atoms/cm3, preferably lower than or equal to 5×1019 atoms/cm3, further preferably lower than or equal to 1×1019 atoms/cm3, still further preferably lower than or equal to 5×1018 atoms/cm3. Furthermore, the concentration of nitrogen at a certain depth of the oxide semiconductor layer or in a region of the oxide semiconductor layer is lower than 5×1019 atoms/cm3, preferably lower than or equal to 5×1018 atoms/cm3, further preferably lower than or equal to 1×1018 atoms/cm3, still further preferably lower than or equal to 5×1017 atoms/cm3.

In addition, in the case where the oxide semiconductor layer includes a crystal, the crystallinity of the oxide semiconductor layer might be decreased if silicon or carbon is included at high concentration. In order not to lower the crystallinity of the oxide semiconductor layer, for example, the concentration of silicon at a certain depth of the oxide semiconductor layer or in a certain region of the oxide semiconductor layer is lower than 1×1019 atoms/cm3, preferably lower than 5×1018 atoms/cm3, further preferably lower than 1×1018 atoms/cm3. Furthermore, the concentration of carbon at a certain depth of the oxide semiconductor layer or in a certain region of the oxide semiconductor layer is lower than 1×1019 atoms/cm3, preferably lower than 5×1018 atoms/cm3, further preferably lower than 1×1018 atoms/cm3, for example.

A transistor in which a highly purified oxide semiconductor film is used for the channel formation region as described above has an extremely low off-state current. In the case where the voltage between the source and the drain is set to approximately 0.1 V, 5 V, or 10 V, for example, the off-state current standardized on the channel width of the transistor can be as low as several yoctoamperes per micrometer to several zeptoamperes per micrometer.

For the conductive layer 205a and the conductive layer 205b, a conductive material that is easily bonded to oxygen is preferably used. For example, Al, Cr, Cu, Ta, Ti, Mo, or W can be used. Among the materials, in particular, it is preferable to use Ti, which is particularly easily bonded to oxygen, or W, which has a high melting point and thus makes subsequent process temperatures comparatively high. Note that the conductive material that is easily bonded to oxygen includes, in its category, a material to which oxygen is easily diffused.

When the conductive material that is easily bonded to oxygen is in contact with an oxide semiconductor layer, a phenomenon occurs in which oxygen in the oxide semiconductor layer is diffused to the conductive material that is easily bonded to oxygen. The phenomenon noticeably occurs when the temperature is high. Since the manufacturing process of the transistor involves a heat treatment step, the above phenomenon causes generation of oxygen vacancies in the vicinity of a region which is in the oxide semiconductor layer and is in contact with the source electrode layer or the drain electrode layer. Hydrogen slightly contained in the layer and the oxygen vacancies are bonded to each other, whereby the region is markedly changed to an n-type region. Accordingly, the n-type regions can serve as a source or a drain region of the transistor.

In the case of forming a transistor with an extremely short channel length, an n-type region which is formed by the generation of oxygen vacancies might extend in the channel length direction of the transistor. In that case, the electrical characteristics of the transistor change; for example, the threshold voltage is shifted, or on and off states of the transistor is difficult to control with the gate voltage (in which case the transistor is turned on). Accordingly, when a transistor with an extremely short channel length is formed, it is not always preferable that a conductive material that can be bonded to oxygen be used for a source electrode layer and a drain electrode layer.

In such a case, a conductive material that is less likely to be bonded to oxygen than the above material can be used for the conductive layer 205a and the conductive layer 205b. As such a conductive material, for example, a material containing tantalum nitride, titanium nitride, gold, platinum, palladium, or ruthenium can be used. Note that the conductive material may be stacked with the above-described conductive material that is easily bonded to oxygen.

The first gate insulating film 206 and the second gate insulating film 210 can be formed using an insulating film containing one or more of aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, silicon oxynitride, silicon nitride oxide, silicon nitride, gallium oxide, germanium oxide, yttrium oxide, zirconium oxide, lanthanum oxide, neodymium oxide, hafnium oxide, and tantalum oxide. The first gate insulating film 206 and the second gate insulating film 210 may be formed using the same material or different materials. The first gate insulating film 206 and the second gate insulating film 210 may be a stack of any of the above materials.

For the first gate electrode 207 and the second gate electrode 211, a conductive film formed of Al, Ti, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Y, Zr, Mo, Ru, Ag, Ta, W, or the like can be used. The first gate electrode 207 and the second gate electrode 211 may be formed using the same material or different materials. The first gate electrode 207 and the second gate electrode 211 may be a stack of any of the above materials or may be formed using a conductive film containing nitrogen.

For the first interlayer insulating film 204, the second interlayer insulating film 212, and the third interlayer insulating film, an oxide such as silicon oxide or aluminum oxide can be used. Alternatively, when silicon nitride, aluminum nitride, silicon oxynitride, or aluminum oxynitride is stacked over silicon oxide or aluminum oxide, the function as a protective film can be enhanced. The first interlayer insulating film 204, the second interlayer insulating film 212, and the third interlayer insulating film may be formed using the same material or different materials. The first interlayer insulating film 204, the second interlayer insulating film 212, and the third interlayer insulating film may be a stack of any of the above materials.

The wiring 213a, the wiring 213b, the wiring 215a, and the wiring 215b are each formed to have a single-layer structure or a stacked-layer structure using any of metals such as aluminum, titanium, chromium, nickel, copper, yttrium, zirconium, molybdenum, silver, tantalum, and tungsten, or an alloy containing any of these metals as a main component. The wiring 213a, the wiring 213b, the wiring 215a, and the wiring 215b may be formed using the same material or different materials.

In the semiconductor device of this embodiment as a memory device, writing is performed as follows: a voltage is applied to the second gate electrode 211 to bring the conductive layer 209 and the first gate electrode 207 into electrical contact with each other through the second oxide semiconductor layer 208; equal voltages are applied to the conductive layer 205a and the conductive layer 205b; and a voltage lower than the equal voltages is applied to the conductive layer 209 to charge carrier to the first gate electrode 207.

In this memory device, reading is performed as follows. The voltage of the second gate electrode 211 is set to 0 V or to a voltage at which the off-state current of the second transistor 120 is sufficiently reduced (to 1 zA or less, for example) to break the electrical contact between the conductive layer 209 and the first gate electrode 207. Then, when a voltage is applied to the conductive layer 209, the voltage can be applied to the first gate electrode 207 and the channel in the first transistor 110 because the first gate electrode 207 and the conductive layer 209 are capacitively coupled through the second oxide semiconductor layer 208. Thus, the conductive layer 209 functions as a control gate, and the second oxide semiconductor layer 208 functions as a dielectric.

At this time, the apparent threshold of the first transistor 110 (the first oxide semiconductor layer 203) depends on the amount of the charge in the first gate electrode 207 functioning as a floating gate. Thus, a detected difference in voltage or current between the source and the drain of the first transistor 110 (the first oxide semiconductor layer 203) due to the change in threshold shows the amount of the charge in the first gate electrode 207 (i.e., written data).

Since the off-state current of the transistor in which an oxide semiconductor film is used for the channel formation region is extremely low as described above, the electrical charge in the first gate electrode 207 functioning as a floating gate through the second transistor 120 does not leak much, so that the data can be held. As described above, the semiconductor of this embodiment can be used as a memory device.

In the memory device, the control gate and the floating gate are capacitively coupled through the second oxide semiconductor layer 208, although they are capacitively coupled through a gate insulating film therebetween or the like in a conventional flash memory or the like. For example, in the case where indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) is used for the second oxide semiconductor layer 208, since the dielectric constant (approximately 15) of IGZO is higher than the dielectric constant (approximately 4) of silicon oxide, which is mainly used for the gate insulating film, a reduction in capacitor area can be achieved due to the high dielectric constant of the capacitor, although depending on the thickness of the second oxide semiconductor layer 208.

In this embodiment, one embodiment of the present invention is described. Other embodiments of the present invention are described in other embodiments. Note that one embodiment of the present invention is not limited thereto. That is, since various embodiments of the present invention are disclosed in this embodiment and the other embodiments, one embodiment of the present invention is not limited to a specific embodiment. For example, an example in which a channel formation region, source and drain regions, and the like of a transistor include an oxide semiconductor is described as one embodiment of the present invention; however, one embodiment of the present invention is not limited to this example. Depending on circumstances or conditions, various transistors or a channel formation region, a source region, a drain region, or the like of a transistor in one embodiment of the present invention may include various semiconductors. Depending on circumstances or conditions, for example, at least one of silicon, germanium, silicon germanium, silicon carbide, gallium arsenide, aluminum gallium arsenide, indium phosphide, gallium nitride, an organic semiconductor, and the like may be included in various transistors, a channel formation region of a transistor, a source region or a drain region of a transistor, or the like of one embodiment of the present invention. Alternatively, for example, depending on circumstances or conditions, various transistors or a channel formation region, a source region, a drain region, or the like of a transistor in one embodiment of the present invention does not necessarily include an oxide semiconductor.

This embodiment can be combined with any of the other embodiments in this specification as appropriate.

(Embodiment 2)

In this embodiment, a method of manufacturing the semiconductor device described in Embodiment 1 is described with reference to FIGS. 3A to 3C, FIGS. 4A to 4C, FIGS. 5A and 5B, FIGS. 6A and 6B, FIGS. 7A and 7B, and FIGS. 8A and 8B.

For the substrate 201, a glass substrate, a ceramic substrate, a quartz substrate, a sapphire substrate, or the like can be used. Alternatively, a single crystal semiconductor substrate or a polycrystalline semiconductor substrate made of silicon, silicon carbide, or the like, a compound semiconductor substrate made of silicon germanium, a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate, or the like can be used. Any of these substrates further provided with a semiconductor element thereover may be used.

The insulating film 202 is formed over the substrate 201. The insulating film 202 can be formed by a plasma CVD method, a sputtering method, or the like using an oxide insulating film of aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, silicon oxynitride, gallium oxide, germanium oxide, yttrium oxide, zirconium oxide, lanthanum oxide, neodymium oxide, hafnium oxide, tantalum oxide, or the like; a nitride insulating film of silicon nitride, silicon nitride oxide, aluminum nitride, aluminum nitride oxide, or the like; or a film in which any of the above materials are mixed. Alternatively, a stack including any of the above materials can be used, and at least an upper layer in contact with the first oxide semiconductor layer 203 is preferably formed using a material containing excess oxygen which can serve as a supply source of oxygen to the first oxide semiconductor layer 203.

Oxygen may be added to the insulating film 202 by an ion implantation method, an ion doping method, a plasma immersion ion implantation method, or the like. Adding oxygen enables the insulating film 202 to supply oxygen much easily to the first oxide semiconductor layer 203.

In the case where a surface of the substrate 201 is made of an insulator and there is no influence of impurity diffusion to the first oxide semiconductor layer 203 to be formed later, the insulating film 202 is not necessarily provided.

Next, an oxide semiconductor film 303 to be the first oxide semiconductor layer 203 is deposited over the insulating film 202 by a sputtering method, a CVD method, an MBE method, an ALD method, or a PLD method.

An oxide semiconductor that can be used for the first oxide semiconductor layer preferably contains at least indium (In) or zinc (Zn). Both In and Zn are preferably contained. Furthermore, in order to reduce variations in the electrical characteristics of the transistor including the oxide semiconductor, the oxide semiconductor preferably contains a stabilizer in addition to In and Zn.

As a stabilizer, gallium (Ga), tin (Sn), hafnium (Hf), aluminum (Al), zirconium (Zr), and the like can be given. As another stabilizer, lanthanoid such as lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), or lutetium (Lu) can be given.

As the oxide semiconductor, for example, any of the following can be used: indium oxide, tin oxide, zinc oxide, an In—Zn oxide, a Sn—Zn oxide, an Al—Zn oxide, an Zn—Mg oxide, a Sn—Mg oxide, an In—Mg oxide, an In—Ga oxide, an In—Ga—Zn oxide, an In—Al—Zn oxide, an In—Sn—Zn oxide, a Sn—Ga—Zn oxide, an Al—Ga—Zn oxide, a Sn—Al—Zn oxide, an In—Hf—Zn oxide, an In—La—Zn oxide, an In—Ce—Zn oxide, an In—Pr—Zn oxide, an In—Nd—Zn oxide, an In—Sm—Zn oxide, an In—Eu—Zn oxide, an In—Gd—Zn oxide, an In—Tb—Zn oxide, an In—Dy—Zn oxide, an In—Ho—Zn oxide, an In—Er—Zn oxide, an In—Tm—Zn oxide, an In—Yb—Zn oxide, an In—Lu—Zn oxide, an In—Sn—Ga—Zn oxide, an In—Hf—Ga—Zn oxide, an In—Al—Ga—Zn oxide, an In—Sn—Al—Zn oxide, an In—Sn—Hf—Zn oxide, and an In—Hf—Al—Zn oxide.

For example, the term “In—Ga—Zn oxide” means an oxide containing In, Ga, and Zn as its main components. The In—Ga—Zn oxide may contain another metal element in addition to In, Ga, and Zn. Note that in this specification, a film containing the In—Ga—Zn oxide is also referred to as IGZO film.

Alternatively, a material represented by InMO3(ZnO)m (m>0 is satisfied, and m is not an integer) may be used. Note that M represents one or more metal elements selected from Ga, Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. A material represented by In2SnO5(ZnO)n (n>0, n is an integer) may be used.

Note that the oxide semiconductor film is preferably formed by a sputtering method. As a sputtering method, an RF sputtering method, a DC sputtering method, an AC sputtering method, or the like can be used.

In the case where an In—Ga—Zn oxide is used for the first oxide semiconductor layer 203, a material whose atomic ratio of In to Ga and Zn is any of 1:1:1, 2:2:1, 2:2:3, 3:1:2, 5:5:6, 1:3:2, 1:3:3, 1:3:4, 1:3:6, 1:4:3, 1:5:4, 1:6:6, 2:1:3, 1:6:4, 1:9:6, 1:1:4, and 1:1:2 can be used.

Note that the expression “the composition of an oxide containing In, Ga, and Zn at the atomic ratio, In:Ga:Zn=a:b:c (a+b+c=1), is in the neighborhood of the composition of an oxide containing In, Ga, and Zn at the atomic ratio, In:Ga:Zn=A:B:C (A+B+C=1)” means that a, b, and c satisfy the following relation: (a−A)2+(b−B)2+(c−C)2≦r2, and r may be 0.05, for example. The same applies to other oxides.

The structure of the oxide semiconductor film is described below.

In this specification, the term “parallel” indicates that the angle formed between two straight lines is greater than or equal to −10° and less than or equal to 10°, and accordingly also includes the case where the angle is greater than or equal to −5° and less than or equal to 5°. The term “perpendicular” indicates that the angle formed between two straight lines is greater than or equal to 80° and less than or equal to 100°, and accordingly also includes the case where the angle is greater than or equal to 85° and less than or equal to 95°.

In this specification, trigonal and rhombohedral crystal systems are included in a hexagonal crystal system.

An oxide semiconductor film is classified roughly into a single-crystal oxide semiconductor film and a non-single-crystal oxide semiconductor film. The non-single-crystal oxide semiconductor film includes any of a c-axis aligned crystalline oxide semiconductor (CAAC-OS) film, a polycrystalline oxide semiconductor film, a microcrystalline oxide semiconductor film, an amorphous oxide semiconductor film, and the like.

First, a CAAC-OS film is described.

A CAAC-OS film is one of oxide semiconductor films having a plurality of crystal parts, and most of the crystal parts each fit inside a cube whose one side is less than 100 nm. Thus, there is a case where a crystal part included in the CAAC-OS film fits inside a cube whose one side is less than 10 nm, less than 5 nm, or less than 3 nm.

In a transmission electron microscope (TEM) image of the CAAC-OS film, a boundary between crystal parts, that is, a grain boundary is not clearly observed. Thus, in the CAAC-OS film, a reduction in electron mobility due to the grain boundary is less likely to occur.

In the cross-sectional TEM image of the CAAC-OS film observed in a direction substantially parallel to the sample surface, metal atoms arranged in a layered manner are seen in the crystal parts. Each metal atom layer has a morphology reflecting unevenness of a surface over which the CAAC-OS film is formed (hereinafter, a surface over which the CAAC-OS film is formed is referred to as a formation surface) or a top surface of the CAAC-OS film, and is arranged parallel to the formation surface or the top surface of the CAAC-OS film.

In contrast, according to the TEM image of the CAAC-OS film observed in a direction substantially perpendicular to the sample surface (plan-view TEM image), metal atoms are arranged in a triangular or hexagonal configuration in the crystal parts. However, there is no regularity of arrangement of metal atoms between different crystal parts.

From the results of the cross-sectional TEM image and the plan TEM image, alignment is found in the crystal parts in the CAAC-OS film.

A CAAC-OS film is subjected to structural analysis with an X-ray diffraction (XRD) apparatus. For example, when the CAAC-OS film including an InGaZnO4 crystal is analyzed by an out-of-plane method, a peak appears frequently when the diffraction angle (2θ) is around 31°. This peak is derived from the (009) plane of the InGaZnO4 crystal, which indicates that crystals in the CAAC-OS film have c-axis alignment, and that the c-axes are aligned in a direction substantially perpendicular to the formation surface or the top surface of the CAAC-OS film.

On the other hand, in analysis of the CAAC-OS film by an in-plane method in which an X-ray is incident on a sample in a direction substantially perpendicular to the c-axis, a peak appears frequently when 2θ is around 56°. This peak is derived from the (110) plane of the InGaZnO4 crystal. Here, analysis (φ scan) is performed under conditions where the sample is rotated around a normal vector of a sample surface as an axis (φ axis) with 2θ fixed at around 56°. In the case where the sample is a single-crystal oxide semiconductor film of InGaZnO4, six peaks appear. The six peaks are derived from crystal planes equivalent to the (110) plane. In contrast, in the case of a CAAC-OS film, a peak is not clearly observed even when φ scan is performed with 2θ fixed at around 56°.

According to the above results, in the CAAC-OS film having c-axis alignment, while the directions of a-axes and b-axes are irregularly oriented between different crystal parts, the c-axes are aligned in a direction parallel to a normal vector of a formation surface or a normal vector of a top surface. Thus, each metal atom layer arranged in a layered manner observed in the cross-sectional TEM image corresponds to a plane parallel to the a-b plane of the crystal.

Note that the crystal part is formed concurrently with deposition of the CAAC-OS film or is formed through crystallization treatment such as heat treatment. As described above, the c-axis of the crystal is aligned in a direction parallel to a normal vector of a formation surface or a normal vector of a top surface of the CAAC-OS film. Thus, for example, in the case where a shape of the CAAC-OS film is changed by etching or the like, the c-axis might not be necessarily parallel to a normal vector of a formation surface or a normal vector of a top surface of the CAAC-OS film.

The degree of crystallinity in the CAAC-OS film is not necessarily uniform. For example, in the case where crystal growth leading to the CAAC-OS film occurs from the vicinity of the top surface of the film, the degree of the crystallinity in the vicinity of the top surface is higher than that in the vicinity of the formation surface in some cases. Furthermore, when an impurity is added to the CAAC-OS film, the crystallinity in a region to which the impurity is added is changed, and the degree of crystallinity in the CAAC-OS film varies depending on regions.

Note that when the CAAC-OS film with an InGaZnO4 crystal is analyzed by an out-of-plane method, a peak of 2θ may also be observed at around 36°, in addition to the peak of 2θ at around 31°. The peak at 2θ of around 36° indicates that a crystal having no c-axis alignment is included in part of the CAAC-OS film. It is preferable that in the CAAC-OS film, a peak of 2θ appear at around 31° and a peak of 2θ not appear at around 36°.

The CAAC-OS film is an oxide semiconductor film having low impurity concentration. The impurity is an element other than the main components of the oxide semiconductor film, such as hydrogen, carbon, silicon, or a transition metal element. In particular, an element having higher strength of bonding to oxygen than a metal element included in the oxide semiconductor film, such as silicon, disturbs the atomic arrangement of the oxide semiconductor film by depriving the oxide semiconductor film of oxygen and causes a decrease in crystallinity. Furthermore, a heavy metal such as iron or nickel, argon, carbon dioxide, or the like has a large atomic radius (molecular radius), and thus disturbs the atomic arrangement of the oxide semiconductor film and causes a decrease in crystallinity when it is contained in the oxide semiconductor film. Note that the impurity contained in the oxide semiconductor film might serve as a carrier trap or a carrier generation source.

The CAAC-OS film is an oxide semiconductor film having a low density of defect states. In some cases, oxygen vacancies in the oxide semiconductor film serve as carrier traps or serve as carrier generation sources when hydrogen is captured therein.

The state in which impurity concentration is low and density of defect states is low (the number of oxygen vacancies is small) is referred to as “highly purified intrinsic” or “substantially highly purified intrinsic” state. A highly purified intrinsic or substantially highly purified intrinsic oxide semiconductor film has few carrier generation sources, and thus can have a low carrier density. Thus, the transistor including the oxide semiconductor film rarely has negative threshold voltage (is rarely normally on). The highly purified intrinsic or substantially highly purified intrinsic oxide semiconductor film has few carrier traps. Accordingly, the transistor including the oxide semiconductor film has little variation in electrical characteristics and high reliability. Electric charge trapped by the carrier traps in the oxide semiconductor film takes a long time to be released, and might behave like fixed electric charge. Thus, the transistor which includes the oxide semiconductor film having high impurity concentration and a high density of defect states has unstable electrical characteristics in some cases.

With the use of the CAAC-OS film in a transistor, variation in the electrical characteristics of the transistor due to irradiation with visible light or ultraviolet light is small.

Next, a microcrystalline oxide semiconductor film is described.

In an image obtained with a TEM, crystal parts cannot be found clearly in the microcrystalline oxide semiconductor film in some cases. In most cases, a crystal part in the microcrystalline oxide semiconductor film is greater than or equal to 1 nm and less than or equal to 100 nm, or greater than or equal to 1 nm and less than or equal to 10 nm. An oxide semiconductor film including nanocrystal (nc), which is a microcrystal with a size greater than or equal to 1 nm and less than or equal to 10 nm, or a size greater than or equal to 1 nm and less than or equal to 3 nm, is specifically referred to as nc-OS (nanocrystalline oxide semiconductor) film. In an image obtained with a TEM, a crystal grain cannot be found clearly in the nc-OS film in some cases.

In the nc-OS film, a microscopic region (for example, a region with a size greater than or equal to 1 nm and less than or equal to 10 nm, in particular, a region with a size greater than or equal to 1 nm and less than or equal to 3 nm) has a periodic atomic order. There is no regularity of crystal orientation between different crystal parts in the nc-OS film. Thus, the orientation of the whole film is not observed. Accordingly, in some cases, the nc-OS film cannot be distinguished from an amorphous oxide semiconductor depending on an analysis method. For example, when the nc-OS film is subjected to structural analysis by an out-of-plane method with an XRD apparatus using an X-ray having a diameter larger than the diameter of a crystal part, a peak which shows a crystal plane does not appear. Furthermore, a diffraction pattern like a halo pattern appears in an electron diffraction pattern (also referred to as selected-area electron diffraction pattern) of the nc-OS film obtained by using an electron beam with a probe diameter (e.g., larger than or equal to 50 nm) larger than the diameter of a crystal part. Meanwhile, spots are observed in an electron diffraction pattern (also referred to as nanobeam electron diffraction pattern) of the nc-OS film which is obtained using an electron beam with a probe diameter (e.g., 1 nm or larger and 30 nm or smaller) close to, or smaller than the diameter of a crystal part. Furthermore, in a nanobeam electron diffraction pattern of the nc-OS film, regions with high luminance in a circular (ring) pattern are shown in some cases. Also in a nanobeam electron diffraction pattern of the nc-OS film, a plurality of spots are shown in a ring-like region in some cases.

The nc-OS film is an oxide semiconductor film that has high regularity as compared to an amorphous oxide semiconductor film. Therefore, the nc-OS film is likely to have a lower density of defect states than an amorphous oxide semiconductor film. Note that there is no regularity of crystal orientation between different crystal parts in the nc-OS film. Therefore, the nc-OS film has a higher density of defect states than the CAAC-OS film.

Note that an oxide semiconductor film may be a stacked film including two or more films of an amorphous oxide semiconductor film, a microcrystalline oxide semiconductor film, and a CAAC-OS film, for example.

For example, the CAAC-OS film can be deposited by a sputtering method using a polycrystalline oxide semiconductor sputtering target. When ions collide with the sputtering target, a crystal region included in the sputtering target may be separated from the target along the a-b plane; in other words, a sputtered particle having a plane parallel to the a-b plane (flat-plate-like sputtered particle or pellet-like sputtered particle) may flake off from the sputtering target. The flat-plate-like sputtered particle or pellet-like sputtered particle is electrically charged and thus reaches the substrate while maintaining its crystal state, without being aggregation in plasma, forming a CAAC-OS film.

After the oxide semiconductor film 303 is formed, first heat treatment may be performed. The first heat treatment may be performed at a temperature higher than or equal to 250° C. and lower than or equal to 650° C., preferably higher than or equal to 300° C. and lower than or equal to 500° C., in an inert gas atmosphere, an atmosphere containing an oxidizing gas at 10 ppm or more, or a reduced pressure state. Alternatively, the first heat treatment may be performed in such a manner that heat treatment is performed in an inert gas atmosphere, and then another heat treatment is performed in an atmosphere containing an oxidizing gas at 10 ppm or more, in order to compensate desorbed oxygen. The first heat treatment can increase the crystallinity of the oxide semiconductor film 303 and remove impurities such as water and hydrogen from the insulating film 202.

Next, a conductive film 304 to be the conductive layers 205a and 205b is formed over the oxide semiconductor film 303 (see FIG. 3A). For the conductive film 304, any of the materials described for the conductive layers 205a and 205b can be used. For example, a 100-nm-thick titanium film is formed by a sputtering method or the like. Alternatively, a tungsten film may be formed by a CVD method.

Next, the oxide semiconductor film 303 and the conductive film 304 are etched into an island shape to form the first oxide semiconductor layer 203 and a conductive layer 305 (see FIG. 3B).

Next, the first interlayer insulating film 204 is formed over the conductive layer 305 (see FIG. 3C). For the first interlayer insulating film 204, any of the materials described for the first interlayer insulating film 204 in Embodiment 1 can be used.

Next, after a resist mask 220 is formed, an opening portion is formed in the first interlayer insulating film 204, and thus the conductive layer 305 is etched so as to be divided over the first oxide semiconductor layer 203 to form the conductive layer 205a and the conductive layer 205b (see FIG. 4A). At this time, the conductive layer 305 may be over-etched, in which case the first oxide semiconductor layer 203 is partly etched.

Next, over the first interlayer insulating film 204, an insulating film 406 to be the first gate insulating film 206 and a conductive film 407 to be the first gate electrode 207 are formed (see FIG. 4B). For the insulating film 406, any of the materials described for the first gate insulating film 206 in Embodiment 1 can be used. The insulating film 406 can be formed by a sputtering method, a CVD method, an MBE method, an ALD method, a PLD method, or the like. For the conductive film 407, any of the materials described for the first gate electrode 207 in Embodiment 1 can be used.

Next, the insulating film 406 and the conductive film 407 are etched by a chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) method or the like until a surface of the first interlayer insulating film 204 is exposed, whereby the first gate insulating film 206 and the first gate electrode 207 are formed (see FIG. 4C).

Next, the second oxide semiconductor layer 208 and the conductive layer 209 are formed over the first gate electrode 207 (see FIG. 5A). A cross section of the state in FIG. 5A in the channel width direction is illustrated in FIG. 7A. For the second oxide semiconductor layer 208, a material similar to the materials described for the second oxide semiconductor layer 208 in Embodiment 1 can be used. For the conductive layer 209 Al, Cr, Cu, Ta, Ti, Mo, W, or an alloy material containing any of these as a main component can be used. The conductive layer 209 may be a stacked layer including any of the above materials.

Next, the second gate insulating film 210 and a conductive film 501 are stacked in this order over the conductive layer 209 (see FIG. 5B). A cross section of the state in FIG. 5B in the channel width direction is illustrated in FIG. 7B. For the second gate insulating film 210, a material similar to the materials described for the second gate insulating film 210 in Embodiment 1 can be used. For the conductive film 501, a material similar to the materials described for the conductive layer 209 in Embodiment 1 can be used.

Since the second oxide semiconductor layer 208 and the conductive layer 209 are formed in one etching step with one mask, end portions of the layers are aligned with each other and the layers can be favorably covered with the second gate insulating film 210. Even if a stacked layer of the second oxide semiconductor layer 208 and the conductive layer 209 is thick, formation defects are less likely to be caused. Thus, higher yield in the fabrication process can be achieved.

Next, after a resist mask 230 is formed, etch-back is performed to process the conductive film 501 into the second gate electrode 211 covering a side surface of the second oxide semiconductor layer 208 with the second gate insulating film 210 interposed therebetween (see FIG. 6A). A cross section of the state in FIG. 6A in the channel width direction is illustrated in FIG. 8A

Next, the second interlayer insulating film 212 is formed over the second gate electrode 211. Then, opening portions are formed in the first interlayer insulating film 204, the second gate insulating film 210, and the second interlayer insulating film 212. Over the second interlayer insulating film and in the opening portions, the wiring 213a and the wiring 213b are formed to be connected to the conductive layer 205a and the conductive layer 205b, respectively. Then, the third interlayer insulating film 214 is formed over the wirings 213a and 213b, and the wirings 215a and 215b, which are shown not in the cross section of FIG. 6B in the channel length direction but in the cross section of FIG. 2C in the channel width direction, are formed over the third interlayer insulating film 214 (see FIG. 6B). A cross section of the state in FIG. 6B in the channel width direction is illustrated in FIG. 8B. For the second interlayer insulating film 212 and the third interlayer insulating film 214, materials similar to those described for the second interlayer insulating film 212 and the third interlayer insulating film 214 in Embodiment 1 can be used. For the wiring 213a and the wiring 213b, materials similar to those described for the wiring 213a and the wiring 213b in Embodiment 1 can be used. For the wiring 215a and the wiring 215b, materials similar to those described for the wiring 215a and the wiring 215b in Embodiment 1 can be used.

Through the above steps, the transistors 110 and 120 illustrated in FIGS. 2A to 2C can be manufactured.

This embodiment can be combined with any of the other embodiments in this specification as appropriate.

(Embodiment 3)

In this embodiment, a semiconductor device which has a structure different from that of the semiconductor device of Embodiment 1 is described with reference to FIGS. 9A and 9B. FIG. 9A is a cross-sectional view in the channel length direction and FIG. 9B is a cross-sectional view in the channel width direction.

A difference from the semiconductor device of Embodiment 1 is that a second gate electrode 721 covers a side surface of an upper layer of the second oxide semiconductor layer 208 with the second gate insulating film 210 interposed therebetween and also covers side and top surfaces of the conductive layer 209 with the second gate insulating film 210 interposed therebetween.

For the second gate electrode 721, a material similar to the materials described for the second gate electrode 211 can be used.

This embodiment can be combined with any of the other embodiments in this specification as appropriate.

(Embodiment 4)

In this embodiment, a semiconductor device which has a structure different from that of the semiconductor device of Embodiment 1 is described with reference to FIGS. 10A and 10B. FIG. 10A is a cross-sectional view in the channel length direction and FIG. 10B is a cross-sectional view in the channel width direction.

Differences from the semiconductor device of Embodiment 1 are that a first protective film 801 is formed between the conductive layer 205a and the first interlayer insulating film 204 and between the conductive layer 205b and the first interlayer insulating film 204, a second protective film 802 is formed between the first interlayer insulating film 204 and the second gate insulating film 210, and a third protective film 803 is formed over the second gate insulating film 210 and the second gate electrode 211 and under the second interlayer insulating film 212. As each of the above protective films, a silicon nitride film, a silicon nitride oxide film, an aluminum oxide film, an aluminum nitride film, or the like can be used.

This embodiment can be combined with any of the other embodiments in this specification as appropriate.

(Embodiment 5)

In this embodiment, a semiconductor device which has a structure different from that of the semiconductor device of Embodiment 1 is described with reference to FIGS. 11A and 11B. FIG. 11A is a cross-sectional view in the channel length direction and FIG. 11B is a cross-sectional view in the channel width direction.

After a first gate insulating film 901 is formed over the conductive layers 205a and 205b, a first gate electrode 902, a second oxide semiconductor layer 903, and a conductive layer 904 are stacked in this order. In the semiconductor device having such a structure, the first gate electrode 902, the second oxide semiconductor layer 903, and the conductive layer 904 can be formed in one etching step with one mask. Consequently, end portions of the first gate electrode 902, the second oxide semiconductor layer 903, and the conductive layer 904 are substantially aligned with each other, as illustrated in FIGS. 11A and 11B. Accordingly, the process can be simplified and the productivity can be improved.

Next, a second gate insulating film 905 is formed over the conductive layer 904, and a second gate electrode 906 is formed.

For the first gate insulating film 901, the first gate electrode 902, the second oxide semiconductor layer 903, the conductive layer 904, the second gate insulating film 905, and the second gate electrode 906, materials similar to those described for the first gate insulating film 206, the first gate electrode 207, the first oxide semiconductor layer 203, the conductive layer 209, the second gate insulating film 210, and the second gate electrode 211 can be used.

This embodiment can be combined with any of the other embodiments in this specification as appropriate.

(Embodiment 6)

In this embodiment, a semiconductor device which has a structure different from that of the semiconductor device of Embodiment 1 is described with reference to FIGS. 12A and 12B. FIG. 12A is a cross-sectional view in the channel length direction and FIG. 12B is a cross-sectional view in the channel width direction.

A difference from the semiconductor device of Embodiment 1 is that a first metal oxide layer 1001 over the insulating film 202, a second metal oxide layer 1002 over the first metal oxide layer 1001, and a third metal oxide layer 1003 over the second metal oxide layer 1002 are provided. The third metal oxide layer 1003 is formed in an opening portion in the first interlayer insulating film 204 and between the second metal oxide layer 1002 and the first gate insulating film 206.

The second metal oxide layer is more like a semiconductor than the first metal oxide layer and the third metal oxide layer are. The first metal oxide layer and the third metal oxide layer are more like an insulator than the second metal oxide layer is.

For the first metal oxide layer 1001, the second metal oxide layer 1002, and the third metal oxide layer 1003, materials similar to the materials described for the first oxide semiconductor layer 203 in Embodiment 2 can be used. The first metal oxide layer 1001 and the third metal oxide layer 1003 preferably contain the same metal element as one or more of the metal elements contained in the second metal oxide layer 1002.

(Embodiment 7)

In this embodiment, a CPU including the memory device described in Embodiment 1 is described.

FIG. 13 is a block diagram illustrating a configuration example of a CPU partly including the memory device described in Embodiment 1.

The CPU illustrated in FIG. 13 includes, over a substrate 1190, an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) 1191, an ALU controller 1192, an instruction decoder 1193, an interrupt controller 1194, a timing controller 1195, a register 1196, a register controller 1197, a bus interface 1198 (BUS I/F), a rewritable ROM 1199, and a ROM interface (ROM I/F) 1189. A semiconductor substrate, an SOI substrate, a glass substrate, or the like is used as the substrate 1190. The ROM 1199 and the ROM interface 1189 may be provided over a separate chip. Needless to say, the CPU in FIG. 13 is just an example in which the configuration is simplified, and an actual CPU may have a variety of configurations depending on the application. For example, the CPU may have the following configuration: a structure including the CPU illustrated in FIG. 13 or an arithmetic circuit is considered as one core; a plurality of the cores are included; and the cores operate in parallel. The number of bits that the CPU can process in an internal arithmetic circuit or in a data bus can be 8, 16, 32, or 64, for example.

An instruction that is input to the CPU through the bus interface 1198 is input to the instruction decoder 1193 and decoded therein, and then, input to the ALU controller 1192, the interrupt controller 1194, the register controller 1197, and the timing controller 1195.

The ALU controller 1192, the interrupt controller 1194, the register controller 1197, and the timing controller 1195 conduct various controls in accordance with the decoded instruction. Specifically, the ALU controller 1192 generates signals for controlling the operation of the ALU 1191. While the CPU is executing a program, the interrupt controller 1194 determines an interrupt request from an external input/output device or a peripheral circuit on the basis of its priority or a mask state, and processes the request. The register controller 1197 generates an address of the register 1196, and reads/writes data from/to the register 1196 in accordance with the state of the CPU.

The timing controller 1195 generates signals for controlling operation timings of the ALU 1191, the ALU controller 1192, the instruction decoder 1193, the interrupt controller 1194, and the register controller 1197. For example, the timing controller 1195 includes an internal clock generator for generating an internal clock signal based on a reference clock signal, and supplies the internal clock signal to the above circuits.

In the CPU illustrated in FIG. 13, a memory cell is provided in the register 1196. For the memory cell of the register 1196, the transistors described in the above embodiments can be used.

In the CPU illustrated in FIG. 13, the register controller 1197 selects operation of retaining data in the register 1196 in accordance with an instruction from the ALU 1191. That is, the register controller 1197 selects whether data is retained by a flip-flop or by a capacitor in the memory cell included in the register 1196. When data retaining by the flip-flop is selected, a power supply voltage is supplied to the memory cell in the register 1196. When data retaining by the capacitor is selected, the data is rewritten in the capacitor, and supply of power supply voltage to the memory cell in the register 1196 can be stopped.

This embodiment can be combined with any of the other embodiments in this specification as appropriate.

(Embodiment 8)

In this embodiment, examples in which the memory device described in any of the above embodiments is used as an electronic component are described using FIGS. 14A and 14B.

FIG. 14A shows an example where the memory device described in any of the above embodiments is used as an electronic component. Note that the electronic component is also referred to as semiconductor package or IC package. This electronic component has various standards and names corresponding to the direction of terminals or the shape of terminals; hence, one example of the electronic component is described in this embodiment.

A memory device including the transistors 110 and 120 described in Embodiment 1 with reference to FIGS. 2A to 2C is completed through an assembly process (post-process) of integrating detachable components on a printed board.

The post-process can be completed through the steps in FIG. 14A. Specifically, after an element substrate obtained in the preceding process is completed (Step S1), a back surface of the substrate is ground (Step S2). The substrate is thinned in this step to reduce substrate warpage or the like caused in the preceding process and to reduce the size of the component.

After the back surface of the substrate is ground, a dicing step is performed to divide the substrate into a plurality of chips. Then, the divided chips are separately picked up, placed on a lead frame, and bonded thereto in a die bonding step (Step S3). In the die bonding step, the chip is bonded to the lead frame by an appropriate method depending on products, for example, bonding with a resin or a tape. Note that in the die bonding step, a chip may be placed on and bonded to an interposer.

Next, wire bonding for electrically connecting a lead of the lead frame and an electrode on the chip through a metal wire is performed (Step S4). As the metal wire, a silver wire or a gold wire can be used. Ball bonding or wedge bonding can be used as the wire bonding.

The wire-bonded chip is subjected to a molding step of sealing the chip with an epoxy resin or the like (Step S5). Through the molding step, the inside of the electronic component is filled with a resin, whereby damage to a mounted circuit portion and wire caused by external mechanical force as well as deterioration of characteristics due to moisture or dust can be reduced.

Subsequently, the lead of the lead frame is plated. Then, the lead is cut and processed (Step S6). This plating process prevents rust of the lead and facilitates soldering at the time of mounting the chip on a printed board in a later step.

Next, printing (marking) is performed on a surface of the package (Step S7). After a final testing step (Step S8), the electronic component is completed (Step S9).

The above-described electronic component includes the memory device described in any of the above embodiments. Thus, the electronic component which achieves higher-speed operation and a smaller size can be obtained.

FIG. 14B is a perspective schematic diagram illustrating a quad flat package (QFP) as an example of the completed electronic component. An electronic component 700 in FIG. 14B includes a lead 701 and a circuit portion 703. The electronic component 700 in FIG. 14B is mounted on a printed board 702, for example. A plurality of electronic components 700 which are combined and electrically connected to each other over the printed board 702 can be mounted on an electronic device. A completed circuit board 704 is provided in an electronic device or the like.

This embodiment can be combined with any of the other embodiments in this specification as appropriate.

(Embodiment 9)

In this embodiment, examples of an electronic device that can include any of the memory device, the transistors, the CPU, and the like (e.g., a DSP, a custom LSI, a PLD, and an RF-ID) described in the above embodiments are described.

The transistor, the memory device, and the CPU and the like described in the above embodiments can be applied to a variety of electronic devices (including game machines). Examples of the electronic devices include display devices such as televisions and monitors, lighting devices, personal computers, word processors, image reproduction devices, portable audio players, radios, tape recorders, stereos, phones, cordless phones, mobile phones, car phones, transceivers, wireless devices, game machines, calculators, portable information terminals, electronic notebooks, e-book readers, electronic translators, audio input devices, video cameras, digital still cameras, electric shavers, IC chips, high-frequency heating appliances such as microwave ovens, electric rice cookers, electric washing machines, electric vacuum cleaners, air-conditioning systems such as air conditioners, dishwashers, dish dryers, clothes dryers, futon dryers, electric refrigerators, electric freezers, electric refrigerator-freezers, freezers for preserving DNA, radiation counters, and medical equipment such as dialyzers and X-ray diagnostic equipment. The examples of the electronic devices also include alarm devices such as smoke detectors, heat detectors, gas alarm devices, and security alarm devices. The examples also include industrial equipment such as guide lights, traffic lights, belt conveyors, elevators, escalators, industrial robots, and power storage systems. Furthermore, moving objects and the like driven by fuel engines and electric motors using power from non-aqueous secondary batteries are also included in the category of electronic devices. Examples of the moving objects are electric vehicles (EV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) which include both an internal-combustion engine and a motor, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), tracked vehicles in which caterpillar tracks are substituted for wheels of these vehicles, motorized bicycles including motor-assisted bicycles, motorcycles, electric wheelchairs, golf carts, boats, ships, submarines, helicopters, aircrafts, rockets, artificial satellites, space probes, planetary probes, and spacecrafts. Some specific examples of these electronic devices are illustrated in FIGS. 15A to 15C.

In a television set 8000 illustrated in FIG. 15A, a display portion 8002 is incorporated in a housing 8001. The display portion 8002 can display an image and a speaker portion 8003 can output sound. A memory device including the transistors 110 and 120 of one embodiment of the present invention can be used for a driver circuit for operating the display portion 8002.

In addition, the television set 8000 may include a CPU 8004 for performing information communication or a memory. For the CPU 8004 and the memory, a CPU or a memory device including the transistors 110 and 120 of one embodiment of the present invention can be used.

An alarm device 8100 illustrated in FIG. 15A is a residential fire alarm, and includes a smoke or heat sensor portion 8102 and a microcomputer 8101. The microcomputer 8101 is an example of an electronic device including any of the transistors, the memory device, and the CPU described in the above embodiments.

An air conditioner that includes an indoor unit 8200 and an outdoor unit 8204 illustrated in FIG. 15A is an example of an electronic device including any of the transistors, the memory device, the CPU, and the like described in the above embodiments. Specifically, the indoor unit 8200 includes a housing 8201, an air outlet 8202, a CPU 8203, and the like. Although the CPU 8203 is provided in the indoor unit 8200 in FIG. 15A, the CPU 8203 may be provided in the outdoor unit 8204. Alternatively, the CPU 8203 may be provided in each of the indoor unit 8200 and the outdoor unit 8204. When the transistors 110 and 120 described in the above embodiments are used for the CPU in the air conditioner, reduction in power consumption of the air conditioner can be achieved.

An electric refrigerator-freezer 8300 illustrated in FIG. 15A is an example of an electronic device including any of the transistors, the memory device, the CPU, and the like described in the above embodiments. Specifically, the electric refrigerator-freezer 8300 includes a housing 8301, a door for a refrigerator 8302, a door for a freezer 8303, a CPU 8304, and the like. In FIG. 15A, the CPU 8304 is provided in the housing 8301. When the transistors 110 and 120 described in the above embodiments are used for the CPU 8304 of the electric refrigerator-freezer 8300, power consumption of the electric refrigerator-freezer 8300 can be reduced.

FIGS. 15B and 15C illustrate an example of an electric vehicle that is an example of an electric device. An electric vehicle 9700 is equipped with a secondary battery 9701. The output of electric power of the secondary battery 9701 is adjusted by a circuit 9702 and the electric power is supplied to a driving device 9703. The circuit 9702 is controlled by a processing unit 9704 including a ROM, a RAM, a CPU, or the like that is not illustrated. When the transistors 110 and 120 described in the above embodiments are used for the CPU in the electric vehicle 9700, power consumption of the electric vehicle 9700 can be reduced.

In the driving device 9703, a DC motor or an AC motor is included either alone or in combination with an internal-combustion engine. The processing unit 9704 outputs a control signal to the circuit 9702 based on input data such as data on operation (e.g., acceleration, deceleration, or stop) by a driver or data during driving (e.g., data on an upgrade or a downgrade, or data on a load on a driving wheel) of the electric vehicle 9700. The circuit 9702 adjusts the electric energy supplied from the secondary battery 9701 in accordance with the control signal of the processing unit 9704 to control the output of the driving device 9703. In the case where the AC motor is mounted, although not illustrated, an inverter, which converts direct current into alternate current, is also incorporated.

This embodiment can be combined with any of the other embodiments in this specification as appropriate.

This application is based on Japanese Patent Application serial no. 2015-050624 filed with Japan Patent Office on Mar. 13, 2015, the entire contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference.

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15.55/100 Score

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72.49/100 Score

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34.0/100 Score

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It takes the R&D behavior of the company itself into account that results in IP. During the invention phase, larger companies are considered to assign a higher R&D budget on a certain technology field, these companies have a better influence on their market, on what is marketable and what might lead to a standard.

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Citation

Patents Cited in This Cited by
Title Current Assignee Application Date Publication Date
Compound having laminar structure of hexagonal crystal system expressed by ingazn3o6 and its production KAGAKU GIJUTSUCHO MUKIZAISHITSU KENKYUSHOCHO 24 February 1987 31 August 1988
Compound having laminar structure of hexagonal crystal system expressed by ingazn5o8 and its production KAGAKU GIJUTSUCHO MUKIZAISHITSU KENKYUSHOCHO 24 February 1987 31 August 1988
Thin film transistor FUJITSU KK 23 March 1984 08 October 1985
Compound having laminar structure of hexagonal crystal system expressed by ingazn4o7 and its production KAGAKU GIJUTSUCHO MUKIZAISHITSU KENKYUSHOCHO 24 February 1987 31 August 1988
Chemical compound of ingazn6o9 with hexagonal system layer structure KAGAKU GIJUTSUCHO MUKIZAISHITSU KENKYUSHOCHO 27 February 1987 08 September 1988
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